Skip to main content

Full text of "British Central Africa : an attempt to give some account of a portion of the territories under British influence north of the Zambesi"

See other formats








\ . S> N- 













3 1959 

















NORTH of the Zambezi and in the South Central portion of the continent 
of Africa, bounded on the north by Lake Tanganyika and the Congo 
Free State, on the north-east by German East Africa, on the east, south-east 
and west by Portuguese possessions, lies what is now termed British Central 
Africa, Protectorate and Sphere of Influence. The Sphere of Influence is 
much larger than the actual Protectorate, which is chiefly confined to the 
districts bordering on Lake Nyasa and on the river Shire. The Sphere of 
Influence is at present administered under the Charter of the British South 
Africa Company ; the Protectorate has always been administered directly 
under the Imperial Government from the time of its inception. Circumstances 
were so ordered that I happened to be the chief agent in bringing all this 
territory, directly or indirectly, under British Influence, both on behalf of the 
Imperial Government and of the Chartered Company; and though I was 
ably seconded by Mr. Alfred Sharpe (now Her Majesty's Deputy Com- 
missioner), the late Mr. Joseph Thomson, Mr. J. L. Nicoll, and Mr. A. J. 
Swann, it lay with me to propose a name, a geographical and political term 
for the mass of territory thus secured as a dependency of the British 

On the principle that it is disastrous to a dog's interest to give him a 
bad name, it should be equally true that much is gained at the outset of 
any enterprise by bestowing on it a promising title. I therefore chose that of 
" British Central Africa " because I hoped the new sphere of British influence 
might include much of Central Africa where, at the time these deeds were 
done, the territories of Foreign Powers were in a state of flux, no hard and 
fast boundaries having been determined ; therefore by fair means Great Britain's 
share north of the Zambezi might be made to connect her Protectorate on 
the Upper Nile with her Empire south of the Zambezi. 


Treaties indeed were obtained which advanced British Territory from the 
south end to the north end of Lake Tanganyika, where the British flag was 
planted at the request of the natives by Mr. Swann in the spring of 1890; 
but the said Treaties arrived too late for them to be taken into consideration at 
the time the Anglo-German Convention was drawn up. 

Consequently all our Government could do was to secure from Germany a 
right of way across the intervening strip of territory; and the boundaries 
of German East Africa and of the Congo Free State were henceforth con- 
terminous in the district immediately north of Tanganyika. 

Similarly the agents of the King of the Belgians were able to make good 
their claims to the country west and south-west of Tanganyika. Therefore 
British Central Africa did not ultimately attain the geographical limits to which 
I had originally aspired, and which would have amply justified its title. I 
write this in (perhaps needless) apology for a name, which after all is a fairly 
correct designation of a territory in the South Central portions of the continent 
separated by several hundred miles from the East or West Coasts and 
stretching up to the equatorial regions. An almost exact geographical parallel 
to the British Central Africa Protectorate is the State of Paraguay in South 
America; which, like British Central Africa, has only free access to the sea 
by the course of a navigable river under international control. 

This book, however, will deal only with that Eastern portion of British 
Central Africa which has more or less come within my personal experience, 
that is to say it is principally confined to the regions bordering on Lakes 
Tanganyika and Nyasa and the River Shire. 

Although for seven years I have been connected with these countries, and 
have been gathering notes all that time, it is not to be supposed for a moment 
that the results of my work which I now publish deal more than partially with 
the many aspects and problems of this small section of Central Africa. The 
careful reader will be conscious of gaps in my knowledge; but I think he 
will not find his time wasted by vague generalisations. Such information as I 
have to give is definite and practical. During my present leave of absence 
I have deemed it wise to gather together and publish the information I 
possess while an opportunity offered and before such information is useless 



or stale. Two years' more residence might have enabled me to answer to 
my satisfaction many questions about which I am dubious, or of which I 
know nothing. There will be room for specialists to take up many sections 
of my book, and using, perhaps, this arrangement of material as a basis, to- 
correct and supplement the statements I have made. 



IT gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the help I have received from many friends 
and acquaintances in the production of this book. Sir Thomas Sanderson, K.C.B., 
Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, has revised the proofs for me ; 
and Sir Clement Hill, K.C.M.G., and the African Department of the Foreign Office 
have enabled me to obtain information on various subjects ; Mr. Alfred Sharpe, 
H.M. Deputy Commissioner and Consul for British Central Africa, has given me 
from time to time interesting notes, and has taken a number of photographs for the 
special purposes of the book ; Mr. J. B. Yule, B.C.A.A., of the North Nyasa district, 
has lent me many of his photographs and has supplied me with information on native 
manners and customs; Dr. David Kerr Cross, M.B., has allowed me to use his 
valuable notes on Anthropology and the Diseases prevalent among Europeans and 
natives; Mr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S., Secretary of the Zoological Society, has rendered me 
great help in preparing the chapters on Zoology, to which also Mr. Oldfield Thomas, 
Dr. A. G. Butler, Mr. W. F. Kirby and other officials of the British Museum of Natural 
History, and Mr. W. E. de Winton, F.Z.S., have contributed information. Mr. Thiselton 
Dyer, C.M.G., Director of the Royal Gardens, Kew, on this occasion (as indeed on all 
others when I have applied to him) has given his assistance with promptness and 
cordiality. Mr. Alexander Whyte, F.Z.S. (Principal scientific officer in British Central 
Africa), has supplied me with much interesting information during six years ; Mr. J. F. 
Cunningham, Secretary of the British Central Africa Administration, and Mr. Wm. 
Wheeler, Chief accountant to the same, have obtained for me photographs and informa- 
tion under many heads ; the Rev. D. C. Ruffele-Scott, B.D. (of the Church of Scotland 
Mission, Blantyre), collected five vocabularies for me : I have found his dictionary of 
the Ci-nyanja (Chi-mafianja) language a useful book of reference. The proprietors of 
the Graphic have been very kind in permitting the reproduction in these pages of certain 
drawings which originally appeared in one or other of their journals. Mr. Fred Moir, 
the Secretary to the African Lakes Company, placed his photographs at my disposal and 
helped rne in various ways. The Rev. A. G. B. Glossop, M.A., Mr. R. Webb, and Miss 
Palmer, of the Universities Mission, have been particularly kind in obtaining and 
lending photographs. I have also derived much information from the notes and 
reports of the late Lieut-Colonel C. A. Edwards, of Commander Percy Cullen, Captain 
\V. H. Manning, and Messrs. J. E. McMaster, A. J. Swann, R. Codrington, H. A. 
Hillier, J. O. Bowhill, the late J. L. Nicoll and Gilbert Stevenson, H. C. McDonald, 


I. McClounie, Donald Malloch, and the late E. G. Alston, of the British Central Africa 
Administration ; while I have also to acknowledge the loan of photographs from Messrs. 
E. Harrhy, the late Gilbert Stevenson, Commander Percy Cullen, and many others. 

A special mention should be made of the valuable Appendix to my chapter on 
" The Botany of British Central Africa " the list of all the known species of plants 
collected there from 1859 to the present day. This list has been prepared for 
inclusion in my book, under the direction of Mr. Thiselton Dyer, by Mr. I. H. 
Burkill, U.A., a member of the Scientific Staff at Ke\v. 

It will be seen from this long list of persons to whom I am indebted for information 
that my book represents the summing-up of others' researches as well as of my own, and 
that if praise be awarded to the book, as to the seven years' work of which it is the 
record, that praise must be fairly distributed among many workers. It is pleasant to 
me to think that one of my collaborators in this work is a native of British Central 



THE orthography of native words and names used throughout this book (except 
in the Vocabularies) is that of the Royal Geographical Society. All the 
consonants are pronounced as in English (except "n," which stands for the nasal 
sound in "tinging"), and the vowels as in Italian. Where the spelling of an 
African name is established in a European language it is not altered : Examples 
Congo (Kongo), Mozambique (Msambiki), Quelimane (Keliman). 





II. . 







HISTORY . . . . . 


IV. . 







THE SLAVE TRADE . . . ... 


VI. . 


1 60 





,, ~ . 

HINTS ON OUTFIT . . . ... 





VIII. . 

BOTANY . . . . ... 





2 . 




ZOOLOGY . . . . ... 





2 . 












6 . 






8 . 













LANGUAGES . . . . ... 










Vignette on Title-page 


An Angoni Warrior 
Portrait of the Author . 

ix " My table in the wilderness " . . 

2 Borassus Palms on the Shire . ... 

3 Tropical Vegetation on the banks of the Shire 

5 The Leopard's resting-place : a mountain stream in 
Central Africa . . ... 

7 A Tree Fern . . ... 

8 " The Genius of the Woods" (green Turaco) 

9 A Bamboo Thicket . . ... 

10 "Jack in the Beanstalk's" Country 

1 1 On the Plateau . . ... 

12 The Mlanje Cedar Forests . ... 

13 A Mlanje Mountain . . ... 

14 A Rock Garden on Mlanje . ... 

15 Papyrus Marsh and Saddle-billed Storks 

22 The "Sultan's Baraza" . . . . 

25 Mount Kapemba, Tanganyika . ... 

26 On Tanganyika . . ... 

32 Xiamkolo : South end of Tanganyika 

33 " His Last Fight " . . . . . 

35 Forest on Mount Cholo, British Central Africa . 

36 The Mlanje Range, seen from Zomba after rainfall 

37 Native Clearing in Forest Country 

38 The Shire at Chikwawa, just below the Murchison 

Falls . . . ... 

39 Pinda Mountain and Pinda Marsh, Lower Shire. 

40 Part of the Falls of the Ruo at Zoa 

41 A Mountain Stream in Central Africa 

42 First View of Mlanje Mountain from the Lower Shire 

43 On the Upper Ruo . . ... 

45 The Mlanje Range from the Tuchila Plain 

46 Chambi Peak, Mlanje . ... 

47 The Likubula Gorge, Mlanje . ... 

48 On Lake Nyasa . . ... 

49 The Lichenya River, Mlanje . ... 

50 The Shire Highlands . . ... 
53 Portrait of a Young Bushman . ... 

57 Governor's House, Tete . ... 

58 The Island of Mozambique, seen from the Mainland . 


Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by Miss Kate Pragnell, 

" The Lady Photographers," Sloane 

Street, S/W. 
Photograph by the Author. 

If > J 

Drawing by the Author. 

Painting by the Author. 
Drawing by the Author. 
Painting by the Author. 
Photograph by the Author. 

Photograph by Mr. Wm. Wheeler. 
Photograph by the Author. 
Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 
Photograph by Mr. Alfred Sharpe. 
Photograph by Mr. Fred. M. Moir. 
Painting by the Author. 
Photograph by the Author. 
Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by the Author. 

Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by the Author. 
Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by the Author. 
Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 
Photograph by the Author. 

From a photograph. 

Drawing by the Author. 




61 The Point on the South Shore of Lake Nyasa whence 
the Lake was first seen by Dr. Livingstone and 
Sir John Kirk in 1859 . ... 

67 Mandala House, near Blantyre. 

72 L. Monteith Fotheringham . ... 

72 John Lowe Nicoll . . ... 

73 Group of Wankonde (North Nyasa) 

74 John W. Moir . . ... 

74 Frederick Maitland Moir . ... 

75 Mr. Alfred Sharpe in 1890 . ... 
79 On the Chinde, Mouth of the Zambezi . 

83 Sergeant-Major Ali Kiongwe . ... 

85 Mr. John Buchanan . . ... 

87 Masea and Mwitu, two of Livingstone's Makololo 

91 Outskirts of Kotakota . ... 

92 The late Tawakali Sudi ; Jumbe of Kotakota, etc. 

93 North Nyasa Arabs : Bvvana 'Omari in the foreground 
95 Langenburg, Capital of German Nyasaland . . 

98 Sikh Soldiers of the Contingent now serving in British 

Central Africa . . ... 

99 H.M.S. Mosquito, a Zambezi Gunboat 

101 Fort Johnston in 1895 

103 Captain Cecil Montgomery Maguire 

107 Mr. William Wheeler . ... 

109 Mr. Nicoll's House at Fort Johnston 

no Trees planted by Mr. Nicoll at Fort Johnston (two 
years' growth) . . ... 

in The Nyasa Gunboats in Nkata Bay, West Nyasa 

112 Lake Road, Chiromo . ... 

1 14 The Katunga Road in pre-Administration Days 

1 15 Captain Sclater's Road to Katunga in process of 

making . . ... 

1 16 Mr. J. F. Cunningham . ... 

1 18 Lieut.-Colonel C. A. Edwards . ... 

1 19 A Sikh Soldier in the B.C.A. uniform 

1 19 A Sikh Soldier in fighting kit . . . 

1 20 A Sikh Soldier in fighting kit . ... 

1 20 Sikh Soldier in undress . . 

121 Collector's House at Fort Lister 

122 Captain W. H. Manning . ... 

123 The Raphia Palm Marsh hehind Chiwaura's 

125 On the Beach at Monkey Bay . ... 

126 One of Makanjira's Captured Daus at Monkey Bay . 

127 The Hoisting of the Flag at Fort Maguire 

129 The Beach at Makanjira's . ... 

130 Three of Makanjira's Captured Daus (Fort Maguire) 

131 A Rural Post Office, B.C.A. . ... 

132 Watch Tower at Fort Johnston 

133 A Sikh Sergeant-Major of the B.C.A. Contingent 

134 Native Soldiers, B.C.A. . ... 

135 An Atonga Soldier 

136 In Zarafi's Town 

Photograph by Mr. E. Harrhy. 
Photograph by Mr. Fred. M. Moir. 
Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 

Photograph by the Author. 
From a photograph. 

Photograph by Mr. Fred. M. Moir. 
Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 
Photograph by Commander Percy 


Photograph by Mr. J. Trotter. 
Photograph by the Author. 

Photograph by Mr. Wm. Wheeler. 
From a photograph. 
Photograph by the Author. 
From a photograph. 
Photograph by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 

Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 
Photograph by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. R. Webb. 
Photograph by the Author. 

Photograph by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. Wm. Wheeler. 


by the late Gilbert 
Photograph by Mr. E. Harrhy. 

Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 
Photograph by the late Gilbert 


Photograph by Mr. Wm. Wheeler. 
Photograph by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 

Photograph by the Author. 

Photograph by Rev. A. G. B. Glossop. 
Photograph by Mr. E. Harrhy. 
Photograph by Rev. A. G. B. Glossop. 
Photograph by Mr. Wm. Wheeler. 

Photograph by the Author. 




137 Deep Bay Station . . ... 

138 Mlozi, Chief of the North Nyasa Arabs 

139 The Transports on their way to Karonga arriving- in 

Likoma Bay . . ... 

141 A corner of Mlozi's Stockade . ... 

142 The Nyasa-Tanganyika Road (made by the B.C. A. 

Administration) . . ... 

143 The Nyasa-Tanganyika Road . ... 

144 In Fort Hill . . ... 

145 The Stockade, Fort Hill . ... 

146 Mr. Alfred Sharpe in 1896 . ... 

147 The Zomba-Mlanje Road . ... 

148 A Footbridge across the Mlungusi (Zomba) 

150 The Gardens of the Residency, Zomba . 

151 Mr. Whyte in the Gardens at Zomba 

153 Barracks at Fort Johnston . ... 

156 A Swahili Slave-trader . ... 

157 Arab and Swahili Slave-traders captured by the 

B.C. A. Forces . . ... 

158 A "Ruga-Ruga" (Mnyamwezi, Slave-raider employed 

by the Arabs) . . ... 

161 The Consulate, Blantyre . ... 

162 A Coffee Tree in bearing . ... 

163 A Planter's temporary House . ... 
165 Morambala Mount from the River Shire . 

167 Sharrer's Store at Katunga . ... 

169 A " Capitao " . . ... 

172 In Camp after a day's shooting 

174 Natives making Bricks . ... 

175 Cyprus Avenue, Blantyre . ... 

176 Eucalyptus Avenue . . ... 

177 A Planter . . . ... 

178 An Ivory Caravan arriving at Kotakota 

181 Ivory at Mandala Store (African Lakes Co.) 

182 Kahn & Co.'s Trading Store at Kotakota 

191 (i) Bishop Hornby (formerly of Nyasaland). (2) The 

late Bishop Maples of Likoma 

194 Native Church at Msumba, Lake Nyasa (Universities 

Mission) . . . ... 

199 Blantyre Church (Church of Scotland Mission) 

207 Flowers of the Gardenia Tree . ... 

208 Lissochihis Orchids . . ... 

209 An Angnecum Orchis. . ... 

210 The Ansellia or " Tiger " Orchis 

211 A Red Lily . . . ... 

212 Oil Palms near the Songwe River, North Nyasa 

212 A Raphia Palm . . ... 

213 Raphia Palm Fruiting . ... 

214 Bonissus Palms . . ... 

214 Wild Date Palms . . ... 

215 A Reed Brake (Phmginites coin munis) . 

217 Plumes and Young Shoot of Phragniitcs. 

218 Barbed Seeds of Stipa . ... 


Photograph by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. Fred Moir. 

Photograph by Miss Palmer. 
Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 

Photograph by the Author. 


Photograph by Mr. Win. Wheeler. 

Photograph by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. Wm. Wheeler. 

Photograph by Mr. Fred Moir. 

Photograph by Mr. E. Harrhy. 

Photograph by Mr. Wm. Wheeler. 

Photograph by Mr. Alfred Sharpe. 

Drawing by the Author. 

From a photograph. 

Photograph by the late Gilbert 


Photograph by Mr. E. Harrhy. 
Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 
Photograph by Mr. Fred Moir. 
Photograph by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. J.F. Cunningham. 
From a photograph. 
Photograph by Mr. Fred Moir. 
From a photograph. 

Photograph by Miss Palmer. 

Photograph by Mr. R. Webb. 
Photograph by Mr. Fred Moir. 
Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by the Author. 


Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. Alfred Sharpe. 
Photograph by the Author. 
Drawing by the Author. 




218 Papyrus . . . . 

218 A Large Duckweed (Pistia stratiotes) 

219 An Albizsia Tree . . ... 

220 The Mucuna Bean . . ... 

221 A Baobab Tree . . ... 

222 The Euphorbia of the Plains . ... 

222 Candelabra Euphorbias . ... 

223 A Landolphia Liana . . ... 

224 Sansevieria Fibre Plant . ... 

225 Growth cf Branches ; Foliage ; and Cones of the 

Mlanje Cedar ( Widdringtonia whytei) . 

226 Young- Mlanje Cedar . . ... 
290 A Spotted Hyena . . ... 
293 The Central African Zebra. .' ... 
297 Head of a Hippopotamus . ... 
299 A Wart Hog- . . ... 

302 Head of a Buffalo . . ... 

303 Horns of Congo Buffalo . ... 

304 Livingstone's Eland . . ... 

305 Horns of Livingstone's Eland . ... 

306 A Male Bushbuck . . ... 

307 Head of a Male Kudu . ... 

310 Diagram showing origin and relationships of modern 

groups of Horned Ruminants 

311 A Klipspringer . . ... 

312 A Male Reedbuck . . ... 

312 A Male Reedbuck's Head . ... 

313 A Male Waterbuck . . ... 

314 A Female Waterbuck . . ... 

315 The Sable Antelope . . ... 

318 A Roan Antelope . . ... 

319 Johnston's Pallah . . ... 

320 The Nyasaland Gnu (Connochcetes taurinus johnstoni) 
329 The Elephant Marsh . ... 
335 The Syndactylous Foot . ... 

338 Spur-winged Geese . . ... 

339 Crowned Cranes . . . ... 

343 A Pelican of Tanganyika . ... 

343 A Stilt Plover . . ... 

344 Head and foot of Fruit-pigeon 

345 The Warlike Crested Eagle (Spizcetus bellicosus) 

346 A Small Falcon (Falco minor) . ... 
357 Nyasa Crocodiles . . ... 

360 Chromis squamipennis ; Hemichromis livingstonii: 

Fish of Lake Nyasa . ... 

361 Engraulicypris pinguis . ... 

371 A Termite Ant-hill . . ... 

372 A Stick Insect . . ... 

373 A Locustid Insect . . ... 
378 The Tsetse Fly . ... 
388 An Angoni Man from the West Nyasa district . 

390 A Mnyanja . . . ... 

391 A Yao Man . . . ... 


Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by Mr. Wm. Wheeler. 
Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 

Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. Foulkes. 
Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by the Author. 
Drawing by the Author. 
From a photograph. 
Drawing by the Author. 

Engraving lent by the Zoological 

Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by Mr. Alfred Sharpe. 
Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by the Author. 
Drawing by the Author. 

Zoological Society's Proceedings. 

Photograph by Miss Palmer. 
Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by Mr. Wm. Wheeler. 




393 An Arab of Tanganyika (Rumaliza) 

395 A Mtonga Man (to show profile) 

397 A Yao of the Upper Shire . ... 

398 An Ang-oni from Mombera's country 

399 Boy with well-developed breasts 

400 A Young- Mother (showing pendent breasts) 

401 Wankonde Men . . ... 
403 A Munkonde from North Nyasa 

405 Sketch of Muscular Development in a Yao 

407 A Yao Woman . . ... 

411 Young Munkonde Girl . . . . 

414 A Mtonga Man . . ... 

416 "A Good Mother " (Sketch of a Mnyanja woman) 

420 A Yao of Zomba . . ... 

421 A "Ruga-Ruga" . . ... 

423 Specimens of Tatooing ; Comb ; Plugs for insertion 

in ear, lips, nose, etc. . ... 

424 Example of " Pelele" in upper lip 

424 Another example of the " Pelele " 

425 Wooden Hoe ; and wooden Hammer for beating out 

bark cloth . . ... 

427 North Nyasa Native smoking hemp 

428 Banana Grove (Mlanje) . ... 
431 Wankonde Cattle . . ... 
433 The Domestic Goat of South and Central Africa 

453 A typical Native House in South Nyasaland 

454 A Nkonde House . . ... 
457 Natives making a prone tree trunk into a canoe 

457 A River Pilot . . ... 

458 Weaving in Angoniland . ... 

459 Weaving on the Nyasa-Tanganyika Plateau 

460 Women making Pots . . ... 

461 Pipes for hemp and tobacco . ... 

462 Central African Weapons, etc. . ... 

464 African Dancer and Drum Players 

465 A Mu-lungu of South Tanganyika blowing ivory 

trumpet . . . ... 

467 A "Sansi " . 

470 Angoni Warriors . . ... 

470 Head stuck on a pole after a native war . 

472 "Young Africa" . . ... 

480 Map showing the lines of migration of the Bantu 
tribes in their invasion of Southern Africa 



Photograph by Mr. Fred Moir. 
Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 
Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. Alfred Sharpe. 
Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. Wm. Wheeler. 
Photograph by Mr. J. B. Yule. 
Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by Mr. Wm. Wheeler. 

Drawing by the Author. 

Photograph by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. Fred Moir. 
Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. Fred Moir. 
Photograph by Mr. Yule. 
Photograph by Mr. R. Webb. 
Photograph by Mr. Fred Moir. 

Photograph by Mr. Yule. 
Drawing by the Author. 

From a photograph. 

Drawing by the Author from a 

photograph by Mr. Yule. 
Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by Mr. J. F.Cunningham. 
Drawing by the Author. 
Photograph by the late Gilbert 


Drawing by the Author. 

i. Map of British Central Africa, showing approximate rainfall, naviga- 
bility of rivers, etc. 

2 - showing Orographical features . . . . 

3- showing Administrative divisions . . . . 

4. Map of the Shire Highlands ..... 

5. Map of British Central Africa, showing density of population and 

distribution of native tribes ..... 

6. showing Mission Stations and Foreign Settlers and Settlements . 

To face page 

'& %x> 

(( OCT 19 1897 

,o >^TTL < Qj 



BEFORE I begin to discourse on the dull facts of history and geography, 
let me try to give my reader some idea of what the country looks like by 
describing certain set scenes and panoramas. Perhaps from these he may 
derive a clearer impression of the general appearance and the many diverse 
aspects of British Central Africa. 

A steadily flowing river. In the middle of the stream an islet of very green 
grass, so lush and so thick that there are no bright lights or sharp shadows 
simply a great splodge of rich green in the middle of the shining water which 
reflects principally the whitish-blue of the sky ; though this general tint becomes 
opaline and lovely as mother-of-pearl, owing to the swirling of the current and 
the red-gold colour of the concealed sand-banks which in shallow places 
permeates the reflections. Near to the right side of the grass islet separated 
only by a narrow mauve-tinted band of water is a sand-bank that has been 
uncovered, and on this stands a flock of perhaps three dozen small white egrets 
closely packed, momentarily immoveable, and all stiffly regardant of the 
approaching steamer, each bird with a general similarity of outline almost 
Egyptian m its monotonous repetition. 

The steamer approaches a little nearer, and the birds rise from the sand-bank 
with a loose flapping flight and strew themselves over the landscape like a 
shower of large white petals. On the left bank of the river looking down 
stream is a grove of borassus palms rising above the waterside fringe of white 
flowered reeds and apple-green mopheads of papyrus. The trunks of the 
taller palms are smooth and whitish, but those of younger growth nearer to the 
ground are still girt about by a fierce spiky hedge of dead blnck-stemmed 
fronds. The crowns of the palm trees are symmetrical and fan-shaped in 
general outline, while each individual frond has in its inner side a horse-shoe 
curve. The colour of the fronds is a deep bluish-green singularly effective 
in contrast with the grey-white column they surmount. The fruit of the palms, 
when they can be descried, are like huge yellow-green apples thickly clustered 
on pendent racemes protruding from the centre round which the fronds radiate. 


Behind the palm forest is a long line of blue mountain so far away that it is just 
a faint blue silhouette against the paler blue sky. The afternoon is well advanced, 
and in the eastern sky, which is a warm pinkish blue, the full moon has already 
risen and hangs there a yellow-white shield with no radiance. On the opposite 
bank of the river to the palm trees is a clump of tropical forest of the richest 
green with purple shadows, lovely and seductive in its warm tints under the 
rays of the late afternoon sun. Here are large albizzia trees. 1 Over the water- 
side hang thick bushes overgrown with such a drapery of convolvulus creepers 


that the foliage of the bush is almost hidden. This green lacework is beauti- 
fully lit up by large mauve flowers. Above the bushes rise the heads of the 
wild date palm, and amid the fronds of this wild date here and there a cluster 
of its small orange fruit peeps out. These palms rise over masses of foliage, 
and occasionally top the higher trees, growing within their canopy in almost 
parasitic fashion. This cluster of tropical vegetation will be here and there 
scooped out 'into fairy bovvers by the irregularities of the bank. Sometimes the 
trees will overhang the stream where the bank has been washed away. Tiny 
kingfishers of purple-blue and chestnut-orange flit through the dark network of 
gnarled trunks, and deep in this recess of shade small night-herons and bitterns 
stand bolt upright, so confident in their assumed invisibility against a back- 

1 A genus related to the acacia with the thickest foliage of pinnate leaves looking at a distance like 
green velvet. 


Around of brown and grey that they do not move even when the steamer passes 
so close by them as to brush against the tangle of convolvulus and knock down 
sycomore figs from the glossy-leaved, many-rooted fig trees. 

It is a backwater on the Shire river, or perhaps not so much a backwater 
as a sluggish branch of the stream which the main current has deserted and left 
hidden away between bosky islands and the high wooded bank. The flow 
of the current is not discernible, and the reflections are glassy and mirror-like 
in their exactitude, except that the surface of the water in the foreground is 
strewn with oval lotus leaves looking in shape and even colour exactly like those 
copper ashtrays or cardtrays made in Indian ware with slightly turned -up 
crinkled edges. The scene is much framed in with overarching foliage and 
branches from island and opposite bank. On this shore of the mainland 


there are tall acacia trees with smooth pale-green trunks and whitish-green 
branches, and a feathery light-green foliage spangled with hanging clumps 
of tiny golden-stamened, petalless flowers which exhale the most penetrating, 
absolute, and honeyed of all flower scents, a scent so strong that it 
may be wafted on a still, hot day across a mile of water. In the middle 
distance is a fine group of trees, elm-like in shape, growing on the river bank 
above the flood limit. In the farthest distance a few sparse-foliaged acacias 
stand out against the grey-blue sky above a high fence of reeds. In the 
nearer distance one clump of spear-like reeds rises from the waterlilies and 
shows some fine white flowering plumes against the dark background of the 
forest clump. In the foreground is a huge snag, the relic of a fine forest 
tree that has been washed down in the flood and stranded in the mud of 
this backwater. On its branches are perched darters with sheeny plumaged 
bodies of greenish-black and chestnut-coloured necks ending in a head and 
spear-like beak, so slim that it seems a mere termination of the angular 
weapon of the neck. Amongst the \Vaterlily leaves rise the beautiful blue-pink 
flowers that are styled the lotus. 


We are going to climb a mountain. First there are the low foothills to 
surmount. . The soil is red and hard ; the grass is scattered and in yellow wisps, 
and the many wild flowers are drooping, for it is the end of the dry season. 
The trees are in foliage, though the rains have not yet fallen, and the young 
leaves at this stage are seldom green, but the most beautiful shades of carmine 
pink, of pinkish yellow, of greenish mauve, and even inky purple. Here and 
there sprays of foliage are in a more advanced development, and are green with 
a bluish bloom, or of the brightest emerald. But the height of the trees is not 
great, and their leaves, though large, are scattered in a tufty growth that yields 
but a feeble patchwork of shade from the hot sun ; the branches are coarse, 
and thick, and seldom straight, they look just like the branches of trees drawn 
from imagination by amateur water-colour artists. In many cases the bark 
is still black and sooty with the scorching of the recent bush fires. The general 
impression of all this vegetation, though one is forced to admire the individual 
tints of the newly-opened leaves, is disappointing. It is scrubby. The land- 
scape has not the dignity of a blasted heath, or the simplicity of a sandy 
desert ; its succession of undulations of low scattered forest of such a harlequin 
variation of tints is such as to produce no general effect of definite form and 
settled colour on the eye. But this is a good game country. As you plod 
along the hard red path, baked almost into brick by the blazing sun acting on 
the red mud of the rainy season, you will suddenly catch sight of a splendid 
sable antelope with ringed horns, almost in a half oval, a black and white face, 
a glossy black body, white stomach, fringed and tufted tail, and heavy black 
mane ; or, it may be, his beautiful female of almost equal bulk, but with 
smaller horns, and with all the markings and coloration chestnut and white 
instead of white and black. Unless you are very quick with your rifle, the 
beast will soon be hid and almost undiscoverable amongst the low trees and 

The path is broken here and there by seams of granite. Every now and 
then there is a regular scramble over wayworn rocks; granite boulders are more 
and more interspersed amongst the red clay. Between the boulders grow 
aloes with fleshy leaves of green, spotted with red, and long flower spikes 
of crimson which end in coral -coloured flower buds buds which open 
grudgingly at the tip; the edges of the sprawling aloe leaves are dentelated, 
and in their tendency to redness sometimes all green is merged in a deep 
vinous tint. 

Now there is less scrub, and the trees as we ascend become larger and more 
inclined to stand in clumps; their foliage is thicker. We are approaching a 
stream, and its course is marked by a forest of a different type, fig trees of 
various species, tall parinariums (a tree which bears a purple plum), huge- 
leaved gomphias, and velvet-foliaged albizzias. On either side of the stream, 
also, there is a jungle of bamboos, and the path descends from out of the weary 
glare of the white sunlight on the red clay into a cool, moist, green tunnel 
through the numberless spear-heads of bamboo leaves. There are many ferns 
on either side of the stream bank and beautiful carmine lilies 1 are growing 
by the water's edge, but as the rains are still withheld there is but a thin film of 
water slipping down over the grey rocks and brown pebbles, and the stream 
may be easily crossed from stepping stone to stepping stone. Then a clamber 
up the opposite bank and through the bamboo out once more into the scorching 
sunshine, and so on and on along a winding path through a native village 

1 See illustration, pa^e 211. 




with its untidy haycocks of huts, its clumps of bananas, plantations of sweet 
potatoes and tobacco, and adjoining stubble fields where gaunt isolated stalks 
of sorghum still linger. The blue mountain wall towards which we are aiming 
rises higher into the sky, and its blue vagueness becomes resolvable into a detail 
of purple and yellow grey. But though the sun is hotter than ever as it 
approaches the zenith our continual ascent brings us to a region that enjoys 
more benign conditions of moisture and coolness at night time. The young 
green grass is more advanced than down below, the herbage is so thick that the 
red soil is almost hidden. The wild flowers commence to be beautiful. There 
are innumerable ground orchids in various 
shades of mauve or yellow, or with strange 
green blossoms, or flowers of richest orange. 
A beautiful white clematis grows from an 
upright stalk, and here and there are 
bushes of a kind of mallow, which bears 
large azalea - like clusters of the most 
perfect blush pink. Higher up still there 
are more and more flowers in many shades 
of blue and mauve and yellow. There is 
a small kind of sunflower that is a deep 
maroon crimson, and another coreopsis 
more like the cultivated sunflower with 
flaming yellow petals. In moist places 
and the path is now constantly crossing 
small brooks grows the dissotis, with ; f 
large flowers of deep red -mauve. The 
path curves and twists and runs up above 
heights and then down into deep ravines, 
and still the flowers grow thicker and 
thicker and more lovely, till in the ecstasy 
of a colour dream, all remembrance of the 
sun's heat, of your great fatigue and your 
sweat -drenched clammy garments is for- 
gotten. On the hill-sides there are frequent 
clumps of wild date palms, some of which 
rise to a great height with their slender 
stems often bowed or curved and seldom 

perpendicular. Then you come to your first tree-fern, or if you are a botanist 
you are delighted with a rare cycad growing majestically alone and looking 
very much as though it were an admirable piece of artificial foliage executed in 
green bronze. Still ascending, with a pause here and a rest there in the 
absolute shade of the great forest trees, tree-ferns become so abundant at 
last as to make fairy forests of themselves, excluding other arborescence. 
Then they give way again to densely- packed thick -foliaged forest trees of 
low growth through which a path winds over many a bole and through 
many a bamboo bower in deep green gloom. Through this gloom flit the 
crimson - winged turacos, the lovely genii of the African forest birds of 
purple-blue, bluish-green and grass-green silky plumage with a white-tipped 
crest, red parrot-like beaks, and bare red cheeks, but always, no matter -what 
their species, with the broad, rounded pinion feathers of the wing the most 
perfect scarlet-crimson ever seen in nature. The loud parrot cries of these 



birds (not unmelodious) echo and re-echo through the forest glades as they 
call to one another; and here is a crimson flash, and there is a long crimson 
streak drawn across the green background as they fly backwards and forwards 
before the delighted intruder. 

Runnels of water will at times trickle through the black leaf mould of the 
scarcely discernible path, and you will come to many a fairy glen where the 
dark, clear, cold water lies in deep pools amongst the ferns. 


The forest for a time will give place to a bamboo thicket, the bamboos 
perhaps of a different species to those lower down, with smaller and finer leaves 
of a deeper green ; nothing more beautiful than these bamboo glades is to 
be seen in the way of vegetation. It is difficult to express in words the 
effect which is produced by thousands of narrow, pointed leaves of shiny surface 
shaped like small spear blades a wall of green facets moving at times with 
a faint tremor which sends a shimmering of green around you, accompanied by 
the tiniest whispering sound. No transformation scene ever shown on the stage 
was so beautiful as a bamboo glade on the high mountain side with, invariably, 
water falling down the centre of the picture in tiny cascades and the soft ground 
carpeted with a deposit of cast leaves like thin spear blades of pale gold. 


Beyond the bamboos the path becomes terrible. You emerge from the 
gloom of this first forest belt on to bare rock and obtain glorious views over the 
flower-braided hill-slopes below, over the band of dark green velvet forest, and 
beyond into plains that are purple-blue with a diamond flash of water here and 
there till the horizon is closed up with the palest silhouettes of other 

The path is now scarcely apparent. It is a hazardous progress up a steep 
face of smooth polished rock from grass clump to grass clump. Here and there 
on ledges of the rock where a little vegetable soil may have collected tussocks 
of grass are growing, and these afford a precarious foothold ; nevertheless 
though there is no good path it is obvious that men often pass this way up 
and down the mountains since the tussocks of grass that are regularly trodden 


on are grey and dead in comparison to those untouched by the human foot, 
which remain green. Here the difficulty of your ascent will be lightened by 
the joy you must feel in the lobelias, if you have any sense of colour. In the 
crevices of these glabrous-looking mountain ribs will grow bunches of lobelias 
extravagant in their thousands of blue flowerets. 

At last the ascent of this mountain wall is safely accomplished, and you 
fling yourself panting on short wiry turf growing in clumps and know that you 
have reached the limits of " Jack-in-the-Beanstalk's " country. 

All the great mountains of South Central Africa seem to be isolated 
fragments of an older plateau, and most of them present more or less precipitous 
wall-like sides rising above the foot hills, which latter are created by land slides 
and debris, or represent smaller remains of the plateau that in course of time 
have been more worn away than the larger blocks constituting the big 
mountains or the long mountain ranges. These wall-like sides are naturally 
difficult of ascent ; but when one has clambered up over the edge, and on to 


the more level surface of the upraised tableland, it is a veritable " Jack-in-the 
Beanstalk's" country, quite different in aspect to the tropical plains below. 
Turning your eyes away, however, from the blue gulf which yawns beneath the 
precipitous ascent of several thousand feet which blue gulf after analysis by 
the eye resolves itself into the faint map of many leagues of surrounding 
countries you find that the plateau on which you stand is a little world in 
itself. The general surface is rolling grass land and beautifully-shaped downs, 
with little streams and little lakes, and little forests ; and again from out of this 
tableland little mountains of one to three thousand feet, chiefly of granite, rise 
up into the clouds and in their austere rockiness contrast charmingly with the 
lawns of short grass, the flowery vales, and the rich woodlands at their base. 
Altogether the scenery is pretty rather than grand, and if you could forget the 
ascent you have made and your geographical position, you might imagine 


yourself in Wales, and believe that country of this sort stretched illimitably 
before you for miles and miles, were it not that upon walking a few steps 
in another direction you suddenly stop shuddering on the sharp edge of an 
awful gulf a gulf which on a misty day might be the end and edge of the 

It is a " Jack-in-the-Beanstalk " country. A little section of land upraised 
and quite apart from the rest of Tropical Africa with a climate and flora of its 
own, and as a rule without indigenous human inhabitants. The fauna of these 
altitudes has usually peculiar features though most of the mammals differ but 
little from those of the plains. Antelopes, buffalos, and even elephants will 
scramble to these heights, if they be in any way accessible, for the sake of the 
sweet herbage ; therefore in your ramblings over these plateaux you may catch 
sight of big game, and even meet in its train the lion and leopard. The woods 
of Cape-oak and other evergreens the branches of which are hung with long 
sprays of greenish-white lichen, "the old man's beard" 1 are resonant with the 

1 Usnea, the "orchilla" weed of commerce. 


cries of turacos, possibly a species slightly differing from that found in the 
warmer climate of the plains or hill-sides. Most of the other birds will be 
allied to South African, Abyssinian or even European species large purple 
pigeons with yellow beaks or pretty doves with roseate tinge and white heads ; 
orioles of green and yellow and grey ; chats, buntings, fly-catchers, plump 
speckled francolin and tiny harlequin-quails ; few, if any birds of prey, but 
many great-billed black and white ravens and an occasional black crow. The 
wild flowers remind one touchingly of home. There are violets, there is a rare 
primula, there are buttercups, forget-me-nots, St. John's wort, anemones, vivid 
blue hound's-tongue and heather. Unfamiliar, however, are the lovely ground 
orchids, the strange proteas and the " everlasting " flowers. Also there are strag- 
gling arborescent heaths, almost like small conifers in appearance, though other 
forms more ^closely resemble our own heather. Near the edges of the plateau 


amongst the rocks grows a big kind of tree-lily with a gouty, pachydermatous, 
branching stem and tufts of grass-like leaves. If it be, as I imagine, the early 
spring when you are ascending the mountain, these otherwise ugly shrubs will 
be covered with white lily-like blossoms. 

The air of these lofty plateaux is cool and bracing and the sunshine harmless 
in the day-time. When the weather is fine the sky is a lovely pale-blue. 
Daylight under these conditions is one long inexhaustible joy of living. 
Fatigue is not felt ; the sun's heat is pleasantly warm ; a moderate thirst can 
be delightfully quenched in the innumerable ice-cold brooks ; but when the 
sun is set set amid indescribable splendour in what appears to be the middle 
of the sky, so high is the horizon -nature wears a different even an alarming 
aspect : unless you have a cheerful log-hut to enter or a well-pitched comfortable 
tent (with a roaring fire burning at a safe distance from the tent porch) 
you will feel singularly dismal. Perhaps a thunder-storm may have come 
on. Enormous masses of cloud may be bearing down on and enveloping 
you thunder of the most deafening description breaks around you and 



re-echoes worse than any roar of artillery in battle from every ravine and 
hill-side. The drenching rain or the driving mist may be chilling your 
half-naked followers into blue numbness, and even bringing them, if they are 
unsheltered, dangerously near death from cold. Even if it be a fine night, 
and the moon shining, there will be something a little repellent and awe- 
striking in the world outside your tent. The forest, to the vicinity of which 
you have come for shelter, is very black, and the strange cries of bird and 
beast coming from these depths quite confirm the native belief that the trees 
are haunted with the spirits of the departed. The stars seem so near to you, 


and if in the moonlight you have found your way over the tussocky grass 
to the edge of the plateau and looked forth on a sleeping universe you feel 
a little frightened so completely are you aloof from the living world of 
man. It is much pleasanter, therefore, to be shut up in a good tent or log 
cabin, snugly ensconced in bed (for it is probably freezing hard) reading a novel. 

We are on the upper plateau of Mlanje, grandest of all British Central 
African mountains. It is early morning, say 6.30 a.m. We have been roused 
by our native attendants, have had a warm bath and a cup of coffee and are 
now inspecting our surroundings in the glory of the early sunshine. On the 
short wiry grass there lies a white rime of frost as we walk down the slope 
to the cedar woods. Here rises up before us a magnificent forest of straight 
and noble trees, of conifers 1 which in appearance resemble cedars of Lebanon 

1 Widdringtonia ivhytei. 


though they have also a look of the Scotch pine and are actually in their 
natural relationship allied to the cypress. Their trunks are straight and the 
outer bark is often bleached white ; the wood is the tint of a cedar pencil. The 
foliage which on the older trees grows in scant tufts (leaving a huge white 
skeleton of sprawling branches) on the younger trees is abundant, bluish-green 


below and the dark, sombre green of the fir tree above. The extremities of 
each branch have a pretty upward curl. 

Much of the undergrowth of these cedar woods is a smaller species of 
Widdringtonia with a lighter green foliage, most gracefully pendent and starlike 
in each cluster of needles. 

Oh ! the deep satisfying peace of these cedar woods. The air is thick with 
the odour of their wholesome resin. The ground at our feet is a springy 



carpet of emerald green moss out of which peep anemones and primulas. 
Here indeed when the mild warmth of the day has dried up the night dews 
might one lie half stupefied by the rich aroma of the cedar wood, "the world 
forgetting, by the world forgot," while the big purple pigeons with white- 
streaked necks and yellow beaks resume their courtship on the branches above 


our heads. Beyond the cedar wood is the mountain-side strewn with innumer- 
able boulders and cubes of rock which are interspersed with huge everlasting 
flowers and a strange semi-Alpine vegetation. If we are trying to scramble up 
these to reach the summit we shall hear from time to time the musical 
trickle of water in caverns and holes, closed in by these strong boulders and 
thickly hung with mosses and ferns. Should we then have reached any 
of the great summits of Mlanje and looked down into its central crater we 
shall realise that here must have been at one time volcanic action. The 



scene before us is an indescribable wilderness of stones and boulders which look 
as though they had been hurled right and left from some central eruption. l 

On the left-hand side stretches an arid plain of loose friable soil once formed 
below the water, and white with the lime of decomposed shells blazing in the 
reverberating sunshine of noonday the refracted heat of its surface so great 
that the horizon quivers in wavy lines before our half-blinded eyes ; on the 
other side a papyrus marsh with open pools of stagnant water. Beyond the 
arid waste of light soil on which a few grey wisps of grass are growing, lie 
the deep blue waters of a lake almost an indigo blue at noonday and seen 
from this angle. Behind the papyrus marsh is a line of pale blue-grey 
mountains a flat wash of colour, all detail veiled by the heat haze. We 
are at the mouth of a great river and the marshes on one side of us repre- 
sent either its abandoned channels half dried up or its back water at times 
of overflow. For a mile or so the eye, turning away with relief from the 
scorching, bleached, barren plain which lies between us and the lake, looks 
over many acres of apple-green papyrus. The papyrus, as you will observe, is 
a rush with a smooth, round, tubelike stem, sometimes as much as six feet in 
height. The stem terminates in a great mop-head of delicate green filaments 
which are often bifid at their ends. Three or four narrow leaflets surround the 
core from which the filaments diverge. If the papyrus be in flower small 
yellow-green nodules dot the web of the filaments. With the exception of 
this inflorescence the whole rush stem, leaves, and mop-head is a pure apple- 
green and the filaments are like shining silk. 

The water in the open patches in between the islands and peninsulas of 
papyrus is quite stagnant and unruffled and seemingly clear. Sometimes the 
water is black and foetid but its tendency to corruption is often kept in check 
by an immense growth of huge duck weed, the Pistia stratiotes, for all the 
world like a pale green lettuce. 

A pair of saddle-billed storks are wading through the marsh, searching 
for fish and frogs and snakes. Their huge beaks are crimson -scarlet, with 
a black band, and their bodies are boldly divided in coloration between snowy 
white, inky-black, and bronze-green. 

On Lake Nyasa. The steamer on which you are a passenger, in imagina- 
tion, has left her safe anchorage in the huge harbour of Kotakota in the early 
morning and rounding the long sandspit which shields the inlet from the open 
lake, finds herself breasting a short, choppy sea. The waves at first are a 
muddy green \yhere the water is shallow but soon this colour changes to a deep, 
cold, unlovely indigo. A strong southern breeze is blowing in your teeth and 
each billow is crested with white foam. The " Mwera " or south-easter the 
wind which ravages the lake at certain times is to-day against you, and you 
are condemned by circumstances to steam southwards opposed by this strong 
gale. As you get out into the middle of the lake the situation is almost one 
of danger, for the vessel on which you are travelling, though dignified with the 
name of "steamer," is not much larger than a Thames steam launch. In such 
weather as this she could not possibly go far with the billows on her beam 

These isolated fragments of granitic rock are found miles away from the Mlanje mountain in the 
plains below hearing all the appearance of having been hurled through the air for miles into the surround- 
ing country. Mlanje mountain is evidently a large slice left of the pre-existing tableland from which 
again volcanic cones have risen. 


or she would be rolled over ; then again if the steamer went northwards with 
a following sea she would be speedily swamped ; her only course and it 
happens on this occasion to fit in with preconcerted arrangements is to steam 
southwards, facing both wind and waves. At times the vessel seems to be 
standing on end as she crests some huge ridge of water ; and as she descends 
into the furrow this broad-backed roller comes up under her stern and floods 
the upper deck. Then again she mounts, to fall again and mount again and 
fall again, until the best sailor in the world would be dizzy with this hateful 
see-saw motion. In fact, if it were not quite so dangerous, an ordinary 
passenger would give way to seasickness ; yet on this occasion you are too 
frightened that the ship may be swamped and founder to bestow much attention 
on the qualms of your stomach. 

But the captain is hopeful, and tells you that as this is the third day the 
wind has been blowing it will probably cease towards the evening. Overhead, 
in spite of the whistling wind, the sky is clear of clouds and a pale blue. The 
lake is dark indigo, flecked with white foam not the rich, creamy, thick, white 
froth of saltwater, but a transparent clear foam like innumerable glass drops 
reflecting the sunlight coldly from many facets. 

The lake is perhaps forty miles broad. North and south there is a clear sea 
horizon. East and west there are pale greyish-blue outlines of mountain 
ranges ; but owing to the driving wind and the slight diffusion of spray at 
lower levels, or some such atmospheric cause, the lower slopes of the mountains 
are invisible and the distant land has no direct connection with the sharp-cut 
line of the indigo, foam-flecked water. 

But with the afternoon heat the wind gradually lessens in force lessens 
to a positive calm an hour before sunset ; and the waters of the lake so easily 
aroused are as quickly and as easily appeased. As the wind diminishes in 
force the waves grow less and less till they are but a gentle swell or a mere 
ripple. At last, half an hour before sunset, you have the following scene before 
you. The steamer is now travelling smoothly and on an even keel along the 
south-east coast of Nyasa. The eastern sky is a yellowish white, which near 
the horizon becomes a very pale russet pink. The distant range of mountains 
facing the rays of the almost setting sun has its hollows and recesses and 
ravines marked in faint shadows of pinkish-purple, while the parts bathed in 
sunlight are yellowish grey. On the left-hand side of the picture the land 
projects somewhat into the lake in a long spit surmounted with low wooded 
hills, where the ground is reddish-brown dotted with white rocks, and the trees 
are a warm russet green in their lights and mauve-blue in their shadows. In 
the middle of the view, breaking the long line of the water horizon under the 
distant mountains are three warm-tinted blots of brown-pink, that represent 
three islets. 

The water of the lake, however, gives the greatest feast of colour. Its 
ground tint near the horizon is a lemon white, which changes insensibly 
to silver-blue close up to the ship's side. But this immobile sheet of lemon- 
white, melting into palest azure, is scratched here and smeared there (like plush 
which has had the nap brushed the wrong way) with streaks and patches of 
palest amber. The whole effect is that of a great mirror of tarnished silver. 
The amber-white of these disconnected areas of ripples, where the expiring 
breeze faintly ruffles the perfect calm of the reflected sky, resembles the pinkish 
brown stains on a silver surface just becoming discoloured from exposure to 


Presently it will be night with a sky of purple grey studded with pale gold 
specks of stars and planets, all of which will be reflected in the calm lake, 
so that the steamer will seem to be carving her way through a liquid universe. 

In a native village near to a great river there are three Europeans in a hut. 
Although styled genetically a " hut " this native dwelling is of considerable size, 
with a high-peaked thatched roof like a broad-mouthed funnel in shape, the 
straggling ends of the thatch coming down to within a couple of feet of the 
ground and so, to some extent, shielding from the sun the raised verandah of 
grey mud which runs half round the outside. But the low-hanging thatch 
screens the doorway into the hut, making the interior dark even though the 
European occupants have broken small holes in the clay walls to let in a 
little more light from the shaded verandah. Inside, the rafters of palm ribs, 
which form the structure of the roof, are all shiny cockroach-black with the 
smoke of many months which has ascended to the roof and found its way 
out through the thatch. Cobwebs, covered with soot, hang from the rafters. 

Of the three white men inside this hut two are well and hearty faces red, 

and arms sun-tanned and are seated upon empty provision cases : the third is 
sick unto death, with dull eyes, haggard cheeks and if there is daylight enough 
to see it by a complexion of yellowish-grey. He is stretched on a low camp 
bed, is dressed in a dirty sleeping suit, and partially covered by two trade 
blankets of garish red, blue and yellow, one of which slips untidily to the dusty 
floor of hardened earth. The two healthy men are smoking pipes vigorously ; 
but the smell of strong Boer tobacco is not sufficient to disguise the nauseous 
odours of the sick room, and the fumes of whisky, which arise both from an 
uncorked bottle and from the leavings of whisky and water in two enamelled- 
iron cups. 

By the sick man's bedside on a deal box is an enamelled-iron basin con- 
taining grey gruel-like chicken broth, in which large bits of ship's biscuit are 
floating. The soup has been made evidently without skill or care, for it has the 
yellow chicken fat floating on the top and even an occasional drowned feather 
attached to the sodden remnants of fowl. Also, there are a cup containing 
strong whisky and water (untouched), a long-necked bottle of lime juice, and 
a phial of Quinine pills. 

The sick man turns ever and anon to the further side of the bed to vomit, 
and after one of these attacks he groans with the agony of futile nausea.' 
Lheer up, old chap !" says one of his companions, " we sent yesterday morning 
to the doctor-man at the mission station : it is only about thirty miles away and 
he ought to be here this afternoon." The doorway is darkened for a moment 
but not with the doctor's advent. A negro girl has stooped under the thatch to 
enter through the low doorway and for a moment obscures the dubious light 
refracted from the small piece of blazing sun-lit ground visible under the eaves. 
" Here, git, you black slut," shouts one of the men (he with the sand}- beard and 
pockmarked face), lifting up a short whip of hippopotamus hide to enforce his 
" Hold on," says the other healthy one, a tall brawny Cornishman, 
with dark eyes and black beard, " it is only his girl ; harmless enough too, poor 
thing, considering she has known him more 'n a fortnight. It 's wonderful what 
these nigger girls '11 do for a white man/' 

" There are all sorts of girls, there is every kind of girl, 

There are some that are foolish, and many that are wise, 
You can trust them all, no doubt, but be careful to look out 
For the harmless little girlie with the downcast eyes," 


sings the pockmarked man, in reminiscence of a smoking concert he attended 
months ago at Salisbury, before he and his companions tramped northwards 
across the Zambezi in search of gold and any other profitable discoveries they 
might make in the unknown North. 

The woman, who has taken little or no notice of the other men, has 
seated herself on the floor near the sick man's bed and is fanning away 
the flies from his death-like face. He scarcely notices this attention, con- 
tinuing as before to roll his head languidly across the rolled-up coat which 
serves as pillow. 

Outside the hut it is a bright world enough a sky of pure cobalt, with 
white cumulus clouds moving across it before a pleasant breeze. Except 
where these clouds cast a momentary shadow there is a flood of sunshine, 
making the dry thatched roofs of the round haycock houses glitter; and 
as to the bare beaten ground of the village site, in this strong glare of 
sunshine you would hardly realise it is mere red clay : it has an effulgent 
blaze of flame -tinted white except where objects cast on it circumscribed 
shadows of a purple black. 

Two or three native curs, of the usual fox-coloured, pariah type, lie sleeping 
or grubbing for fleas in the sunshine. A lank, wretched-looking mangy bitch, 
with open sores on her ears and fly-infested dugs, trails herself wearily from hut 
to hut, seeking food, but only to be repulsed by kicks from unseen feet, or 
missiles hurled by unseen hands. Little chocolate -coloured children are 
playing in the dust, or baking in the sun clay images they have made 
with dust and water. Most of the houses have attached to them a woman's 
compound at the back, fenced in with a high reed fence. If you entered 
this compound from the verandah, or peeped over the high fence, you would 
see cheerful garrulous women engaged in preparing food. A steady " thud, 
thud ! ' " thud, thud ! " comes from one group of hearty girls with plump 
upstanding breasts who, glistening with perspiration, are alternately pounding 
corn in a wooden mortar shaped like a dice box. Each in turn, as she takes 
the pestle, spits on her hands and thumps the heavy piece of wood up and 
down on the bruised corn. Another woman is grinding meal on the surface 
of a large flat stone by means of a smaller stone which is smooth and round ; 
again, another wife with the aid of other flattened stones bruises green herbs 
mixed with oil and salt into a savoury spinach. In all the compounds and 
about the streets are hens and broods of chickens. Mongrel game-cocks are 
sheltering themselves from the heat under shaded verandahs, which they share 
with plump goats of small size and diverse colours white, black, chestnut, grey ; 
black and white, white and chestnut, grey and white. The sun-smitten village 
at high noon is silent but for the low-toned talk of the women, of the " thud, 
thud " of the corn-mortars, the baaing and bleating of an imprisoned kid, or the 
sudden yelp of the half-starved bitch when a missile strikes her. 

Beyond the collection of haycock huts (occupying perhaps a half square 
mile in area), is a fringe of bananas, and beyond the bananas from one point 
of view the glint of a river, and across the river a belt of black-green forest. 
In other directions, away from the water-side is red rising ground sprinkled 
with scrubby thin-foliaged trees, among which here and there grows a huge 
gouty baobab, showing at this season digitate leaves like a horse-chestnut's, 
and large tarnished white flowers that depend by a straight string-like stalk 
from the pink and glabrous branches. 

Noon declines to afternoon. The two men who are whole still remain in 


the hut; the sick man is obviously sicker than before. His face is an obscure 
yellow, he has ceased to vomit, he is no longer restless, he lies in a stupor, 
breathing stertorously. The black-bearded man smokes, and reads a tattered 
novelette, glancing from time to time uneasily at the one who lies so ill, but 
trying to still his anxiety by assuring himself "that the poor beggar has got 
to sleep at last." The man with the red hair and pockmarked cheeks sings 
snatches of music-hall songs at intervals and drinks whisky and water, trying 
hard to keep up his courage. For he is in a cold-sweating dread of death by 
fever a death which can come so quickly. A month ago there were four of 
them, all in riotous health, revelling in the excitements of exploring a new 
country, confident that they had found traces of gold, merrily slaughtering 
buffalo, eland, kudu and sable ; sometimes' after elephant with the thought of the 
hundreds of pounds' worth of ivory they might secure with a few lucky shots ; 
killing "hippo" in the river and collecting their great curved tusks for subsequent 
sale at a far-off trading station ; trafficking with the natives in the flesh of all 
the beasts they slew and getting in exchange the unwholesome native meal, 
bunches of plantains, calabashes of honey, red peppers, rice, sugar cane, fowls, 
eggs, and goat's milk. They had not treated the natives badly, and the natives 
in a kind of way liked these rough pioneers who offered no violence beyond an 
occasional kick, who were successful in sport and consequently generous in 
meat distribution, and who gave them occasional "tots" of " kachaso," 1 and 
paid for the temporary allotment of native wives in pinches of gunpowder, 
handfuls of caps, yards of cloth, old blankets and clasp knives. Yes ; a month 
ago they were having a very good time, they were not even hampered by the 
slight restraints over their natural instincts which might exist in Mashonaland. 
They had found obvious signs of payable gold" an ounce to the ton if only 
machinery could be got up there for crushing the rock "they would return to 
the south and float a company ; meantime they had intended to see a little more 
of this bounteous land blessed with an abundant rainfall, a rich soil, a luxuriant 
vegetation, a friendly people, grand sport, and heaps of food ; and then, all at 
once, one of them after a bottle of whisky overnight and a drenching in a 
thunderstorm next day, complains of a bad pain in his back. A few" hours 
afterwards he commences to vomit, passes black-water, turns bright yellow, 
falls into a stupor, and in two days is dead. "Was it the whisky, or the 
wetting, or neither? It could not be the whisky: good liquor was what was 
wanted to counteract this deadly climate ; no, it could not be the whisky ; on 
the contrary," thought the man who turns these thoughts over musingly in his 
mind, "he himself must take more whisky to keep his spirits up. When old 
Sampson was better and could be carried in a hammock, they would all 
make straight for the Lake and the steamers and so pass out of the country, 
perhaps returning to work the gold, perhaps not." 

The heat of the afternoon increases. The man on the bed still snores, the 
woman still fans, Blackbeard has fallen asleep over his novelette and Redhead 
over his whisky and water. The silence of the village is suddenly broken by a 
sound of voices and the tramp of feet. Blackbeard wakes up, rubs his eyes 
and staggers out into the sunshine to greet a thin wiry European with bright 
eyes and a decided manner. "Oh ... you are the Mission doctor, aren't you? 
Come in in here. He is pretty bad, poor chap, but I expect you will do him 
a lot of good." . 

It is early evening. The two mining prospectors have left the hut, advised 

1 Fire- water whisky. 



by the doctor to chuck their whisky bottles into the river and go out shooting. 
The former piece of advice they have not followed, but the latter they have 
gladly adopted, frightened at the aspect of their dying comrade, and only too 
glad to leave the responsibility of his care to the Mission doctor, who for 
two hours has tried all he knows to restore the patient to consciousness, without 
success. The woman has helped him as far as she was able, the doctor much 
too anxious about his patient to concern himself about the propriety of her 
position in the case. Outside the hut there is a cheerful noise of the awakening 
village settling down to its evening meal. Flights of spurwinged geese, black 
storks and white egrets pass in varied flocks and phalanxes across the rosy 
western sky. But inside, by the light of two candles stuck in bottles, which the 
doctor has lit to replace the daylight, it may be seen that his patient is nearing 
the end; yet as the end comes there is a momentary return to consciousness. 
The stertorous breathing has given way to a scarcely perceptible respiration, and 
as the doctor applies further means of restoration a sudden brightness and light 
of recognition come into the dull eyes. The expiring man tries to raise 
his head cannot ! and to speak but no sound comes from his whitened 
lips, then one long drawn bubbling sigh and the end has come. 

A great, untidy, Arab town near the shores of a lake, the blue waters of 
which can be seen over the unequal ground of the village outskirts and through 
a fringe of wind-blown banana trees. On one of the little squares of blue 
water thus framed in by dark-green fronds may be seen part of a dau at anchor 
with a tall, clumsy, brown mast, thick rigging, and a hull somewhat gaudily 

painted in black and pink. We 
are sitting under the broad 
verandah of a large house, a 
house which is in reality no- 
thing but a structure of timber 
and lath covered with a thick 
coating of black mud; but the 
mud has been so well laid on 
and is so smooth, time-worn 
and shiny as to have the 
appearance of very dark stone. 
The roof is of thatch, descend- 
ing from some forty, feet above 
the ground to scarcely more 
than five feet over the edge of 
the verandah. This verandah 
only occupies one side of the 
house and is large enough to 
be what it is an outer hall 
of audience; 1 fifteen feet broad and with a raised dais of polished mud on 
either side of the passage which crosses the verandah to enter the main 
dwelling. As the interior rooms of this house are mostly unfurnished with 
windows and only derive their light from the central passage (which has an 
open door at either end) they are quite dark inside and even in the daytime 
little Arab lamps (earthenware saucers filled with oil and with cotton wicks) 
have to be lighted to see one's way about. 

1 Called by Zanzibaris "baraza."' 



In front of the house, in the open public square, is a fine cocoanut tree 
\vhich has been planted from a cocoanut brought from the East Coast of Africa. 
Across the square a ramshackle building is pointed out as the Mosque, and 
Arabs of all shades of negro blackness and of European whiteness are 
walking backwards and forwards through the blazing sunshine to perform their 
ablutions in the court of the Mosque, or to enter the building to pray. 

The Sultan of the place, in one of whose houses we are tarrying (in 
imagination) is about to have his noontide meal, and asks us to join. He 
himself is seated on a mattress placed on a mud bench against the wall under 
the verandah, and is clothed in a long, white garment reaching down to his heels, 
over which he wears a sleeveless, orange-coloured waistcoat richly embroidered 
with silver, a shawl-sash wound round his waist, and over one shoulder a light 
Indian cloth of chequered pattern brightly fringed. Through the shawl 
waistband peep out the hilt and part of the scabbard of one of those ornamental 
curved daggers which are worn at Zanzibar and in the Persian Gulf; this hilt 
and scabbard are of richly-chased silver. 

The Sultan has a face which in some respects is prepossessing. It is 
certainly not cruel though he is known to have done many cruel things. The 
once fine eyes are somewhat clouded with premature age and the exhaustion of 
a polygamist ; but there are a sensitiveness and refinement about the purple- 
lipped mouth and well-shaped chin, the outlines of which can be seen through 
the thin grey beard. The hands have slender, knotted fingers and the nails are 
short and exquisitely kept. 

The taking of food is preceded by the washing of hands. Attendants 
who are either black coast Arabs, gorgeously habited in embroidered garments 
of black, silver and gold, or else dirty, blear-eyed, negro boys, scarcely clothed 
at all and with grey, scurvy skins (the dirtiest and stupidest-looking of these 
boys is the Sultan's factotum in the household and carries his keys on a string 
round his lean neck) come to us with brass ewers and basins. The ewers are 
long-spouted, like coffee pots. Water is poured over our hands, which after 
rinsing we dry as best we can on our pocket handkerchiefs, while the Sultan 
wipes his on his Indian cloth which is slung over his shoulder and is used 
indifferently as napkin and handkerchief. Then a brass platter of large 
size, covered with a pyramid of steaming rice, is placed on the dais and 
alongside it an earthenware pot (very hot) containing curried chicken. The 
Sultan having rolled up a ball of rice between his fingers and dipped it into the 
curry, invites us to do the same. Our fingers are scalded by the rice ; but it 
must be admitted that the flavour of the curry is excellent. When this course 
is finished a bowl of pigeons stewed with lentils is brought on, and this also 
is eaten by the aid of our fingers. For drink we have cold, pure water from 
an earthenware cooler, and the milk of unripe cocoanuts. 

The meal finishes with bananas and roasted ground nuts. Then more 
washing of hands and we recline on some dirty cushions or on lion skins, whilst 
the Sultan gives audience to messengers, courtiers and new arrivals. Some of 
these last-named glance suspiciously at us and are not disposed to be very 
communicative about their recent experiences in the presence of Europeans. 
The Sultan sees this and enjoys the humour of the situation. He is himself 
indifferent to the slave trade, having secured his modest competence years ago 
and now caring for nothing more than the friendship of European potentates, 
which will enable him to finish his days in peace and tranquillity. After he 
is gone he knows that in all probability there will be no other Sultan in his 


place, but a European official. In his heart of hearts, of course, he sees no 
harm in the slave trade. He is well aware that he is entertaining at one and 
the same time European officials of high standing and five or six powerful 
Arab slave dealers, and that his large, rambling metropolis of several square 
miles in area harbours simultaneously not only the Europeans and their porters, 
servants, and escort, but perhaps three hundred raw slaves from the Lualaba. 
But he is not going to give his compatriots away unless they make fools of 
themselves by any attempt to molest the Europeans, in which case, and in 
an>' case if it comes to a choice of sides, he will take the part of the European. 
In his dull way this unlettered man, who has read little else than the Koran 
and a few Arab books of obscenities, or of fortune-telling, has grasped the fact 
that from their own inherent faults and centuries of wrong-doing, Islam and 
Arab civilisation must yield the first place to the religion and influence of the 
European. He has no prejudice against Christianity on the contrary, perhaps 
a greater belief in its supernatural character than some of the Englishmen he 
entertains from time to time but if his inchoate thoughts could be interpreted 
in one sentence it would be " Not in our time, O Lord ! " The change must 
come but may it come after his death. Meantime he hopes that you will not 
drive home too far the logic of your rule. When he is gone the Christian 
missionary may come and build there, but while he lasts he prefers to see 
nothing but the ramshackle mosques of his own faith and to have his half- 
caste children taught in the Arab fashion. He points out some to you who are 
sitting in the verandah of an opposite hut, under the shade of a knot of papaw 
trees ; a hideous old negroid Arab with a dark skin and pockmarked face is 
teaching them to read. Each child has a smooth wooden board with a long 
handle, something like a hand-mirror in shape. The surface of this board is 
whitened with a thin coating of porcelain clay ; and Arab letters, verses of the 
Koran and sentences for parsing are written on it by means of a reed pen 
dipped in ink or by a piece of charcoal. 

There is a certain pathos about this uneducated old coast Arab who has been 
a notable man in his day as conqueror and slave raider but who has had 
sufficient appreciation of the value of well-doing not to be always a slave raider, 
who has sought to inspire a certain amount of affection among the populations 
he enslaved. These in time have come to regard him as their natural 
sovereign, though the older generation can remember his first appearance in the 
country as an Arab adventurer at the head of a band of slavers. His soldiers, 
most of them now recruited from amongst his negro subjects, cheerfully raid the 
territories of other chiefs in the interior, but slave raiding within his own especial 
kingdom has long since ceased and a certain degree of order and security has 
been established. Let us set off against the crimes of his early manhood the 
good he has done subsequently by introducing from Zanzibar the cocoanut- 
palm, the lime tree, the orange, good white rice, onions, cucumbers and other 
useful products of the East; by sternly repressing cannibalism, abolishing 
witchcraft trials, improving the architecture, and teaching many simple arts and 
inducing the negroes to clothe their somewhat extravagant nudity in seemly, 
tasteful garments. 

He has known Livingstone and may even have secured a good word from 
that Apostle of Africa for hospitality and for relative humanity, as compared 
to other and wickeder Arabs. This casual mention of him in the book of the 
great "Dottori" 1 will cause him a childish pleasure if you point it out. "Has 

1 The name by which Livingstone is almost universally known in Central Africa. 


2 5 

the ' Ouini ' read this book?" he asks. "Yes," you reply. "Then the Queen 
has seen my name?" and this reflection apparently causes him much satisfaction, 
for he repeats the observation to himself at intervals and even forces it on the 
attention of a sullen-looking black-browed Maskat Arab who is waiting in 
the barasa to settle with the Sultan the amount of tribute he must pay for 
the passage of his slave and ivory caravan across the territory arid over the lake 
by means of the Sultan's daus. 

I will transport you to the south end of Lake Tanganyika. 
In the background to this scene is a fine mountain which, like most Central 
African mountains, presents from below the appearance of a cake that has been 


cut and is crumbling. There is first of all the granite wall of undulating out- 
line bearing a thin line of trees along its crest. Then half-way down its slope 
begins below the bare shining rock walls a ribbed slope of debris, which slope 
is covered with luxuriant purple-green forest : the whole estoinpc with a film of 
blue atmosphere, which sets it back to its proper place in the distance, so that 
if you half close your eyes the general effect of this mountain mass is a greyish 

As if in abrupt contrast to this upreared mass of rocks and trees towering 
at least 4000 feet into the sky is a slice of bright green swamp, separating the 
mountain slopes from the lake water. The foreground to this picture is the 
broad estuary of a river at its entrance to Tanganyika. On your right hand 


you have a spit of yellow sand which separates the unruffled mirror of this calm 
water from the boisterous waves of the open lake. These are greenish blue 
with brown marblings and muddy white crests where they are receiving the 
alluvium of the river ; and fierce indigo streaked with blazing white foam where 
the lake is open, deep and wind-swept. On your left hand the estuary of this 

river (where the water is a speckless 
mirror of the blue sky and its 
cream -white grey- shadowed clouds) 
is studded with many green islets of 
papyrus and girt with hedges of tall 
reeds the reeds with the white 
plumes and pointed dagger leaves 
that I have once or twice before 

This conjunction of mountain, river, 
marsh, estuary, sandspit, open lake 
and papyrus tangle brings about such 
a congeries of bird life that I have 
thought it worth the trouble to bring 
you all the way to Tanganyika to 

ON TANGANYIKA gaze at this huge aviary. And al- 

though on many of these journeys 

you are supposed to be looking on the scene with the eye of the spirit 
and not of the flesh, and therefore able to see Nature undisturbed by the 
presence of man, still on this spot you might stand in actuality, as I have 
stood, and, provided you did not fire a gun, see this collection of birds as 
though they were enclosed in some vast Zoological Gardens. For some 
cause or other has brought the fish down from the upper reaches of the 
stream or up from the lake. The water of the estuary is of unruffled 
smoothness. Most waterbirds detest the rough waves of the open lake, or 
the current of a rapid stream ; even now if you turn your eyes lakewards 
the only birds you will see are small grey gulls with black barred faces and 
black tipped wings "and the large scissor-billed terns (grey and white with 
crimson beaks) flying with seeming aimlessness over the troubled waters. 
But in the estuary, what an assemblage ! There are pelicans of grey, white 
and salmon pink, with yellow pouches, riding the water like swans, replete 
with fish and idly floating. Egyptian geese (fawn-coloured, white, and green- 
bronze) ; spur winged geese (bronze-green, white shouldered, white flecked, and 
red cheeked) ; African teal (coloured much like the English teal) ; a small jet 
black pochard with a black crest and yellow eyes ; whistling tree duck (which 
are black and white, zebra-barred, and chestnut) ; other tree ducks (chestnut and 
white) ; that huge Sarcidiornis (a monstrous duck with a knobbed beak, a 
spurred wing, and a beautiful plumage of white and bronzed-blue with a green- 
blue speculum in the secondaries of the wing). All these ducks and geese 
hang about the fringe of the reeds and the papyrus. The ducks are diving 
for fish, but the geese are more inclined to browse off the water-weed. Every 
now and then there is a disturbance, and the reflexions of the water are broken 
by a thousand ripples as the ducks scutter over the surface or the geese rise 
with much clamour for a circling flight. Farthest away of all the birds (for 
they are always shy) is a long file of rosy flamingoes sifting the water 
for small fish and molluscs. They are so far off that their movements are 


scarcely perceptible ; against the green background of the marsh they look like 
a vast fringe of pale pink azaleas in full blossom. 

Small bronze-green cormorants are plunging into the water for fish, diving 
and swimming under water, and flying away. Fish-catching on a more modest 
scale and quite close to where we stand is being carried on by black and white 
Ceryle kingfishers, who with their bodies nearly erect and the head and beak 
directed downwards will poise themselves in the air with rapidly fluttering wings 
and then dart unerringly head foremost on some tiny fish under the surface of 
the water. 

On the sandspit two dainty crowned cranes are pacing the sand and the 
scattered wiry grass looking for locusts. Even at this distance and especially 
if you use a glass you can distinguish the details of their coloration. It 
will be seen that they have a short, finely-shaped beak of slatey black, a 
large eye of bluish grey, surrounded by a black ring ; and the cheeks covered 
with bare porcelain-like skin, pure white, which is much enhanced by an 
edging of crimson developing below the throat into two bright crimson 
wattles. The head is fitly crowned with a large aigrette of golden filaments, 
tipped with black. The neck with its long hackles is dove grey. The back 
and the breast are slate colour, the mass of the wing is snow white, and its 
huge broadened pinions are reddish chocolate, the white secondaries being 
prolonged into a beautiful golden fringe hanging graceful!}' over the chocolate 
quill feathers. 

The quacking of the ducks, the loud cries of the geese and the compound 
sound of splashings and divings and scuttering flights across the water, are 
dominated from time to time by the ear-piercing screams of a fish eagle, 
perched on one of the taller poles of a fishing weir. The bird is as full of 
fish as he can hold, but yet seems annoyed at the guzzling that is going on 
around him, and so relieves his feelings at odd moments by piercing yells. He 
is a handsome bird head and neck and breast snow white, the rest of the 
plumage chocolate brown. 

Add to the foregoing enumeration of birds stilt plovers of black and white ; 
spur-winged plovers with yellow wattles ; curlew ; sandpipers ; crimson-beaked 
pratincoles; sacred ibis (pure white and indigo-purple); hagedash ibis (irides- 
cent-blue, green, and red-bronze) ; gallinules (verditer blue with red beaks : 
black water-rails with lemon beaks and white pencillings ; black coots ; other 
rails that are blue and green with turned-up white tails ; squacco herons (white 
and fawn-coloured) ; large grey herons ; purple-slate-coloured herons ; bluish- 
gray egrets ; white egrets ; large egrets with feathery plumes ; small egrets with 
snowy bodies and yellow beaks ; Goliath herons (nut-brown and pinkish-grey) ; 
small black storks, with open and serrated beaks ; monstrous bare-headed 
marabu storks ; and dainty lily-trotters 1 (black and white, golden-yellow and 
chocolate-brown) ; and you will still only have got half way through the 
enumeration of this extraordinary congregation of water birds at the estuary 
of the river Lofu, on the south coast of Tanganyika. 

Civilisation. We are going to spend a Sunday at Blantyre, a European 
settlement in the Shire Highlands. Except for the name, however, there is no 
similarity between the little manufacturing town, which was Livingstone's birth- 
place, and the chief focus of European interests here in South Central Africa. 
These are the characteristics of the African Blantyre on a bright Sunday 

1 J'arra Africana. 


morning in May: A glorious blue sky; floods of sunshine; a cool breeze and 
a sparkling freshness in the atmosphere which reminds one of Capetown; clean 
red roads, neat brick houses, purple mountains, and much greenery. 

The organ is giving forth a hymn of Mendelssohn's by way of introit as we 
enter the church, and as, simultaneously, the choir and clergy take their places. 
The Norman architecture of the interior, the stained glass windows, the 
embroidered altar cloths, the brass lecterns and their eagles, the carved altar 
rails, the oak pulpit, the well-appointed seats with scarlet cushions even the 
sunlight checked in its exuberance by passing through the diamond panes 
of the tinted windows produce an effect on the newcomer of absolute astonish- 
ment. He requires to fix his eyes on the black choir in their scarlet and white 
vestments to realise that he is in Africa and not in Edinburgh or Regent's Park. 
The congregation consists mainly of Europeans and the service is in English. 
[The natives will assemble at other hours when worship is conducted in their 
own language.] A short service with good music, well sung by the black choir, 
and a quarter of an hour's sermon: then we are out once more in the sunny 
square, in a temperature not hotter than a mild summer's day at home, 
exchanging greetings with many acquaintances, almost all of whom are habited 
in such clothes as they would wear on a Sunday in Scotland. Some of the men 
turn out in black coats, light trousers, top hats, patent leather boots, white spats 
and brown gloves; and the ladies are wearing silk blouses and cloth skirts, with 
all the furbelows and puffs and pinchings and swellings which were the height 
of the fashion in London not more than four months ago, for there is an 
almost pathetic desire on the part of the Blantyre settlers to keep in touch 
with civilisation. 1 

In the bare, open space which so fittingly surrounds this handsome church, 
groups of mission boys are standing, respectably clothed in not badly-fitting 
European garments and wearing black felt hats. They are conversing in low 
tones, a little afraid of having their remarks overheard by the critical Europeans. 
They have a slight tendency to giggle, of which they are conscious and some- 
what ashamed. A long file of mission girls, modestly and becomingly clad in 
scarlet and white, crosses the square to the native quarters of the mission under 
the guidance of a lady in dove-grey with a black bonnet and a grass-green 
parasol. By way of quaint contrast to these reclaimed guardians of the flock 
is the aboriginal wolf in the persons of some Angoni carriers who, forgetting or 
ignoring that Sunday was a day of rest with the European, are bringing up 
loads from the Upper Shire. Stark naked, all but a tiny square of hide or 
a kilt of tiger-cat tails, with supple, lithe bodies of glistening chocolate (shiny 
with perspiration), with the hair of their heads screwed up into curious little 
tufts by means of straw, they glide past the church with their burdens, alter- 
nately shy and inquisitive ready to drop the burden and dart away if a 
European should address them roughly; on the other hand gazing with all their 
eyes at the wonderfully dressed white women, and the obviously powerful 
" wafumo " z amongst the white men. A smartly-uniformed negro policeman in 
yellow khaki and black fez hurries them off the scene, shocked at their nudity, 
which was his own condition a year ago. 

A good-looking Sikh soldier over on a day's leave from the neighbouring 
garrison, or else accompanying some official as orderly loiters respectfully on 
the fringe of the European crowd. He is in undress and wears a huge blush- 
rose turban, a loose snow-white shirt, a fawn-coloured waistcoat, white paijamas 

1 Blantyre in fact is like an Indian Hill Station. - Chiefs. 


(baggy over the hips but tight-fitting round the calves) and pointed Persian 
shoes of crimson leather. His long, black beard has been rolled up after the 
fashion of the Sikhs, so that it makes a tidy fringe round the jaws from ear to 
ear ; and the black moustache is fiercely curled. 

\\\- walk away home over a smooth road that is vinous-red, as all the earth 
is hereabout. First there is an avenue of sombre cypresses mixed with 
shimmering eucalyptus ; then the road will be bordered by bananas or by the 
gardens of Europeans' houses, with neat fences. In all directions other roads 
branch off, and above the greenery of Indian corn patches, of banana-groves, 
of plantations of conifers, acacias, and eucalyptus, or clumps of Misuko trees, 
can be seen the house-roofs of grey corrugated iron, or rose-pink, where that 
iron has been coloured with anti-corrosive paint. 

Bright moonlight. In a Hyphsene palm forest. Out of the shadow of the 
trees it is almost as bright as day, every detail can be seen in the dry grass- 
even the colours of some few flowers blooming in spite of the dry weather. 
The effect is that of a photograph a little too much devoid of half-tones, being 
sharply divided into bright lights, full of minute detail and deep grey shadows, 
like blots, in which no detail can be descried. It is clear that this forest lies far 
from the haunts of man, for all the palm stems still retain the jagged stems of 
withered fronds. This gives them an untidy and forbidding aspect ; for these 
grey mid-ribs stick out at an angle of forty degrees from the main trunk. The 
faded leaf filaments have long since disappeared from the extremities of the 
dead fronds which themselves are so dry and so lightly attached to the stem 
that a few blows from a stout pole would knock them off and the palm trunk 
would be left bare and smooth. This is the condition of almost all palms near 
a native village in Africa because the natives climb them for the fruit, or more 
often for the sap which they tap at the summit and make into a fermented 
drink. Therefore whenever in tropical Africa you find palms in a forest 
retaining their old fronds from the ground upwards you may know that 
indigenous man is nowhere near. 

Each palm is surmounted by a graceful crown of fan-shaped leaves in an 
almost symmetrical oval mass, radiating from the summit as from a centre. 
The fruit which is clustered thickly on racemes is seen by daylight a bright 
chestnut brown and the size of a Jaffa orange. This brown husk covering an 
ivory nut is faintly sweet to the taste and is adored by elephants. It is on that 
account that I have brought you here to see with the eye of the spirit a herd 
of these survivors of past geological epochs. 

Somehow or other, it seems more fitting that we should see the wild elephant 
by moonlight at the present day. He is like a ghost revisiting the glimpses of 
the moon this huge grey bulk, wrinkled even in babyhood, with his monstrous 
nose, his monstrous ears and his extravagant incisor teeth. 

There! I have hypnotised you, and having suggested the idea of "elephants" 
you declare that you really begin to see huge forms assuming definite outline 
and chiaro-scuro from out of the shadows of the palms. Now you hear the 
noise they make an occasional reverberating rattle through the proboscis as 
they examine objects on the ground half seriously, half playfully ; and the 
swishing they make as they pass through the herbage ; or the rustle of branches 
which are being plucked to be eaten. But they are chiefly bent on the ginger- 
bread nuts of the palms and to attain this, where they hang out of reach, they 
will pause occasionally to butt the palm trees with their flattened foreheads. 


The dried stems and the dead fronds crash down before this jarring blow. If 
the fruit does not fall and the tree is not tilted over at an angle [its crown within 
reach of the animal's trunk], then the great beast will either strive to drag it 
down with his proboscis or to kneel and uproot it with his tusks The elephants 
pause every now and then in their feasting, the mothers to suckle the little ones 
from the two great paps between the fore-legs, a huge bull to caress a young 
female amorously with his twining trunk, or the childless cows to make 
semblance of fighting, and the half-grown young to chase each other with shrill 

But the moon is dropping over to the west. You did not think the moon- 
light could be exceeded in brightness. Yet in the advent of day it is only after 
all a betterment of night. Before the first pale pink light of early dawn the 
moonlight seems an unreality. In a few minutes the moon is no more luminous 
than a round of dirty paper and with the yellow radiance of day the elephants 
cease their gambollings and feasting, form into line, and swing into one of those 
long marches which will carry them over sixty miles of forest, plain and 
mountain to the next halting place in their seeming-purposeful journey. 

There has been a war. The black man trained and taught by the Arab has 
been fighting the black man officered and directed by the European and, not 
unnaturally, has got the worst of it. But the fight has been a stiff one. We 
have had to take that walled town in the red plain, behind which are gleams of 
water and stretches of green swamp interspersed with clumps of raphia palms. 
There has been the preliminary bombardment, the straw huts within the red 
walls have gone up in orange flame and mighty columns of smoke [transparent 
black and opaque yellow according to the material burning] into the heavens 
above and are now falling in a gentle rain of black wisps. Here and there 
a barrel of gunpowder has exploded, or the bursting of a shell has elicited 
a terrible cry from an otherwise stolid, silent enemy. Then there has been the 
first charge up to the clay walls and the inevitable casualties from the enemy's 
fusillade directed through the loop-holes. A white officer has fallen forward on 
his face, revolver in hand, biting the dust literally. He is not dead, he announces 
cheerfully, "Only my arm smashed, I think" ; but a Sikh who is attempting to 
arrange for his transport to the doctor out of the range of the enemy's fire, is 
shot through the heart, and with the last dying instinct swerves his fall to avoid 
falling on the officer's shattered arm. The bulk of the small force of white 
men, Sikhs, and negro soldiers in khaki uniforms and black fezzes, has either 
scaled the clay rampart or has shattered a gateway and burst into the strong- 
hold, and the officer can now swoon away comfortably without much risk of 
dying, as the doctor can be seen in the distance hurrying up his little band 
of native hospital assistants and a couple of hammocks for the transport 
of wounded men. A tremendous rattle of musketry is going on. The native 
guns go off seldom now, but make a loud reverberating boom from the quantity 
of powder with which they are charged ; the Snider rifles, on the other hand, 
give short cracks. From some of the unburnt housetops in the more distant 
part of the town the enemy is still keeping up a dropping fire, and in fact as we 
stand in imagination over the wounded officer we can hear overhead that curious 
" ping," that singing sound of bullets travelling high above our heads. We are 
not out of but under the enemy's range. Gradually the gun fire ceases, though 
every now and then a few more cracking shots will be heard, until the victory is 
complete and absolute, and the place is wholly taken. 


\Yhen there is no longer any doubt about the result the native allies, who 
have hung on the outskirts of the white man's camp, dash forward in skirmish- 
ing order to cut off the fugitives. They are a motley crowd, these " friendlies," 
armed with flint-locks, muzzle-loading guns, old pistols, or with spear and 
assegai, bow and arrow. It would be difficult to tell them from the opposing 
force for the auxiliaries of the Arab are often own brothers to the white man's 
helpers but that each " friendly " has a large piece of white cloth tied round 
the upper part of his left arm. The chief efforts of the Europeans and the 
Sikhs are now directed towards restraining these inconvenient allies who would 
seek to perpetrate on the flying enemy, or on his wounded, the same barbarities 
that the Arabs and their followers recently inflicted on the tribes allied with the 
European which barbarities are the cause of the white man's presence here 
to-day with a country at his back to help him. 

War is always horrible, even if it be waged in a righteous cause, and 
nowhere so horrible as in savage Africa. Let us, as a useful lesson, pick our 
way through this bombarded town as far as the heat of the still burning houses 
will permit. Here amongst the black ashes of a hut is a poor, domestic cat 
frizzled into a ghastly mummy and close to her are numerous broiled rats : all 
alike were unable to escape in time from the burning building. High above 
our heads for some reason I think the saddest sight of all are the homeless 
pigeons, circling round and round unable to settle on the burning roof trees, 
dazed and stupefied with the smoke and occasionally falling down into the 
flames to die. Shrieking fowls are flying in all directions and after them 
excited " friendlies " or porters of the expedition in pursuit, heedless of the hot 
ashes under foot. Our first dead body: a negro soldier of the Administration, 
neatly clad, spick and span in spite of his scramble over the eight-foot wall. 
Soon after entering the town he must have been shot dead and he has fallen 
on his back still grasping his rifle and, strange to say, with a faint smile of 
triumph and no look of pain whatever on the face. A little distance beyond 
him lies a wretched savage who has been killed by a shell. His stomach has 
been torn out and his head split in two. Here and there a black arm or leg 
or a dead face with wide-open eyes may be descried amongst the debris of the 
huts, indicating the presence of others who have fallen in the fight. The doctor 
will presently come and search the shattered huts in case there may be any 
wounded and living requiring attention. 

We have now reached the centremost stronghold of the town, and it is seen 
that great as the conflagration appeared from the outside it has destroyed 
but a small portion of the town. The Sikhs are now busily engaged in 
isolating the burning huts and putting out the fire. The officers have been 
examining the large houses around the Sultan's compound and have brought 
to light an extraordinary number of wretched women and children most of 
them slaves the adults both men and women still weighted with the slave 
stick. 1 

Many of these slaves are entirely naked and utterly barbarous, and all are 
whimpering, not with joy at the prospect of freedom but in the imminent dread 
that they will be immediately killed and eaten by the white men, that being the 
idea implanted in their minds by the Arab. A little apart from the great mass 

1 The slave stick is usually a young tree of heavy wood barked and all the branches removed \\ith 
the exception of a bifurcation at the end. Into this bifurcation the slave's neck is thrust and the two ends 
of the stick are united by an iron band at the back of his neck so that this heavy log is attached to the 
front of the man's body. In this condition he is quite unable to run away. 


of still fettered slaves is an Arab prisoner, his hands tied behind his back, 
kneeling or reclining with his ankles also fastened. There is a slight wound on 
his forehead; his face bears the expression of a caged wolf, his pale yellow skin 
is livid with pain, fear, and hatred. He has lost his round, white cap or fez, 
or turban, and his bald head looks mean and out of keeping with his careful 
clothes, which though soiled in warfare are still neat and presentable. Round 
his neck in a dirty cloth bag hangs a copy of the Koran. 

From such a scene as this I walked away once over the battlefield. The 
fight was ended, but we were only just starting to look for the wounded. It was 
early afternoon; a lovely day, bright sunshine, pale blue sky. A cool breeze 
had blown away the smoke ; apart from the scene of the chief struggle in the 
captured town there was no indication that war was being waged. In a secluded 
part of the precincts amid the scattered vegetation of the village outskirts 
I suddenly came across the body of a fine-looking Angoni, not many minutes 
dead. He might have been fighting on our side; he might have been hired by 
the Arabs as one of their raiders, but someone had killed him with a bullet 
through the head and he had fallen in his tracks, in all his panoply of war, 
scarcely conscious of the object for which he fought. His right hand still 
grasped the stabbing spear, his left still held the ox-hide shield. His throw- 
ing spears had flown from his hand and were scattered on the ground. 
Grimmest sight of all four vultures had already arrived on the scene to 
examine him. Two birds promenaded up and down with a watchful eye, 
ready on noting any sign of returning consciousness to take their departure; 
another bird, somewhat bolder, stood on one leg and inspected him as might 
a thoughtful surgeon; and the fourth whirled in circles on out-spread pinions 
round the body, wishing to settle but frightened, in case after all it was a swoon 
and not a death. 




IX looking through the pictures I have tried to paint in the preceding 
chapter to illustrate the scenery of British Central Africa, it will be noticed 
that I have made no mention of any desert, of any open sandy tract or 
stony region devoid of vegetation. The fact is that so far as my own researches 
and those of other explorers go, British Central Africa, east of the Kafue river, 
holds no desert, no stretch of country that is not more or less covered with 
abundant vegetation. Here 
and there on the line of 
water parting between the 
river systems there may be a 
little harsh scenery where the 
trees are poor and scrubby and 
the plants grow in scattered 
tufts. But, take it as a whole, 
the eastern half of British 
Central Africa is very well 


clothed with vegetation, 
pecially in the Xyasa province. 
There is nowhere any large 
continuous area of thick tropi- 
cal forest such as one sees 
in Western Africa, but in 
favoured districts where the 
soil is permeated with many 
springs there may be an 
occasional patch of woodland 
quite West African in char- 
acter, and not only containing 
oil palms, of the genus Ehch 
'which are usually thought to 
be peculiarly characteristic of 
West Africa), but also not 
a few birds and mammals 
hitherto considered to be con- 
fined in their range to the 
\\ est African region. From 
this and other facts, I am 
sometimes led to believe that 



the whole of Africa was once covered with more or less dense forest, but that 
the climate in the eastern half of the continent being drier than in the west, 
the ravages of the bush fires started by man have made greater headway 
than the reparatory influence of nature. Only in specially favoured tracts 
enjoying exceptional rainfall or else provided with underground springs could 
the forest remain always green and full of sap all the year round, and thus be 
able to choke out the fire or, in the wet season, to make sufficient growth 
to repair the ravages sustained by bush fires. 

We have therefore a well clothed country to deal with ; but our abundant 
vegetation is undoubtedly the cause of malarial fever. The essentially health} 7 


portions of tropical Africa are those like Somaliland, much of the Sudan, a good 
deal of East Africa and all South West Africa, where the rainfall is trifling and 
vegetation is mainly confined to the banks of rivers. 

From observations made and records kept by various officials throughout 
the Protectorate proper and the adjoining regions under the sway of the British 
South Africa Company I should compute the average rainfall of the greater 
part of British Central Africa at 50 inches per annum. But this average 
fluctuates somewhat (according to the remembrances of white men longest 
in the country and the traditions of the natives) ; and I should say that the 
rainfall ranged from 35 inches in years of extreme drought to 60 inches in years 
of excessive rainfall. There are certainly traces of a larger rainfall having once 
prevailed in these countries in past ages. In travelling about British Central 



Africa one is constantly encountering marshes which even in native tradition (to 
say nothing of the geographical evidence) were once large lakes. Again, there 
are fertile depressions which are no longer marshes. Dry stream valleys mark 
the courses of once powerful torrents. This tendency towards decreased 
rainfall is undoubtedly due, in my opinion, to the action of man. It is scarcely 
exaggeration to say that had British Central Africa been left for another couple 
of hundred years simply and solely to the black itlan and the black man had 
continued to exist without thought for the future as he does at present, this 
country would have become treeless, as many portions of it were becoming 
when we embarked on its administration. Livingstone describes in his Last 
Journals the process that is going on in Manyema, to the west of Tanganyika, a 
country once covered with the densest forest. The natives make clearings for 


their plantations. They cut down the trees, leave them to dry and then set fire 
to them and sow their crops amongst the fertilising ashes. The same type of 
forest never grows up again. It is replaced by grass or by a growth of scrubby 
trees trees of a kind which can to a greater extent resist the annual scorching 
of the bush fires. Besides this wanton destruction of forest for the growing of 
food crops (and as a rule the native merely grows one crop of corn and then 
moves off to another patch of virgin soil, leaving the old plantation to be 
covered with grass and weeds) the annual bush fires play a considerable and (if 
unchecked) an increasing part in the disforesting of the country. Even where 
large continuous areas of dense forest remain, so evergreen and full of sap as 
not to burn easily, each year the raging fire will sere and dry and kill those trees 
which are on the forest outskirts. The next year these dead trees are consumed 
by the fire which again dries up and kills another rank ; so year by year the 
forest diminishes in area to extinction, unless protected by happening to grow in 


a deep valley with abrupt cliffs ; though this condition of course restricts its 
area of growth. 

Still, although we must, I think, admit a certain diminution in rainfall owing 
to the decrease of forest or other causes, the rate at which this decrease is going 
on has been exaggerated, and as we come to know the country better and our 
records grow with years of occupation, we see that there are signs of cycles of 
greater and less rain dependent on atmospheric conditions which we have not yet 
realised. The marks on the rocks show that during some ages there has been a 
slight but a very slight fall in Lake Nyasa, varied by periods of extraordinary 
diminution as for instance some seventy years ago when according to the natives' 
traditions the north end of the lake became so shallow between Deep Bay 
and Amelia Bay that a chief and his men waded across where it is now man}' 
fathoms deep. The highest watermark on these polished rocks is perhaps at 
most six feet above the present high levels of the lake in good rainy seasons. 
In years of relative drought Lake Nyasa may be as much as six feet below its 
best rainy season average. This means, of course, that instead of there being 
nine feet of water on the bar of the Shire where that river quits the lake there 
are only three feet ; consequently the navigability of the Shire in the dry 
season becomes much embarrassed and in these bad years it can only be 

navigated all the year round 
by vessels not drawing more 
than one and a half feet. 
Yet we know that in the later 
" fifties " and early " sixties " 
Livingstone constantly travelled 
up and down the Shire on a 
vessel drawing five feet. Even 
in the year 1889 the James 
Stevenson which draws about 
three feet of water was able to 
navigate the Shire through al- 
most all the year up to the 
Murchison falls, while vessels 
of five feet draught have in like 
manner navigated the Upper 
Shire above the falls. But from 
1891 till 1896 the Shire fell 
lower and lower until at last 
not even Chiromo was the limit 
of navigation from the sea, 
but the Pinda rapids near the 
Zambezi, while the Upper Shire 
was practically divided into a 
few navigable stretches with 
very shallow water in between. 
But after the rainy season of 
1 895-96 Lake Nyasa rose to a 
height which had not been 

reached for man}- years and is apparently still continuing to rise. The result is 
that the Lower Shire is now as navigable as it was in Livingstone's da}-, while 
on the Upper Shire main- of our low-lying stations are threatened by the flood 



Similar fluctuations are recorded of Tanganyika ; while in the case of 
Bangvveolo and M \veru fluctuations of level would also seem to occur in cycles. 
The differences between Livingstone's map of Bangweolo and the map made by 
Giraud, the observations of Mr. Joseph Thomson, Mr. Alfred Sharpe, and 
Mr. Poulett Weatherley of the same lake may all be reconciled by this theory 
of a few feet fluctuation in its rise and fall. A few feet, more or less, would 
make the vast lake of M. Giraud the " restricted open water" of Livingstone, and 
the wide marsh with a few open pools conjectured by Sharpe and Thomson. 1 

Of course the average rainfall I have quoted must not be taken as the 
rainfall of each part of British Central Africa. So far as our observations 
go some districts receive no more than 35 inches per annum.' 2 These again, 
especially if they contain mountains of great height like Mianje, may record 
a rainfall exceeding 100 inches. A rainfall of 60 inches is common. 


In consequence of this fairly good supply of rain the country is well watered 
by perennial streams and rivers. At the extreme end of the dry season there 
are streams which dry up though water can almost always be found a short 
distance below the surface. Still compared to other parts of East Central 
Africa the bulk of our rivers and rivulets may be described as perennial, that is 
to say containing running water all the year round. This is not suprising as so 
much of the country is mountainous and in these highlands the rain is spread a 
little less unequally over the area. It may safely be said that above altitudes 
of 4000 feet (and a large proportion of the land is above 4000 feet) no month 
passes without a fall of rain. Even at Zomba where the altitude is only 3000 
feet it is a rare occurrence for no rain to fall in any given month. 

But the year is clearly divided into seasons of rain and drought. The 
rainy season generally begins at the end of the month of November and heavy 
rains fall in December. There is often a short lull about Christmas time, but 

1 Since this passage was penned Mr. Poulett Weatherley, the explorer and sportsman, has thoroughly 
circumnavigated and mapped it. His observations concur rather with those of Livingstone than of Giraud. 

2 A small patch at the south end of Lake Xyasa in one year only received a6 - 62 inches of rain. 


earh- in January the rains recommence and become torrential, continuing to fall 
very heavily until the end of March. April is a delightful month as it is in 
Europe, of alternate showers and sunshine. A little rain falls in May and an 
occasional shower in June. July is the height of the winter cold, dry, spark- 
ling but is never without a few drops of rain. In August there will sometimes 
be a week's rain of a decided character, especially in the highlands. A shower 


or two will follow in September. October is quite the driest month and in low- 
lands passes without a drop of rain, though in the highlands there may be an 
occasional thunder storm. Towards the close of November (the first half being 
terribly hot and dry) the big rains recommence. 

As regards temperature there is considerable variation also dependent on 
altitude. In the valley of the Shire, on the south coast of Lake Nyasa, in the 
great Luangwa Valley and on the Central Zambezi, the heat is frightful just 

\ j; e ; j 
"i I \ 

I " 

:,, "Ife: 

fi ^ 


4 1 

before the rains, registering occasionally temperatures as high as n8 D in the 
shade, though at night time falling to 85, thus rendering it possible to live. In 
the height of the rainy season the range of the thermometer is not so high, but 
the heat is often more unbearable owing to its greater uniformity and the moist- 
ness of the temperature. In the months of January, February, and March the 
thermometer may be 100 in the daytime and only fall to 85 or 90 at night. 


But on the high plateaux and amongst the mountains and these high districts 
after all represent the bulk of our territory the temperature is at all times 
much more tolerable. Such a place as Zomba 1 for instance may be taken as a 
fair sample of the British Central Africa climate. Here during the cold season 
from May till September we have a day temperature not exceeding 75 and 
a night temperature ranging from 40 to 60. In the months of September, 

1 Altitude 3000 feet above the sea. 


October, November the day temperature may rise to 98 and fall at night to 65. 
During the height of the rainy season the day temperature ranges from 75 to 
95 and the night from 65 to 80. 

In the rainy season the wind usually blows from a northerly direction and is 
what one may call a benign wind, being warm and wet. During the dry season 
the cursed south-easter prevails. This hated wind comes up from the South Pole 
and is cold and dry. It is the equivalent of our east wind in England and 
produces much the same effects on health when it blows strongly. In the 
excessively dry months of September, October, and November this wind blow- 
ing across large areas of burnt plain where the bush fires have destroyed the 
vegetation and the sun has baked the soil has a bad effect on cultivated crops. 
It seres the leaves and causes many delicate plants to wither. -Happily it soon 
loses its effect by passing over the mountains which are always attended by 
watery vapour. When the south wind prevails there is a curious mistiness in 
the atmosphere. This is partly caused by the diffused smoke of the bush fires, 
but it is also due to some other causes not yet explained. At this time of the 
year mists often prevail to a striking extent in the early morning. These are 
similar to the " smokes " which are so marked a feature in the dry season on the 


West Coast of Africa. One understands how these dense fogs occur on any 
large river or lake, for instance. The temperature of the water is much higher 
than that of the air in the early morning, and so one may see clouds and vapour 
rising from the water surface, just as though it were boiling, and these gradually 
form low dense fogs which, minus the addition of smoke, are quite as thick as 
those we are accustomed to in the Thames Valley, which no doubt arise from 
the same cause. 

One of the accompanying maps will give some idea of the distribution of 
the rainfall, and the names, length, and navigability of the more important 
streams. It might be mentioned that almost all the streams given in this map 
are perennial as far as our knowledge of them goes. Another map gives the 
relative height of the land and the names and altitudes of the principal 
mountain ranges. Only a few of these latter require special mention. So far 
as we yet know the highest mountain in British Central Africa is Mlanje, at its 
extreme south-eastern corner. Mlanje consists of a huge plateau from which 
again rise mountain peaks representing ancient volcanoes. It reaches at its 
highest point an altitude of 9683 feet. The summit was scaled by Mr Sharpe 
and Captain Manning in 1895. Much of the up-reared mass, which is about 
200 square miles in area, exceeds an altitude of 6oco feet and is eminently 
habitable. The Shire Highlands or the district between the Ruo, the Shire 



^ A ^ 

ON I'm-: rri KR RT 



and Lake Chihva are a mass of beautiful hills ranging from 3000 feet to 
nearly 7000 feet in height. The highest mountain in the Shire Highlands 
is Mount Zomba. This is a smaller mass than Mlanje but very similar to it 
in shape and arrangement. Like Mlanje it is a large plateau but its higher 
peaks are rather the up-reared edges of the plateau (like the rim of a dish) 
than independent cones that rise from the centre. The highest point of 
Zomba is computed to attain an altitude of 6900 odd feet. It may turn out 
on more careful investigation to actually reach 7000 feet. In Southern 
Angoniland, in the south-western portion of the Protectorate, Mount Dedza 
is computed at 7000 feet and other high mountains like Chongoni are not far 
off in altitude. In the mountains to the west of Lake Nyasa the higher peaks 
of the lofty Nyika plateau reach to over 8000 feet in height. The average 
altitude of the Nyika plateau is 7000 feet. One or two points on the Nyasl- 
Tanganyika plateau may touch 7000 feet and likewise in the northern part 
of the Muchinga (Lukinga) mountains west of the river Luangwa. Elsewhere 


in British Central Africa, in the basin of the Kafue and Lunsefwa rivers, and 
to the west of Lake Bangweolo there is probably no greater altitude 'than 
6000 feet. 

Although they are not in British territory and therefore not within the 
scope of this book, a passing mention should be made of the Livingstone 
Mountains which border the north-east coast of Lake Nyasa and extend 
under various names to the south end of Lake Rukwa. They reach to 
altitudes which possibly slightly exceed that of Mlanje and come very near 
to 10,000 -feet. 

This is pre-eminently a country of great lakes. Lake Tanganyika is over 400 
miles in length with a breadth varying from 60 to 30 miles. "Lake Nyasa is 360 
miles long with a greatest breadth of 40 miles and a least breadth of 15. Lake 
Bangweolo 1 is of such uncertain area that it is useless to give any guess at the 

The name of Bangweolo is quite unknown to the natives, and must have been given by 
Livingstone under some misapprehension. By the surrounding peoples it is known as " Liemlni 

Mweru,' o^ "Nyanja": more often as "Mweru." .Mr. Alfred Sharpe conjectures that the nanu 

^Bangweplo may have arisen from the combination of " Pa-mweru " or "Pa-nmehr' ("r" and 

"1" are interchangeable in most African dialects) meaning "at Mweru." The natives are verv much 

addicted to prefixing the locative prefix "Pa" to names of places. In the same wav Livingston- 

4 6 


mileage of its open surface but it must contain at least 1500 square miles of 
navigable water. Lake Mweru is about 68 miles long by 24 broad. Lake 
I'hihva in the extreme south-east is also of varying extent according to the 
rainy season or dry season ; but it is as a rule about 50 miles long by 1 5 
broad. The salt lake Mweru which lies between the great Mweru Lake and 
Tanganyika is chiefly a marsh with a few open pools about 35 miles long 
by 20 broad. North of Lake Chilwa and separated from it by only a few 
miles of sandy ridge is Lake Chiuta, the source of the river Lujenda. 
Chiuta is about 40 miles long with a breadth which nowhere exceeds eight 
miles and sometimes shrinks to two. In the Lubisa country to the west of the 


Luangwa there is a small mountain lakelet about 40 square miles in area, which 
was called Lake Moir by its discoverer, Mr. Joseph Thomson. Lastly, may be 
mentioned Lake Malombe through which the Upper Shire flows. This lake had 
an area in 1893 of about 100 square miles ; but in 1894 and in the succeeding 
years a large sand island grew up in the centre which became covered with reeds, 
and the lake as I last saw it was little more than a broad channel of the Shire 
divided by an enormous, flat, reed-covered island from a narrower channel or 
back-water to the west. There is every sign that in spite of the great rise in 
Lake Xyasa this island will hold its own. We shall then witness the remarkable 

himself called the lakelet Malombe, " Pa- Malombe." The root "-('//,'' or " -e/u" is a very old 
Bantu word for "open water." With a different prefix it reappears far to the North as " Rueru, 
one of the native names of the Albert Nvanza. It would seem to be connected with the root 
"white." It might be mentioned, however, that Mr. I'oulett Weatherley appears to have heard the name 
il Bangweulu " in use. 


f E .A N 


fact that in a little more than a year a lake which has existed beyond the 
memory of man has suddenly been resolved into a sandy marsh and a broad 
riv r er channel. 

I think I have enumerated all the known permanent lakes of the country, 
though I should not be surprised if travellers who read this book came forward 
and said, "You have forgotten such and such a lake in the Chambezi Valley, or 
the small lakelet bet\veen Chilwa and Mlanje, or the great sheet of open water 
on the Upper Tuchila, or such and such a lake in the Luangwa Basin." None 
of these sheets of water, however, as far as is yet known, have any permanent 
existence. They are only the creation of the rainy season floods. Seen at that 
time, of course, their existence is recorded ; in the dry season they would be 
found either not to exist at all or to be confined to a patch of marsh. There 
were lakes atone time, undoubtedly, near the junction of the Ruo and the Shire 
(the Elephant Marsh) and at the junction of the Shire and Zambezi (Morambala 
Marsh) ; but in the course of time the alluvium of the rivers, together, even, 

i HE i.iKunn.A I,ORI;K. MI.ANJE 

with a slight upheaval of the ground, or more probably still the deeper cutting 
of the river-channel have turned these former lakes into marshes or vast extents 
of dry alluvial soil. In like manner Xyasa was evidently united not many 
centuries ago with Lake Malombe ; and it may be, also, that Lake Chilwa was 
joined w r ith Lake Chiuta and was then the head waters of the great Lujenda- 
Ruvuma river. Much of the decrease in volume of the great lakes must be 
attributed to a slow and slight process of upheaval which has caused their 
\vaters to more rapidly drain away ; but the disappearance of these shallow lakes 
along the courses of the rivers is chiefly due to the rivers having in course of 
time cut their channels deeper, so that the lakes which formerly represented 
their overflow have their bottoms now removed even above flood limit. 

The geology of British Central Africa would appear to be relatively simple. 
The commonest formation, perhaps, is a mixture of metamorphic rocks, 
grauisackc, clay -slates, gneiss and schists. This prevails over much of the 
country lying between the west of Lake Nyasa and the Luapula River, on the 
Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, in parts of the Shire Highlands, and north of the 
Zambezi. The valleys of the great and sluggish rivers, however, (the Shire, 


the Chambezi, the Luangvva) contain an upper stratum of alluvial deposit where 
the valleys are broad and the rocks do not strike through. The principal 
mountain ranges are mostly granite ; and granite with its upper layers often 
rotten and even turned into red ferruginous clay constitutes the formation of 
much of the Shire Highlands. There is an outcrop of sandstone on the north- 
west and north-east coasts of Lake Nyasa (Mount Waller and the hills of 
Amelia Bay are examples) ; a little way back from the lake shore at the north 
end (in German territory) ; to the west of the River Shire near the Portuguese 
frontier ; at the south end of Tanganyika ; and all round about Lake Mweru 
and in the countries adjoining the River Luapula. Volcanic lavas and tuffs are 
present on parts of the upper plateau of Mlanje and at the north end of Lake 


Xyasa. There is a good deal of quartz in the mountains to the west of Lake 
Nyasa, especially to the south-west, and in parts of the Shire Highlands (such 
as Mlanje). The low flat hills in the Upper Shire district are composed of 
marble which yields a very good building lime. Much the same lime is also 
obtained from places on the west coast of Lake Nyasa, where there must be 
likewise a kind of limestone amongst the low hills near the lake shore. The 
surface of much of the low-lying country on the banks of the Upper Shire is 
little else than a deposit of the shells of molluscs mixed with black vegetable 

This black "cotton " soil, which is usually extremely rich for cultivation, and 
is so much valued in India, is found plentifully in many stream valleys and 
depressions, especially in the Nyasaland provinces, and is classed by me as 

On the east coast of Lake Nyasa, a few miles inland from Msumbo and 
Chisanga (Stations of the Universities Mission), a soap stone has been found by 



Commander Cullen, R.N.R., 1 who had noticed that the natives made use of this 
stone in building the mission church at Chisanga. This soap stone, according to 
Commander Cullen, is the same as that found in parts of Europe and used as a 
lubricant packing by engineers. When prepared for this purpose it is worth 8 
a ton. It is quite easily worked, can be cut with a knife, and is not much if at 
all affected by weather. 

In the sandstone formation of the West Shire district and round the northern 
half of Lake Xyasa, coal is found. On the surface it is a little shaley, but there 


is evidence that good combustible coal lies underneath. In the Marimba and 
Central Angoniland districts, also in the mountains of the West Nyasa coast 
region, and in parts of the Shire Highlands, a gold-bearing quartz exists. 2 
Alluvial gold is reported to exist on the Northern Angoni plateau, in the West 
Nyasa district, and at the head-waters of the River Bua (Central Angoniland), 
just within the Protectorate. In the valleys of the rivers flowing south to the 
Zambezi (in Mpezeni's country) gold really does exist, and was worked at 
Alisale by the half-caste Portuguese in the last, and in part of the present 
century. Although there are many reports that payable gold has been found in 

^ Senior Naval Officer in the service of the B.C. A. Administration. 

- Between Xkata Bay and Sisya. The reef here is >aid to have slate walls. 



the rock, which only needs the requisite machinery to crush out, at anything 
from 10 dvvts. to I oz. per ton, no conclusive evidence has yet been offered to 
support these statements by specimens which can be submitted to analysis. In 
1889, however, long before Europeans turned their eyes in this direction, the old 
Jumbe of Kotakota told me that the quartz in his country contained gold, and 


soon afterwards he entered into an agreement with the African Lakes Company 
that this gold should be worked. The Lakes Company turned over their 
agreement to the British South Africa Company, on whose account prospectors 
have entered the Marimba district. 

Specimens of something very like cinnabar were once submitted to Mr. 
Sharpe and myself for examination. They came from the country to the west 
of the Lower Shire. We attempted an analysis but although there seemed to 
be traces of mercury in the pan we could not authoritatively state that the 


substance was cinnabar. Since that time no further specimens have reached us. 
It is beyond dispute that the country of Katanga is rich in copper and also 
possesses gold. The copper of Katanga, however, is widely spread in a currency 
of ingots over South Central Africa. Malachite also comes from that region. 
There is no reason why this copper should not also be found in the same 
formation to the east of the river Luapula and Lake Mweru. 

Specimens of lead and of graphite have been shown to me, but I was 
unable to identify the districts from which they were obtained, though I 
understood that some specimens of graphite came from the hills to the west 
of the Lower Shire. 

Iron ore is nearly everywhere abundant. Excellent haematite iron comes 
from the Upper Shire district. We have actually used some of this iron have 
had it smelted and worked by native blacksmiths for making the parts of a 
gun and such other relatively simple things which were within the scope of 
native blacksmiths or Sikh artizans. 

Garnets are found in the stream valleys of Mlanje. On the same mountain 
beautiful quartz crystals are met with and persons seeing them for the first 
time are often deluded into the belief that they have obtained diamonds. Xo 
trace of the blue diamond clay has ever yet been met with in Central Africa. 1 

There are no deposits of rock-salt, so far as I am aware, but salt is obtained 
from the brackish marsh called by the name of Mweru which lies between the 
great lake M \veru and Tanganyika ; also from the marsh country in the West 
Shire district, and from the brackish Lake Chilwa. 2 

But salt is also obtained both good and abundant though rather dark in 
colour from the ashes of grasses and other plants growing on the mountain 
plateaux and in the vicinity of rivers and lakes. On the whole, in one way or 
another British Central Africa may be considered to be well supplied with salt 
manufactured by the natives, which is a favourite article of commerce and is 
even a good deal used by Europeans, who in their cooking, if not on their tables, 
at any rate in their kitchens, use it in preference to the imported article. 

1 Commander Cullen supplies the following note : " In the upper waters of the Lintipe river 
(Central Angomland) the formation is the same as that of the Vaal River Valley : and as garnets and 
crystals are found in it, if it were properly worked it seems probable it might prove diamondiferous." 

Mr. ^Sharpe describes as follows the way in which the natives extract salt from the Mweru 
swamp :- The natives dwelling round the great Mweru salt swamp take the salt-impregnated earth 
ound the lake shore and put it into funnels made of closely woven grass rope. They then pour in 
water and stir up the salt earth. The water takes up the salt and filtering through the grass funnel 
carries the salt m solution into pots placed below. The water is then evaporated and cakes of pure 
salt are left. ' 


Report by the Director of the Scientific Department of the Imperial Institute on two samples of coal from 

Nyasaland, received through Mr. P. L. Sclater, F.R.S., from Mr. Alfred Sharpe, Acting Commissioner 

and Consul-General for British Central Africa : 

SPECIMEN A. Coal from North Nyasaland Fixed carbon, 57-63 % ; ash, 15-57 % ; volatile matter 
26 -bo % ; sulphur, o'io % ; coke, 73-20 % ; calorific value, 5520 units, this is a non-caking coal of very 
hue quality, which is likely to be useful for most purposes for which coal is employed. The percentage of 
ash is rather high, but the coal is remarkably free from sulphur. 

SPECIMEN B. Supposed Coal from the Son^u;- AYrv;- Fixed carbon, 47-46 % ; ash, 8 '4 % volatile 
matter, 44-54; sulphur, 0-52; coke, 55-5 ; calorific value, 6050 units. This also is a non-caking coal of 
good quality, yielding very little ash, and containing but little sulphur. This coal would be serviceable 
either lor heating or for metallurgical purposes. (Signed) WYNDIIAM R. DUNSTAN. 


BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA only comes within the domain of written 
history quite recently, Tanganyika and much of Nyasa scarcely forty 
years ago. It is just barely possible that the south end of Lake 
Nyasa, and it is certain that a portion of the river Shire which flows from 
it, were known to the Portuguese explorers at the latter end of the sixteenth 
century. The unwritten history, the history which can be deduced from 
researches into language, examinations of racial type, native traditions, and 
archaeological researches, extends back into the usual remoteness connected 
with the movements of the human genus, though in no part of the world 
is it so indefinite or is there such scanty and slight material on which to 
construct theories. 

It may be that something of this kind occurred. Until further facts 
come to light, the tendency of such little knowledge as we at present possess 
of the past history of the evolution of man is to lead us to believe that he 
was developed from the pithecoid type somewhere in Asia, not improbably in 
India. 1 It would seem, at any rate, as if the earliest known race of man, 
inhabiting what is now British Central Africa, was akin to the Bushman- 
Hottentot type of negro. Rounded stones, with a hole through the centre, similar 
to those which are used by the Bushmen in the south for weighting their 
digging sticks, have been found at the south end of Lake Tanganyika, and 
specimens of them were brought home thence by me and given to the British 
Museum. I have heard that other examples of these " Bushman " stones have 
been found nearer to Lake Nyasa, but I have not seen the alleged specimens. 
In one instance I alighted on a curious tradition, which would make it appear 

1 At any moment this theory, which at present holds the field, may be upset by unlooked-for 
discoveries in African palaeontology. Quite recently a discovery of the most extraordinary importance 
and interest has been made by Dr. Forsyth Major in Madagascar, an island which was united to Africa 
in the early part of the tertiary epoch. This consists of the fossil remains of a monkey-like form called 
Nesopii 'heats, a form intermediate between the Cebidoe and the Old World monkeys. The Cebidre are the 
American monkeys, a type which is connected with the Lemuroids by transitional forms. Mr. R. Lydekker 
deduces from these discoveries that the primal stock of the monkeys had its home in Africa ; that from 
the African continent branched off the Cebidae, which found their way to America, and there lingered, 
while they became extinguished in the Old World; and the Simiidse, or Old World monkeys, which 
in turn gave rise to the anthropoid apes and man. So far as we yet know evidence preponderates in 
favour of the anthropoid apes having arisen in Southern Asia, whence they penetrated Africa; and the 
famous discovery by Dr. Dubois, in Java, of Pithecanthropus erectus, a form almost intermediate between 
the anthropoid ape and the human species, would lead us to imagine that man likewise originated in the 
Asiatic continent, which served as a distributing centre. The lowest known forms of man living 
at the present time, or only recently extinct, are found in Tasmania, Australia, South Eastern Asia, 
and Central and Southern Africa. At the same time further discoveries may equally well show that the 
development of the anthropoid ape into man took place in Africa, a guess once hazarded by Darwin. 




that until recently the Bushman type was lingering on the upper plateau of the 
Mlanje mountain mass at the south-east corner of the Protectorate. The 
Mananja natives of that district assert positively that there used to live on the 
upper part of the mountain, a dwarf race of light yellow complexion with hair 
growing in scattered tufts, and with that large development of the buttocks 
characteristic of the Bushman -Hottentot type. They gave these people a 
specific name, " Arungu," but I confess that this term inspired me with some 
distrust of the value of their tradition, as 
it was identical with the word for "gods." 1 
The resemblance, however, may have been 
accidental. They declare this people to 
have been found on the top of Mlanje 
until quite recently. Similar rumours were 
collected by a Portuguese officer stationed 
at Mlanje, and by him communicated to 
me, quite independently of my own re- 
searches, and the same idea occurred to 
him as to myself, that the traditions 
referred to a Bushman type. I have at 
different times exhaustively searched, or 
caused to be searched, the upper parts of 
the Mlanje mountain ; but although traces 
of human residence in some of the caves 
have been reported, no definite proof of 
the existence of any people differing from 
the modern type was discovered. That is 
to say, traces of human habitation in those 
caves and hollows consisted chiefly of 
fragments of pottery, which is certain!}- 
not a characteristic sign of Bushman 
habitation. It is probably known to my 
readers, however, that real undisputed 
Bushmen are found (I have seen them 
myself) in South Western Africa, in the same latitudes as the southern 
part of the British Protectorate under review. Bushman tribes were discovered 
by Serpa Pinto and other explorers as far north almost as the I4th parallel 
south latitude, in the countries near the Upper Kunene river. 

Here and there, in Nyasaland, one meets with faces and forms amongst the 
natives which suggest a cropping out of the Hottentot type, as though the 
present Bantu races had, on their first invasion of these countries, absorbed 
their Bushman predecessors by intermarriage. This Bushman -Hottentot 
mixture, however, is not nearly so apparent as it is in the Basuto and 
certain Kafir tribes of South Africa. Indeed when South African negroes 
come to Nyasaland for work and one is able to contrast them with the 
local natives, one is struck at once by the resemblance they offer to 
Hottentots, in their paler skins, more prominent cheek bones, deep set eyes 
and flattened nose. It is evident that the Basuto - Bechuana people 
especially have much mingled with the Hottentots in times past. It would 
seem from the researches of Mr. Theodore Bent in the ruined cities of 

1 Murungu=a god. A-rungu = gods. Yet this is not the ordinary plural which is Mi-lungu or 
Mi-rungu, though it is A-rungu in the more northern dialects. 



Mashonaland that those earlier settlers from Southern Arabia, who mined 
for gold some two thousand years ago and less, in South Central Africa, 
\vere only acquainted with native inhabitants of a Bushman-Hottentot type, 
to judge by the drawings, engravings and models they have left, intended to 
depict natives engaged in the chase. 

The evidence which I have quoted at length in my book on Kilimanjaro, 1 
and in the prefatory chapters to the Life of Livingstone, derived from a com- 
parative study of the Bantu languages, leads me to believe that the invasion 
of the southern half of Africa by big black negro races, nowadays so familiar 
to us, was relatively recent in the history of man perhaps not much more than 
2oco years ago. Some cause, such as the dense forests of the Congo Basin, 
must have checked their descent of the continent from the Sudan. They 
may also have been held back for a long time especially on the eastern side 
of the continent where the forests could never have been in recent times a 
serious obstacle by the sturdy opposition of the prior inhabitants of Bushman- 
Hottentot type. Be that as it may, I do not think the black negroes, the 
present inhabitants of South Central Africa, have been in possession of those 
countries from time immemorial, and in their own traditions they vaguely recall 
a descent from the North. 

It is possible that when the Sabaeans and Arabs traded with South-east 
Africa, during the first half of the Christian era, one or another of them may 
have penetrated into the countries round Lake Nyasa. With this proviso, 
however, as to the possibility of such a journey having taken place, it must 
be stated that as far as we know, the Arabs did little more in regard to British 
Central Africa than to settle on the coast of the Indian Ocean, or to establish 
a trading depot at Sena, on the Lower Zambezi. 

It would seem to me as though 3000 years ago the distribution of races 
in Africa had stood thus. The southern half of the continent, from a little 
north of the Equator to the Cape of Good Hope, was very sparsely populated 
with a low Negroid type, of which the Bushmen and Hottentots, and possibly 
the pigmy tribes of the Congo forests, 2 are the descendants. The North and 
Xorth-east of Africa, from Morocco to Egypt and Egypt to Somaliland, was 
peopled mainly by the Hamites, a race akin in origin and language to the 
Semitic type, which latter was certainly a higher development from a parent 
Hamitic stock. The Hamites themselves, however, obviously originated as a 
superior ascending variety of the Negritic species, from which basal stock 
had been derived in still earlier times the Bushman-Hottentot group, whose 
languages especially that of the Hottentot are thought by some authorities 
to show remote affinities in structure to the Hamitic tongues. Westward of 
the Hamites, and an earlier divergence from the original Negritic group, were 
the true black negroes, more closely allied in origin perhaps to the Bushmen- 
Hottentots than to the more divergent Hamites. But 3000 years ago, I am 
inclined to believe that the true negroes were bounded in their distribution 
by the northern limits of the Sahara Desert, the Atlantic Ocean, the great 
forests of the Congo Basin, and either the Nile Valley or the Abyssinian 
Highlands on the East. Here and there these different sections of the Negritic 
stock mingled, producing races superior to the pure negro, like the Nubians, 
the Somalis, and the Fulbe, which dwell more or less on the borderland between 
the negro and the Hamite. When the true negroes invaded the southern half 

1 The Kilimanjaro Expedition, pp. 478-483. 

2 These latter much mixed I am sure with the black negroes. 


of the African continent, some 2000 to 3000 years ago, they carried with them 
such culture, domestic animals, and cultivated plants as they had derived 
indirectly from Egypt. I should think that in Nyasaland and along the shores 
of Lake Tanganyika, the history of negro culture has been retrograde, until 
the coming of the Arab and the European. In one or two places on the shores 
of Lake Xyasa old pottery has been dug up at a considerable depth below the 
surface, with trees of great girth and age growing over these remains. The 
pottery has been found imbedded in the sand of an ancient shore-line of 
Xyasa, now covered by about 5 feet of humus, in which baobab trees are 
strongly rooted. From the approximate age of the trees, and the time it 
should have taken to accumulate this vegetable soil, some of this pottery must 
have been 500 or 600 years old. One large pot thus found has been deposited 
by me in the British Museum. These few remains exhibit evidences of greater 
skill and taste than is shown by the pottery at the present time in the same 
districts. Researches founded on the study of languages, of religions, of 
traditions, and on the records of Portuguese explorers in West Africa, would 
also seem to show that in Western Africa many of the negro States were in 
a far higher state of culture 500 years ago than they are now. 

The line of the migration of the Bantu negroes in British Central Africa 
will be treated of in Chapter XL, which describes their languages. It will be 
sufficient to say, as regards history, that we may presume them to have entered 
into possession of these countries driving out or absorbing the antecedent 
Bushman race about 1000 years ago. 

With the doubtful exception of the visit of an occasional Arab slave 
dealer, they had no contact with the outer world until the arrival of the 
Portuguese on the East Coast of Africa, which is the first definite landmark 
in the history of this portion of the continent. Vasco da Gama, after rounding 
the Cape of Good Hope in 1495, stopped at the Arab settlements of Sofala 
near the modern Beira) and Mozambique, and thence passed onwards to 
Malindi 'near Mombasa) and India. On his return from India he further 
explored the South-east Coast of Africa, and (probably from information 
given by Arab pilots) entered with his little fleet the Quelimane River, 1 which 
was connected intermittently with the main Zambezi, and which, until the other 
day, was thought to be the only certain means of reaching the Zambezi above 
its delta. This river he called the " Rio dos Bons Signaes," or the " River of 
Good Indications." The name " Quelimane," which he applied to a small 
village 12 miles inland from the mouth of the river (the origin of the now 
important town of Quelimane, the capital of Portuguese Zambezia) is stated 
by the Portuguese to have the following etymology. This village belonged 
to a certain individual who acted as interpreter between the Portuguese and 
the natives. He appears to have been an Arab, or a half Arab. In those 
days Portuguese navigators seem to have been acquainted with Arabic, a 
language which probably still lingered in the southern part of Portugal, where 
Moorish kingdoms existed till the twelfth century. The name which the 
Portuguese applied to this individual was "Quelimane" (pronounced Keliman). 
Xow in the corrupt Coast Arabic " Kaliman " is the word for "Interpreter."'- 
Consequently the name of the modern town Quelimane 3 is simply derived 

1 On Jan. 22nd, 1498. - In Svvahili this becomes Mkaliinani. 

:i I have taken the opportunity to give this bit of etymology as there lias long been a misapprehension 
as to the correct spelling of Quelimane, which was thought wrongly to be derived from " Kilimani," 
which means in Svvahili " on the hill." But there is no hill within eighty miles of Ouelimane. The true 
native name of this place is " Chuabo." 


from the term " Interpreter," applied to this guide and go-between of Vasco 
da Gama. 

For some five centuries before the Portuguese arrived the Arabs of 
Southern and Eastern Arabia had formed or re-formed settlements along the 
East Coast of Africa from Somaliland to Sofala. 1 In the direction of British 
Central Africa they were chiefly established at Mozambique, Ngoji (Angoche), 
and Sena on the Zambezi. They apparently found no direct entrance into the 
Zambezi River which could be easily navigated by their daus, and preferred 
to use the Quelimane River. This in exceptional rainy seasons at the present 
day becomes connected with the Zambezi river, by overflow creeks ; and 
possibly some centuries ago was the most northern branch of the delta. The 
Arabs would seem, therefore, to have gone up this river past Quelimane, and 
then to have travelled either by water when the river was full, or overland 
at other seasons, to Sena, a settlement not far from the junction of the Zambezi 
and the Shire. From Sena again they had overland communication to their 
settlements at Sofala, near the modern town of Beira. 2 

At first the Portuguese were received by the Arabs in a friendly fashion, and 
several of the Portuguese were taken up by Arab guides from Quelimane to 
Sena. Before many years 3 were over the Portuguese had dispossessed the 
Arabs, and driven them away. From Sofala to Mozambique they replaced 
them so completely, with the exception of their settlements at Angoche, 4 that 
they disappeared entirely and never returned, even after the temporary decay 
of the Portuguese power which enabled the Arabs to reconquer the East Coast 
of Africa as far south as Kilwa. 

At first Sena, on the Lower Zambezi, was the headquarters of the Portu- 
guese Administration, and from hence various expeditions, during the sixteenth 
century, were sent southwards to discover the gold mines of Manika expedi- 
tions which were mostly unsuccessful, owing to the unhealthiness of the climate 
and the presence of the Tsetse fly. Another obstacle in the way of Portuguese 
enterprise was the kingdom of Monomotapa, 5 a powerful empire of Bantu 
negroes, probably related in stock to the Zulus. The influence of Monomotapa 
must have ranged from the vicinity of the south end of Lake Nyasa to the 
Limpopo River. Simultaneously with the first Portuguese " Conquistadores " 

1 I say "re-formed" because we are now practically certain that some races of Southern Arabia had 
founded their ancient settlements possibly in connection with the Phoenicians in South-eastern Africa, 
not only on the East Coast but far in the interior of Mashonaland. These settlements were, it is supposed, 
destroyed by the advent of the Bantu tribes from the North, who were far more formidable enemies to 
tackle than the feeble Bushmen and Hottentots. It is possible that the natives of Arabia did not entirely 
give up their African trade, though they had to quit the interior and confine their settlements to the coast. 
I Jut whether or no there was a gap in Arab enterprise in the early part of the Christian era, there was a 
great revival in the tenth century, and in the eleventh century a strong Arab kingdom was formed at 
Kilwa (midway between Zan/.ibar and Mo9ambique) which exercised a kind of suzerainty over the other 
settlements or Sultanates. Mosques were built at this period, the remains of which may be seen at the 
present day. 

2 Beira was the name given to this place not many y.ears ago by the Portuguese, when it was 
first founded, after Col. Paiva d'Andrada's explorations of the Pungwe river. "Beira" is the name of 

national peculiarities to devote all our best energy to a mispronunciation of foreign words. 

3 I believe the Arabs remained in possession of Sena until near the end of the sixteenth century. 

4 Which really remain unconquered to this day. 

5 This name was derived from the native appellation of the Makaranga chief, and is apparently a 
corruption of " Mwene Mutapa " = " Lord Hippopotamus"; or " Mwana-Mutapa"- -" Child of the 
Hippopotamus." The hippopotamus was much reverenced by the tribes of the Central Zambezi, and 
is so, to some extent, still. 



and mining adventurers came lion-hearted Jesuit Missionaries, resolved on 
repeating in the Zambezi countries the successes they had obtained in 
Christianising the kingdom of the Congo. Several of these men were 
martyred by the orders of the Emperor of Monomotapa ; but eventually 
they established themselves at Zumbo, on the Central Zambezi, at the con- 
fluence of the great Luangwa River. 

The modern capital of Tete, 1 which is the most important town on the 
Zambezi, was not founded until the middle of the seventeenth century, and was 
merely a station of Jesuit Missionaries originally, though afterwards taken over 
by the Portuguese Government. At first, however, the principal towns were 
Zumbo and Sena. 


The Portuguese soon penetrated northward of the Zambezi, in the direction 
of the Maravi country and the watershed of Lake Xyasa. Here they dis- 
covered, or re-discovered, from hints given by Arabs or natives, the gold 
deposits of Misale, 2 and for some century or so afterwards these gold mines 
were extensively worked. Curiously enough, however, the chief mineral dis- 
coveries of the Portuguese at this time lay in the direction of silver, though 
at the present time we have no knowledge of any existing silver mines in the 
Zambezi countries. 

In 1616 a Portuguese, named Jaspar Bocarro, offered to carry samples of 
Zambezi silver overland from the Central Zambezi to Malindi, a Portuguese 
settlement to the north of Mombasa, without going near Mozambique. The 

1 Tete is the name for a reed. The plural " Matete" means "a reed-bed." It is possible that this 
was the etymology of the name, as the shore is very reedy about that part of the Zambezi. But the 
native name of Tete is " Nyungwi." 

2 Nowadays Misale lies within the British sphere of influence, and a British company is attempting 
to work its gold. 



motive of this offer lay in the fact that considerable friction existed between 
the Central Government of Mogambique, which was under the Viceroys of 
India, and the Portuguese adventurers on the Zambezi, who strongly objected 
to the grinding monopolies which the Mogambique Government sought to 
establish. Jaspar Bocarro apparently journeyed from where the town of Tete 
now stands to the Upper Shire River, crossing that stream near its junction 
with the Ruo ; and then, passing through the Anguru country in the vicinity 
of Lake Chilvva, he entered the Lujenda Valley, and so travelled on to the 
Ruvuma River, and thence to the coast at Mikindani. ^ From Mikindani he 
continued his journey to Malindi by sea. So far as reliable records go, this was 
the first European to enter what is now styled " British Central Africa." 

The Jesuit priests from Zumbo had journeyed westward into the country 
of the Batonga or Batoka, 1 and northwards up the Luangwa River. They 

1 Sir John Kirk, when travelling with Livingstone, in 1859, discovered groves of fruit trees in the 
Batoka country which may have been introduced by the Jesuits. 



transmitted rumours of a great lake (Nyasa), which they styled Lake " Maravi." 
This really meant " a lake in the country of the Maravi," Maravi being an old 
name (now nearly extinct) of the Nyanja tribes in the south-west of Xyasa- 
land. But in the middle of the eighteenth century the Jesuits were expelled 
from all the Portuguese Dominions by order of the Marquez de Pombal ; and 
after their departure from the Central Zambezi there was a temporary diminu- 
tion of Portuguese activity. At the very end of the last century, however, the 
interest of the Portuguese Government in its East African possessions was 
revived by the British Government having taken possession of the Cape of 
Good Hope at the outbreak of the war with France. In the year following 
the seizure of Cape Town 1 by an English force, Dr. Francisco Jose Maria de 
Lacerda e Almeida, a distinguished scientific man who was a native of Brazil, 
and a Doctor of Mathematics at Coimbra University (Portugal), addressed a very 
remarkable letter to the Portuguese Government, setting forth that the results 
of the English invasion of Capetown would be the creation of a great British 
South African Empire, which w r ould, if not counteracted in time, spread north- 
wards across the Zambezi, and separate the Portuguese Dominions of Angola 
and Mozambique. This, I think, at the period and with the limited 
geographical knowledge then possessed by even a Portuguese University, 
was one of the most remarkable instances of political foresight which can 
be quoted. The Portuguese Government was so struck with Dr. Lacerda's 
arguments that it appointed him Governor of the Rios de Sena,' 2 and 
authorised him to conduct an expedition "a contra-costa " across Africa from 
the Zambezi countries to Angola, establishing Portuguese Suzerainty along his 

It should be stated at this juncture that not nearly so many white Portuguese 
had assisted in opening up the East African territories, as had settled in Angola, 
and on the West Coast of Africa. In those days the Portuguese East African 
possessions were generally knit up with their Viceroyalty of India, and the 
pure-blooded Portuguese in the Zambezi countries were few in number 
compared to the " Canarins " or Canarese. These people were half-caste 
natives of Goa, with more or less Indian blood in their veins, and constituted 
the principal element in the Portuguese Zambezi settlements. They were very 
enterprising men, though they relapsed into semi-savagery, and as slave-traders 
and robbers had a record almost more evil than that of the Arabs. Nevertheless 
the European blood in their veins sharply distinguished these Goanese from 
the unlettered black people, and of some of their journeys they kept more 
or less intelligent records. Two Goanese of the name of Pereira, father and 
son, had gone gold hunting to the north of the Zambezi, and had eventually 
pushed on with their armed slaves till they reached the Kazembe's country, 
near Lake Mweru. The reports which they gave of the Kazembe (a lieutenant 
or satrap of the Muata Yanvo of Lunda) decided Dr. Lacerda to proceed 
thither on his way across to Angola. His expedition numbered about 75 
white Portuguese, and the two Pereiras accompanied it as guides. Dr. Lacerda, 
however, only succeeded in reaching Kazembe's capital, near the south end of 
Lake Mweru, and eventually died there on the iSth October, 1798. After his 
death the expedition became so disorganised that instead of continuing the 
journey to Angola it returned to Tete. 

At the beginning of the present century two half-caste Portuguese, named 
Baptista and Amaro Jose, crossed from the Kwango River in the interior 

1 Which took place in 1795. - The old name for the Xanibe/i. 


of Angola to the Kazembe's country, near Lake Mvveru, and thence to Tete 
on the Zambezi. In 1831 Major Monteiro and Captain Gamitto conducted 
a mission from Tete to the Kazembe, and some years subsequently Silva Porto, 
a Portuguese colonist, of Bihe, in the interior of Benguela, is also said to have 
rambled over much of South Central Africa ; further, a certain Candido de 
Costa Cardoso claimed that he sighted the south-west corner of Lake Nyasa 
in 1846; but none of these explorers, \vith the exception of Dr. Lacerda, 
possessed any scientific qualifications, and their journeys led to little or no 
geographical information or political ascendancy. Indeed, what is remarkable 
about Dr. Lacerda, to say nothing of the other explorers, was the extraordinary 
bad luck which prevented him from sighting any important river or lake. He 
reached a point within a few miles of the large Lake Mweru, and yet either 
never saw it, or thought it not worth mention. He heard vague rumours of 
Tanganyika and of Nyasa, but did not direct his steps in either direction ; 
and, stranger still, he missed the recognition of the remarkable Luapula, which 
we now know to be the Upper Congo, though he must have actually been 
within sight of it. 

The real history of British Central Africa begins with the advent of 
Livingstone. This intrepid missionary had gradually pushed his explorations 
northwards from the Cape of Good Hope until he reached the Central Zambezi 
in 1851, accompanied by the celebrated sportsman Mr. Oswell. Impressed 
with the importance of his discovery Livingstone returned to Cape Town, 
and with the generous assistance of Mr. Oswell, was enabled not only to send 
his wife and children out of harm's way, but to equip himself for the tremendous 
exploration of South Central Africa, which he had determined to accomplish. 
Having perfected himself in astronomical observations, under the tuition of the 
Astronomer-Royal of Cape Town, Livingstone started for the North and once 
more reached the Zambezi, near its confluence with the Chobe. Thence he 
travelled up the Zambezi to its source, and across to Angola and again back 
from Angola and down the Zambezi to its mouth, or more correctly speaking 
to Quelimane, on the Indian Ocean. This epoch-making journey had important 
and far-reaching results. Livingstone was sent back by the British Government 
at the head of a well-equipped expedition, and was accompanied amongst 
others by Dr., now Sir John, Kirk, who, besides being medical officer, was 
the naturalist of the expedition. 

After a journey to Tete and visits to the " Quebrabaco " Rapids for the 
purpose of determining the navigability of the Zambezi above Tete, Livingstone 
determined to search for and find the reported great lake out of which the Shire 1 
flowed to join the Zambezi. At this date the Portuguese knew scarcely anything 
of the Shire beyond its confluence with the Zambezi. They seem to have 
lost all remembrance of the one or two earlier journeys in that direction of 
Portuguese explorers. Consequently, before Livingstone and his party had 
ascended the Shire very far they found themselves in a country absolutely 
new to the white man. After several futile attempts to reach Lake Nyasa, 
in the course of one of which they discovered the brackish Lake Chilwa, 
which lies to the south-east of the greater lake, and Lake Malombe, which 

1 The name of the "Shire" river \vas formerly written by the Portuguese " Cherim " (pronounce, 
"Shering"); this was later still written "Chire," which if the " ch " be pronounced as in "church" 
fairly represents the native pronunciation. But the Portuguese pronounce " ch " like "sh," therefore 
Livingstone heard them speak of this river as the " Shire," and thus transcribed it in English. The 
correct native pronunciation is " Chiri " (Cheeree), and the word means in Chinyanja "a steep bank ''- 
Nyanja ya chiri, "the river with the steep banks." 



is a widening of the Upper Shire, Livingstone and his companions finally 
reached the southern extremity of Nyasa, near the site of the modern settle- 
ment of Fort Johnston, on the i6th of September, 1859, tne fi rst white men, 
as far as we know with any certainty, who stood on the shores of Lake Nyasa. 
As the district in which Livingstone discovered this third greatest of the lakes 
of Africa was under Yao domination, he recorded its name as pronounced 
by the Yao, i.e. Nyasa; but its most common appellation is Nyanja. This is 
the same word as Nyanza farther north, and Nyasa, Nyanja, and Nyanxa 
are derived from an archaic and widespread Bantu root -anza, which means 
"a broad water." 1 

Livingstone and his party extended their explorations of the western coast 
of Lake Nyasa as far north as about 11-30 south latitude, a little more than 


half-way up the lake. Subsequently Livingstone travelled inland west of Lake 
Nyasa till he reached the watershed of the great Luangwa River and it 
was upon hearing at that point of a not far distant lake that he resolved 
on his succeeding journey, to proceed along the same route, and thus discovered 
the south end of Lake Tanganyika, Lake Mweru, the Luapula River, and Lake 
Bangweolo. Whilst Livingstone and Kirk were exploring Lake Nyasa and 
the Shire Highlands, however, they were joined by a Christian Mission under 
Bishop Mackenzie, which had been sent out from the two great English 
Universities, and which exists to this day under the name of the " Universities 
Mission to Central Africa." These missionaries settled in the eastern part 
of the Shire Highlands, just as the invasions of the Muhammadan Yao slave 
raiders were beginning. 

\ This root is found even among the more corrupt Bantu tongues of Western Equatorial \frica 
For instance, the broad estuary of the Cameroons River is called in the Duala tonlnie "Muanza" 
and the same name is given to the Lower Congo. 


Following on the Portuguese expeditions at the end of the i8th century 
to Kazembe's country, a great intercourse had sprung up between the Babisa 
tribe, which inhabits the district to the west of the great Luangwa River and 
the Zanzibar coast. The Babisa had acquired guns from the Portuguese, and, 
armed in this way, had asserted themselves effectually against tribes still armed 
with the bow and spear. They became an enterprising people and resolved 
to trade directly with the Coast. Not liking the Portuguese, however, they 
preferred to journey farther north, and trafficked with the Arabs of Zanzibar. 
About this time the Zanzibar Sultanate was increasing gradually in power. 
It was an appanage of the Imamate of Maskat ('Oman), and already the 
Maskat Arabs (who had replaced the Portuguese in all the trading settlements 
of Eastern Africa, between the Ruvuma River and Somaliland) had begun to 
push their slave and ivory trading enterprises into the interior of Eastern 
Africa, especially in the direction of Tanganyika. Attracted, however, by the 
accounts which the Babisa caravans gave of the fertile country in which they 
dwelt, and struck with the docility of the slaves brought down by the Babisa 
from the Nyasa countries, certain Arabs accompanied the Babisa caravans 
back to their place of origin, which was, as I have said, the countries lying to 
the west of the great Luangwa River. The route they followed was from ports 
like Kilwa on the East Coast to Lake Nyasa thence across Nyasa and south- 
west or due west to the Lubisa country. 

In the course of these journeys the Arabs became acquainted with that race 
of fine physical development and stubborn character, the Yao, who inhabit 
much of the high country lying between the Indian Ocean and Lake Nyasa. 
In the Yao they found willing confederates in the slave trade, and a people 
much inclined to Muhammadanism. Eventually the poor Babisa were attacked 
and enslaved by neighbouring tribes who had been armed by the Arabs, and 
their importance passed awav. The Arabs and Yao between them began to 
dominate Nyasaland. Now the inhabitants of the bulk of Nyasaland proper, 
with the exception of its north-west portion, belonged in the main to what may- 
be called the A-nyanja stock. These people who are referred to by Portuguese 
of an earlier date as the Amaravi, and who are of the same race as the indigenous 
inhabitants of the Zambezi Valley between Tete and Sena and of the whole 
course of the Shire, are of a singularly docile and peaceful disposition, devoted 
to agriculture and timid in warfare a race consequently that is always falling 
under the domination of more powerful and energetic tribes. Before what may 
be called the Yao invasion of the Shire Highlands the Nyanja people had been 
oppressed by Zulu invaders coming from the south-west. The convulsions 
which had been taking place in Zululand in the early part of this century had 
resulted in a most curious recoil of the Zulu race on Central Africa. It is 
probably not many centuries since the forerunners of the Zulus swept down 
from Central Africa, from the region of the great lakes, across the Zambezi, 
into Southern Africa, driving themselves like a wedge through the earlier Bantu 
invaders, the ancestors of the Basuto-Bechuana, and further displacing and 
destroying the feebler Hottentot people. Now, however, with the Indian Ocean 
in front of them, and internal commotions and increase of population com- 
pelling them to find more space for settlement, sections of them began to turn 
their faces back towards the Zambezi. The foundations of the Matabele : 
kingdom were laid, and band after band of Zulus crossed the Zambezi about 


1 Or Amandabele, as it ought to be written but that we English love inaccuracy in pronunciation 
and spelling for its own sake. Matabele is the Se-chuana corruption of the Zulu " Amandabele. ' 


1825-6, and in their raids and conquests almost penetrated as far as the southern 
shores of the Victoria Xyanxa, whilst they were constantly heard of on the east 
coast of Tanganyika. In the west and south-west of Nyasaland they had 
founded kingdoms and enslaved the local inhabitants, when the Yao from the 
north-east hurled themselves on the fertile Shire districts. So that the unfor- 
tunate Xyanja people were caught between Zulu and Yao, and suffered greatly. 
The British missionaries and explorers, however, saw little of the Zulu raiders 
in those earlier days. 1 At the beginning of the "sixties" they were chiefly 
concerned with the Yao invasion. After in vain attempting to defend their 
Xyanja converts from the attacks of the Yao, the Universities Mission lost so 
many of its members from sickness, and was additionally so discouraged 
by the abandonment of Dr. Livingstone's schemes, that it withdrew from the 
country for a time. Livingstone and his Expedition were recalled by the 
British Government at the end of 1863, and quitted Zambezia in 1864. 

The fact was that the British Government was at that time discouraged 
from any further work in the Zambezi countries by the following obstacles : 
the political opposition shown by' the Portuguese; 2 the acknowledged sway 
of the Portuguese over the coast line which made it impossible to communicate 
with any British Possessions which might be founded in the interior; the 
unhealthiness of the coast lands ; and the seeming absence of any easy way 
into the Zambezi River, all the known mouths of which were cursed with 
dangerous and shallow bars. The discovery of the Chinde mouth, which 
afterwards revolutionised the whole question, had not then been made ; or. 
it may be, the Chinde branch of the Zambezi as an easily navigated river did 
not then exist, for there have evidently been great fluctuations in the Zambezi 
Delta with regard to the course taken by the principal body of its water. 

Following on Livingstone's first journey across South Central Africa, a great 
interest had sprung up in France and Germany regarding the existence of the 
reported Central African lakes. The German Missionaries in the pay of the 
Church Missionary Society in East Africa, had discovered the snow mountains 
of Kenia and Kilimanjaro and had reported, from native information, the 
existence of the Victoria Xyanza, of Tanganyika and of Lake Xyasa. Fore- 
most amongst the African explorers of that day, and, at the time, second in 
importance to Livingstone only, was a young lieutenant in the Indian Army- 
Richard Francis Burton who, stationed at Aden, had attempted the exploration 
of Somaliland with a brother- officer named Speke. After some difficulty 
Burton had induced the Geographical Society and Her Majesty's Government 
to provide him with the funds for an expedition which would start from 
opposite Zanzibar to discover the great Central African lake or lakes. He 
chose Lieut. Speke as his companion, and together they discovered Lake 
Tanganyika, Speke afterwards being dispatched by Burton to look for the 
great lake of Ukerewe, which Speke declared with truth to be the main source 
of the Xile and which he named the Victoria Xyanza. Burton and Speke 
were the first Europeans to arrive on the shores of Lake Tanganyika. They 
explored its northern half, but not very much work was done in the way of 

1 Livingstone however came in contact with them when he explored the western shores of Lake 


2 But it must be distinctly stated that throughout the whole course of Livingstone's first and second 
Zambezi expeditions though the Portuguese (Jovernment may have viewed with distaste the interest 
evinced by England in the Zambezi and the interior of East Central Africa, the courtesy and kindness 
shown by the Portuguese authorities to Livingstone and the rest of his expedition were praiseworthv 
in the extreme. Eor particulars of this sec my /,//," of l.irin^tone. 


mapping beyond visiting the western shore and making a rough outline of the 
northern portion of the lake. Prior to Burton's journey, a young Frenchman 
started from Zanzibar for the same purpose, but had been murdered on the way 
to Tanganyika, and after Burton's expedition a German doctor, named Ernst 
Roscher, had set out for Lake Xyasa in the disguise of an Arab. He reached 
the eastern shore of the lake at a place called Lusewa, on the iQth November, 
1859, two months after Livingstone's discovery. On his attempted return to 
the coast, however, he was murdered by the Yao, a murder which was to some 
extent avenged by the Sultan of Zanzibar, who brought influence to bear 
on the Yao chiefs to send the ostensible murderers to Zanzibar to be executed. 
Another German traveller of some celebrity, Baron von der Decken, who was 
the first systematic explorer of Kilimanjaro, had attempted to reach Lake 
Xyasa, but scarcely got half way. 

Meantime Livingstone, after a year's sojourn in England, had managed to 
scrape together funds for another Central Africa exploration. He was very 
desirous of resuming his journeys in search of other lakes to 'the west of Lake 
Xyasa. Travelling by Bombay and Zanzibar he landed at Mikindani at the 
end of March, 1866. He was, I believe, the first explorer to attempt taking 
with him natives of India as guards or soldiers ; but it must be confessed that 
although the employment of Indians in Central Africa has since proved very 
successful, the Muhammadan Sepoys who accompanied Livingstone turned out 
utter failures, and were eventually sent back from Mataka's, a town in the Yao 
country. Livingstone also tried to introduce the Indian buffalo, an experiment 
not repeated until my reintroduction of this animal from India in 1895. It 
is interesting to note that Livingstone's buffalos passed through the tsetse fly 
country, and, seemingly, were not affected by the bites of that insect, though 
they all subsequently died as the result of maltreatment at the hands of the 

Livingstone again reached the shores of Lake Nyasa, at its south-eastern gulf, 
on the 8th of August, 1866 ; but being unable to cross without a dan he walked 
right round the southern end, and thence turned his steps northwards. At 
Marenga's town, near the south-west corner of Lake Xyasa, there were rumours 
of Angoni-Zulu raids, which greatly scared the coast -men of Livingstone's 
caravan, who consequently abandoned him here ; and to excuse themselves 
at Zanzibar for their act of bad faith, they reported, with much corroborative 
detail, the death of Livingstone at the hands of the Angoni. 

Livingstone, after the desertion of these coast-men (who were natives of 
the Comoro Islands) pursued his way northwards, and reached the great 
Luangwa river in December, 1866; on the 28th of January, 1867, he crossed 
the Chambezi river, which issues from the Bangweolo marshes, under the name 
of the Luapula, and is in reality the extreme Upper Congo. On the 1st of 
April he reached the south end of Lake Tanganyika, and for the time being, 
believed it to be a separate lake under the name of Liemba ; on the 8th of 
Xovember, 1867, he discovered Lake Mweru ; on the i8th of July, 1868, Lake 
Bangweolo. Returning from Bangweolo, he journeyed with an Arab caravan 
from Kazembe's town near the south end of Lake Mweru, to the west shore 
of Tanganyika, which he crossed to Ujiji, reaching that place in March, iSU). 
After attempting in vain to organize a caravan for a journey round the north 
end of Lake Tanganyika he recrossed the lake to the opposite side in July, 
and having joined a large party of Arabs and Swahilis, he wandered with them 
in the Manyema country for many months. His object was the Lualaba river 


(the Upper Congo) of which he had heard much to excite his curiosity, and 
which river, he believed, with occasional misgivings, to be the Upper Nile. 
But so erratic were the wanderings of the Arabs to and fro in the Manyema 
country that Livingstone did not actually reach the banks of the Lualaba until 
March, 1871. Resolved to devote himself now to the tracing of what he 
believed to be the Upper Nile from its source on the Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau to its entrance into the Albert Nyanza, Livingstone decided to return 
to Ujiji and renew his stock of trade goods and provisions. His journey from 
the Lualaba to Ujiji was accompanied by indescribable hardships, which 
produced such an effect on his constitution that they eventually led to his 
death two years later. Soon after returning to Ujiji he met Henry M. Stanley, 
who had been sent by the New York Herald to " find Dr. Livingstone, living 
or dead." 

Stanley's arrival certainly added two years more to Livingstone's life, as 
by a series of accidents and frauds he found himself absolutely destitute 
of resources after his return to Ujiji. Together the two men made an ex- 
ploration of the north end of Lake Tanganyika, and then journeyed eastwards 
to Unyanyembe, half way to Zanzibar. Here Livingstone insisted on parting 
company with Stanley, though the latter earnestly entreated him to return 
to Europe ; but with Livingstone the idea of finding the ultimate sources of 
the Nile had become almost a monomania, and he was resolved not to return 
to Europe until he had mapped the upper waters of the Chambezi and the 
Luapula, together with the river Lualaba, which took its rise in the Katanga 
Highlands to the West. So he started off once more for Lake Bangweolo in 
August, 1872, passing round the south end of Lake Tanganyika, and reaching 
the eastern shores of Lake Bangweolo in the month of April, 1873. But his 
race was run, and he died at a village near the south end of that marshy lake 
on or about the 1st of May, 1873. 

Meantime Nyasaland had not long remained without English visitors. In 
1867 Lieut. Young conducted an expedition to the south end of Lake Nyasa 
to examine into the reports as to the murder of Livingstone by the Angoni. 
Young (who only died a few months ago) conducted this expedition in a most 
remarkably successful manner. He left England in the middle of May, 1867, 
reached the Zambezi with three European companions and a steel boat on the 
25th of July, journeyed with his baggage in the steel boat (which was named 
The Search' 1 } and in a flotilla of smaller boats and canoes up the Zambezi and 
the Shire to the Murchison cataracts; conveyed the steel boat overland to the 
Upper Shire; reached Mponda's town at the south end of Lake Nyasa; 
collected a mass of information which conclusively proved that Livingstone 
was not killed but had started unmolested on his way to the West; returned 
to the Zambezi, and reached England at the beginning of 1868 after only eight 
months' absence. 

Young had been greatly helped in his transit of the Shire Highlands by 
the Makololo whom Livingstone had left behind in that district after his 
withdrawal from the Zambezi in 1864. Those who have read the well-known 
works dealing with Dr. Livingstone's explorations will remember that on 
his first journey of discovery up and down the Zambezi he had been accom- 
panied by certain faithful Makololo porters who had followed him from the 
Barutse country, on the Upper Zambezi. The so-called Makololo were a 
-section of the Bechuana people who, leaving Basutoland after tribal 

1 And is still plying on the Shire. 


disturbances, journeyed across the Kalahari Desert, and established themselves 
in the Barutse country. 1 When Livingstone reached Tete on his journey back 
to the East Coast in 1856 he left behind at that place the so-called Makololo 
(about 25 in number), who had followed him from the Upper Zambezi. On 
his return in 1858 he picked them up again and added to their numbers several 
others who followed him of their own free will on his second visit to the 
Barutse country. 

These men were very useful to his expedition in exploring the River 
Shire, and were of a masterful nature, easily imposing themselves as superior 
beings on the timid Mananja people of the Central Shire. When Dr. 
Livingstone had to leave the country, anxious to put a check on the 
depredations of the Yao coming from the east, and the Angoni coming from 
the west, he armed these Makololo, and left them behind to protect the 
Mananja natives. The result was that they very soon constituted themselves 
the chiefs of that country, and they subsequently played a most important 
part in checking the advances of the Yao and the Angoni, and in sturdily 
resisting any attempts on the part of the Portuguese to conquer the Shire- 

In 1874 Mr. Faulkner, who was one of the party accompanying Lieut. 
Young, R.N., returned to the Shire as a hunter of big game. He was, I 
believe, eventually killed by the natives. He had a son by a native wife 
who now bears his name, and who was the first half-caste, so far as we know, 
born in the Protectorate. 

Livingstone's death caused a tremendous enthusiasm to spring up for the 
continuation of his work as a Missionary and as an Explorer. Cameron 
completed Burton's and Livingstone's map of Lake Tanganyika ; Stanley, at 
the expense of the Daily Telegraph, continued the exploration of the Congo 
from Nyangwe, where Livingstone had left it, to the Atlantic Ocean ; but in 
Nyasaland proper Livingstone's work was immediately continued by the Scotch 
Missionaries. The Livingstonia Free Church Mission was founded in 1874 
and sent out its first party of Missionaries with a small steamer in sections, 
for Lake Nyasa, in 1875. They were joined, in 1876, by the Pioneers of 
the Church of Scotland Mission, who chose the site of the present town of 
Blantyre, and established themselves in the Shire Highlands, while the Free 
Church applied itself to the evangelisation of Lake Nyasa. It is interesting 
to note that the leader of the first Missionary expedition Dr. Laws who 
went out in 1875, and the engineer of the first Mission steamer placed on 
Lake Nyasa (the Ilala, which is still plying), Mr. A. C. Simpson, are still alive 
and well, and hard at work in Nyasaland, the one as a senior member of the 
Mission he has served so devotedly for twenty-one years, and the other as a 
prosperous planter at Mlanje. 

Shortly after the Church of Scotland Mission had established itself at 
Blantyre, a young gardener, named John Buchanan, was sent from Scotland to 
assist the Mission in horticulture. 2 

In 1878 Captain Frederick Elton had been appointed Consul at Mozambique, 
and had obtained permission to conduct an expedition to Lake Nyasa to report 

1 Barutse is stated to be derived from ' ' Bahurutse " the name of another of the Bechuana septs 
These Bechuana emigrants who sometimes called themselves the Makololo had conquered the 15am! s, 
country, from its native chiefs of Baloi race. But as a matter of fact these famous Makololo porters who 
have played such a part in the history of Nyasaland were very few of them of Bechuana blood. Many of 
them were slaves of Baloi. or kindred races of the Upper Zambezi. 

- He was the means of introducing- and planting the coffee shrub in Central Africa. 


on the slave trade. He was accompanied by Mr. H. B. Cotterill, Mr. Herbert 
Rhodes, 1 and Captain Hoste. 

With the aid of the little Mission steamer Ilala Consul Elton explored the 
north end of Lake Nyasa, which he was able to show extended much farther 
northwards than had been supposed by Livingstone and Kirk. This northward 
extension of the Lake was further verified a few years afterwards by numerous 
observations for Latitude taken by Mr. James Stewart, an engineer in the 
employ of the African Lakes Company. Consul Elton first made known to us 
the remarkable Livingstone or Ukinga Mountains, at the end of Lake Nyasa, 
which attain an altitude, in parts, of nearly 10,000 feet. Unhappily Consul 
Elton died in Wunyamwezi on his way to Zanzibar. 

The Missions had not been long established when they found it impossible 


to conduct the necessary trade with the natives (for provisions could only 
be obtained by barter) and the transport service between the coast and Lake 
Xyasa, in addition to the ordinary Missionary work ; so it was resolved, in 
Scotland, to found a small Company for trade and transport, subsequently 
styled "The African Lakes Company," which would be affiliated to the 
Missions (in so far that its employes should be required to do a certain amount 
of missionary work), but be conducted independently and on a commercial 
basis. Two brothers, John William Moir and Frederick Maitland Moir, were 
sent to Nyasaland as joint managers. They had been previously at work in 
the employ of the late Sir William Mackinnon, on a road to Lake Tanganyika 
which that philanthropist intended to construct inland from Dar-es-Salam, 
opposite Zanzibar. The headquarters of the Lakes Company were fixed at 

1 Mr. Herbert Rhodes was a brother of Mr. (now the Right Honourable) Cecil (. Rhodes, and had 
come to Nyasaland to shoot big game. He accompanied Consul hlton as far as the" north end of Lake 
.Nyasa, and then returned to the Upper Shire, where he established himself for some time shooting 
elephants, lie gained a great reputation amongst the natives for bravery ami fair dealing, and i'*. 
still spoken of by the older men at the present day under the name of ' RoxsJ' lie was burned to death 
m iHbo by the accidental setting on lire of his hut. 


" Mandala" (now a suburb of Blantyre), about one mile from the headquarters 
of the Church of Scotland Mission. Mr. John Moir built a substantial house 
there, which still endures ; and as he wore spectacles he was called by the 
natives " Mandala," a name meaning " glass." This nickname was soon applied 
to his residence, and gradually came to mean both the African Lakes Company, 
and the place where they settled near Blantyre. Mandala is now the official 
name of the headquarters of the African Lakes Company and of an important 
suburb of Blantyre. 

The Church of Scotland Mission in those days that is to say at the end of 
the seventies was under the direction of two able men, the Rev. Alexander 
Duff and the late Mr. Henry Henderson, the latter being the business manager 
and the principal lay member ; but it had attached to it also certain lay 
members who were either badly chosen, or who developed into bad characters 
when they came into contact with African savagery. It is only necessary to 
specify one of these George Fenwick whose name cannot bs ignored in the 
history of this Protectorate. These men soon began to treat the natives with 
great harshness, and taking advantage of the dread in which white men were 
held, to bully and extort, and raise themselves almost to the position of petty 
chiefs. Indeed, in reviewing all that has happened since Europeans settled 
in this part of Africa, I have been increasingly struck with the rapidity with 
which such members of the white race as are not of the best class, can throw 
over the restraints of civilisation and develop into savages of unbridled lust and 
abominable cruelty. These lay members of the Mission attempted to exercise 
a kind of jurisdiction over the natives in the vicinity of the Mission stations, 
and so severe were their punishments that one native was sentenced to death 
and was shot, while other natives actually died from the awful floggings 
they received. Two English sportsmen, returning from Nyasaland, conveyed 
the news of these outrages to the consular authorities in Portuguese East 
Africa ; the Foreign Office took up the matter, and eventually the Church 
of Scotland Mission sent out commissioners to hold an enquiry into the 
charges. Mr. Nunes, H. M. Vice-Consul at Quelimane, represented Her 
Majesty's Government on this enquiry, which resulted in the charges being 
in great measure proved. 1 The ordained minister who was at the head of the 
Mission at Blantyre resigned ; though no blame was imputed to him, as he did 
not possess the means of controlling the actions of his subordinates. But after 
what had occurred he preferred to withdraw from the Mission- Mr. John 
Buchanan also at this time left the Mission, and set up for himself in- 
dependently, as a coffee planter. George Fenwick and other lay members 
of the Mission, who were implicated in the deeds referred to, were dismissed, 
and the first-mentioned went to live among the natives as an elephant hunter. 
In 1 88 1 the Revs. D. C. Scott and Alexander Hetherwick came out to Africa 
and took charge of the Church of Scotland Mission, implanting on- its work 
a very different character to the ill-fame which had temporarily clouded its 
earlier days owing to the misdeeds of its lay assistants. The indirect result, 
however, of the increasing British settlement in Nyasaland 3 was to induce Her 
Majesty's Government to establish a British Consul for Nyasa, and in 1883 

1 The evidence gathered by this commission makes very painful reading, and further expatiation on 
this subject i:s neither necessary nor desirable. 

2 See an excellently written book called Afritana, by the Rev. Alexander Duff (Sampson Low & Co. ) 
one of the best books ever written on Africa. 

:i By this time the African Lakes Company had placed their small steamer, The Lady Nyasa, on the 


Capt. Foot, R.N., went to Blantyre with his wife and children, taking with him 
Mr. D. Ran kin as private secretary. 

During all these years the Makololo chiefs had become increasingly powerful. 
At first they had seemed disposed to welcome the British, but there were times 
when they became arrogant and exacting in their demands. Still, on the 
whole, they were a valuable counterpoise to the aggressive Yao, some of whom 
became highway robbers and rifled the Mission and African Lakes Company's 
caravans. There were two of the Makololo chiefs specially prominent 
Ramakukane and Chipatula. Ramakukane was seemingly of real Makololo 
origin, and had been the son of a chief or headman in the Barutse country, 
who had accompanied Livingstone back to Nyasaland, after his second visit 
to the Barutse country. Chipatula was one of Livingstone's old porters. 
Ramakukane was established at Katunga on the Central Shire, and Chipatula 
at or near the modern Chiromo, where the river Ruo joins the Shire, and where 
the present Anglo-Portuguese boundary runs. Ramakukane was, on the whole, 
friendly to the Europeans. Chipatula chiefly concerned himself in repelling 
the attempts of the black Portuguese from the Zambezi to establish themselves 
as slave traders on the Shire. He not only kept these half-castes at bay, but 
even extended his rule far down the Shire towards the Zambezi. The George 
Fenwick of whom I have made mention, after leaving the service of the 
Mission had set up for himself as a trader and elephant hunter. He was a 
headstrong, lawless man, who inspired fear and admiration alternately, in the 
minds of the natives. He had had several commercial transactions in selling 
ivory for Chipatula, and visited that chief at Chiromo in 1884 to settle accounts 
with him. Both men had been drinking spirits ; Chipatula refused to accept 
Fenwick's version of accounts and applied opprobrious terms to him. Fenwick 
started up in a rage and shot Chipatula dead. Before the chief's astonished 
followers could take any action he rushed out of the hut towards the river 
shore, and shouted to them, " Your chief is dead, I am your chief now," but 
seeing that the natives were rather more inclined to avenge Chipatula's death 
than to adopt his slayer as his successor, he got into a canoe at the river side, 
and paddled across the river to Malo Island. Here for three days he led a 
wretched existence attempting to defend himself from the attacks of the 
natives. He was at last overcome and killed, and his head was cut off. The 
Makololo chiefs then became quite inimical to the white settlers. They shot 
at and sunk the little steamer Lady Nyasa, and they sent an insolent message 
to Blantyre, demanding that Mrs. Fenwick, the wife of the adventurer, should 
be delivered over to them, together with an enormous sum as compensation 
for the death of Chipatula. Consul Foot finally succeeded, with the help of 
Ramakukane, in restoring peace, and Mr. John Moir recovered the Lady Nyasa. 
Consul Foot, however, died not long afterwards from the effects of the fatigue 
and anxiety he had undergone. Chipatula was succeeded by a man named 
Mlauri, also one of Livingstone's men, but not friendly to the British ; and old 
Ramakukane died. The demeanour of the Makololo as the years went by 
became increasingly insolent and hostile towards the Europeans, English as 
well as Portuguese. 

In 1 88 1 a fresh element of British influence had appeared on the shores 
of Lake Nyasa, in the arrival of the Rev. W. P. Johnson and Mr. Charles 
Janson, of the Universities Mission to Central Africa that Mission whose first 
bishop, Mackenzie, had died near Chiromo on the Shire in 1862. It will be 
remembered that the Universities Mission had been founded at the instance 


of Livingstone, but after establishing itself in the Shire highlands in 1862 had 
been obliged to quit that country owing to the hostilities shown by the Yao. 
Since that time the Mission had concentrated itself at Zanzibar, and had 
founded stations on the East Coast of Africa. That really great man, Bishop 
Steere, the third of the Missionary bishops to Central Africa, had set his heart 
on reopening work in Nyasaland. He walked overland from the Indian 
Ocean to the east coast of the lake. Subsequently Lake Nyasa was reached 
by the Rev. W. P. Johnson, accompanied by Mr. Charles Janson. The latter 
fell ill, and died on the shores of Lake Nyasa In his will he bequeathed a 
sum of money for the construction of a Mission steamer to be placed on the 
lake. Other subscriptions were raised, and eventually the Charles Janson was 
launched on Lake Nyasa, where she still exists. The Rev. Chauncey Maples 
and other recruits from the Mission had meantime joined Mr. Johnson. Bishop 
Steere had been succeeded by Bishop Smythies, 1 who if anything took an 
increased interest in the establishment of his Mission on Lake Nyasa, to which 
lake he paid repeated visits. The Rev. Chauncey Maples was made Arch- 
deacon of Nyasa. 2 Seeing the troublous condition of the Yao countries, and 
the shores of Lake Nyasa, where the unfortunate A-nyanja inhabitants were 
alternately raided by Magwangwara, 3 Arabs and Yao, the Universities Mission 
resolved to establish its headquarters on the Island of Likoma, which is distant 
about eight miles from the east coast of Lake Nyasa, and consequently is not 
so subject to the attacks of the Magwangwara or Yao. 

The Livingstonia Mission under the able guidance of Dr. Robert Laws, M.IJ. 
had been for years making steady progress on the west coast of Lake Nyasa. 
Their first experiments at Cape Maclear, 4 a promontory which divides the 
southern end of the lake into two gulfs, were not very successful. The settle- 
ment of Livingstonia, which still exists but where only native adherents of 
the Mission dwell at the present time, proved to be extremely unhealthy for 
Europeans, and many missionaries died there. Dr. Laws decided, therefore, 
to transfer the headquarters of the Mission to Bandawe, about midway up the 
west coast of the lake, a place in the middle of the A tonga country. Here the 
Free Church Mission was confronted with an immediate difficulty in the shape 
of the Angoni-Zulu of the interior, who were gradually exterminating and 
enslaving the indigenous people of the lake-coast, known as the Atonga, who 
were related in origin to the A-nyanja stock. The Free Church Mission, 
therefore, set itself to work to conciliate the Angoni, and obtained such 
influence over them, after some years, that they stopped to a great extent their 
raids over the coast people. At any rate the Mission stations served as a 
harbour of refuge for the harried Atonga, who were eventually able to recover 
their position and assert themselves against the invaders. 

About the end of the seventies the London Missionary Society resolved 
to take up Tanganyika as a sphere of work. Their journeys thither were made 
overland from Zanzibar ; but when they decided to have a steamer placed 
on Tanganyika they found it easier to send its sections by the Lake Nyasa 
route. The explorer, Joseph Thomson, had reached the north end of Lake 
Nyasa in 1880, and had journeyed thence to Tanganyika. This exploration 

1 Died at sea on his way back to England in 1894, worn out by ten years of incessant toil and physical 

2 Became Bishop of Likoma in 1895, and was drowned in Lake Nyasa a few months afterwards by 
the capsizing of his boat in a storm. 

:i A section of the Angoni-Zulu. established east of Lake Nyasa. 

4 Named by Livingstone after the Astronomer- Royal of Cape Town. 


had assisted in fixing the relative position of the two lakes and showing that 
the land transit between them did not much exceed 200 miles. The African 
Lakes Company were entrusted with the contract for conveying the London 
Missionary Society's steamer from Nyasa to Tanganyika, an enterprise success- 
fully accomplished in 1885. Mr. James Stevenson, a director of the Lakes 
Company, was struck with the idea of making a permanent road from lake 
to lake, and subscribed a sum of, I believe, 2000 or 3000, for the purpose 
of making preliminary surveys. The Stevenson road, however, was never 
completed, but the route it was to follow was roughly cleared for about sixty 
miles from Lake Nyasa. The engineers concerned in this work died of fever, 
and further operations were checked by the outbreak of war with the Arabs. 
The London Missionary Society did not, at first, think much of the Lake 
Nyasa route to Tanganyika, but preferred the overland journey from Zanzibar. 
They therefore devoted their attention more to the middle portion of the lake, 
especially the west coast opposite to Ujiji, and established themselves here 
on the island of Kavala. The unhealthiness of this place, however, and the 
troubles which began to arise on Tanganyika after the first Belgian expeditions, 
and from the subsequent uprising against the Germans, obliged the London 
Missionary Society's agents to alter their plans. They transferred their 
establishments to the south end of the lake, in order to be brought into more 
direct communication with the British settlements in Nyasaland. 

The first serious danger which may be said to have menaced the infant 
settlements in Nyasaland, was the trouble with the Makololo chiefs, to which I 
have already referred. The next danger, and a much more serious one, 
arose from the conflict with the Arabs who had settled at the north end of 
Lake Nyasa. When Livingstone and Kirk first explored Lake Nyasa they 
practically only found the Arabs established in a few places at one or other 
of the ports on what is now the Portuguese coast of Lake Nyasa, and at 
Kotakota on the western shore of the lake ; l at which latter place Livingstone 
visited an Arab settlement under the control of a person called "Jumbe," 
who was a coast Arab, and a representative or wait of the Sultan of Zanzibar. 
Jumbe means "prince" on the mainland opposite Zanzibar, and the Sultan had 
no doubt chosen as his representative a man who went to Nyasa for trade 
purposes principally, but who was of sufficiently good standing to exercise 
some show of authority, in the Sultan's name, over the Arabs wandering in 
those regions. When I use the term " Arabs " I mean both Arabs with white 
skins of pure blood (and usually natives of 'Oman or of Southern Arabia) 
and every degree of intermixture and type between the Arab and the negro, 
so that some of our so-called Arabs in Nyasaland are quite black, though in 
the shape of their features or in their beards, they may retain traces of the 
intermixture of a superior race. But all these so-called Arabs are sharply 
distinguished from the ordinary negroes by dressing in Arab costume, using the 
Arabic language, and by being stricter and more intelligent in their practices 
of the Muhammadan religion. 

The first interference of the Arabs with Nyasaland was merely to secure 
a passage across the lake in their caravan journeys to the countries of Senga, 
Lubisa, and Luwemba, which journeys were undertaken for ivory, or slaves, and 
had commenced, as I have already related, by their following back into South 
Central Africa the Babisa caravans that formerly traded with Zanzibar. The 

1 " Xgotangota" as the natives call it, the Arabs having corrupted the name into the easier pronun- 
ciation of Kotakota. ' 



Arabs, however, soon established themselves in strong stockades in the Senga 
country, through which the great Luangwa River flows. Then they began 
to adopt, as an alternative route to the journey across Lake Nyasa, the direct 
journey from Zanzibar overland across the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau ; and 
gradually the strong Arab dominion on Lake Tanganyika became connected 
with the settlements in the Senga country and on Lake Nyasa. The Arabs 

had also found a friend and ally in Merere, an 
intelligent and enterprising chief of the Wa-sango 
people, who had his capital in the high mountainous 
region to the north of Lake Nyasa. In their journeys 
to and fro between Senga and the sea coast, by way 
of the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, the Arabs became 
struck with the magnificent fertility and the wealth 
in cattle of the Nkonde country at the north end of 
Lake Nyasa. A certain Zanzibar Arab, named Mlozi, 1 
appears to have commenced by trading in the country, 
and gradually proceeded to surround his trade estab- 
lishments with stockades and by degrees take forcible 
possession of this delectable land. Mlozi had, with 
several other Arabs, established strong trading stations 
in the Senga country, and was almost a prince among 
slave traders. But Mlozi's schemes were not to be so 
easily accomplished. Prior to his settlement in the 

Nkonde country, or simultaneous with it at any rate, the Lakes Company had 
obtained a footing at Karonga for the purpose of opening up communication 
with Lake Tanganyika. 

The Lakes Company had employed amongst other Europeans two notable 
men to conduct the expeditions which transported the London Missionary 
Society's steamer in sections from Nyasa to Tanganyika. These men were 
Low Monteith Fotheringham and John Lowe Nicoll. Mr. Fotheringham had 
become finally their agent at Karonga, on the north- 
west coast of Lake Nyasa, while Mr. Nicoll was chiefly ^K 
employed on Tanganyika and in going backwards and 
forwards between Nyasa and Tanganyika. Fothering- 
ham was a man of very strong character and upright 
disposition, severe occasionally with the natives in 
maintaining the laws which he laid down for the 
maintenance of order, but of great bravery, and 
absolutely just in his dealings. No qualities ensure 
a man greater favour amongst the negroes than 
mingled firmness and justice ; and the natives of the 
north end of Lake Nyasa, the Mambwe of the Nyasa- 
Tanganyika plateau, and the Atonga of West Nyasa, 
came by degrees to look upon Mr. Fotheringham 2 as 
their natural leader and champion. The Arabs under 
Mlozi began to press their rule on the Nkonde people. 

The Wankonde looked to Fotheringham for advice and protection. Fothering- 
ham was at first disinclined to interfere in the quarrels, as he feared that the 

1 Mlozi means in Swahili "an almond tree"; but I expect the real derivation of the word is 
from Mulozi (= a sorcerer) in the dialects spoken in the Senga and Bisa countries. 

2 Whom they called Montisi, from an Africanising of his second name. 




results of a fight with the Arabs might seriously prejudice the Lakes Company's 
position, and cut off communication with Lake Tanganyika ; but he was not 
long left the choice of remaining neutral, for the Arabs appear to have come to 
the conclusion that the conquest of all the Nkonde country was impossible 
until they had first driven out the British traders and Missionaries ; for two 
missionaries, the Rev. Mr. Bain and Dr. Kerr Cross, 1 had already settled at the 
north end of Lake Xyasa in the service of the Free Church Mission. Of 
course much of the friction that had arisen between the Arabs and the Lakes 
Company's agent came from the undoubted sympathy which the British traders 
showed for the YVankonde in their hopeless struggle against the Arab forces. 
One fact may be cited in particular as an example of the atrocious way in 


which the Arabs conducted this war of conquest. The Wankonde, who were 
entirely and only armed with spears, had been defeated in an engagement with 
the Arabs, and took refuge on the banks of the Kambwe lagoon, on the shore 
of Lake Nyasa. The Arabs surrounded them, set fire to the dry reeds, and 
compelled the wretched Wankonde to enter the water, where hundreds of them 
were devoured by crocodiles, and large numbers were shot, stabbed, or 
drowned. 2 Several refugees from this and other fights found their way into the 
Lakes Company's station, which was then unfortified. Mr. Fotheringham's 
refusal to give them up and his answering the Arab threats by commencing to 
fortify Karonga were no doubt the causes which decided the Arabs to make 
an attack on the Karonga station. Fortunately before this attack took place 

1 Dr. Kerr Cross is still serving as a medical missionary in this part of Africa, where he has done 
great good amongst the natives, as well as having nursed into recovery many sick Europeans. 

2 Fora faithful description of these horrors see pp. 80, 8l, and 82 of the late Mr. Fotheringham's. 
book Adventures in Nyasaland (Sampson Low). 




reinforcements were received. Mr. Nicoll arrived from Tanganyika and the 
little steamer Ilala returned from South Nyasa bringing Consul O'Neill, of 
Mozambique, and Mr. Alfred Sharpe and two other gentlemen who had decided 
to come to the rescue of the Europeans threatened by the Arabs. 

Karonga was attacked and besieged for days though the Arabs were 
finally repulsed after desperate fighting; but eventually the British position 

became untenable, and after communicating the 

news of his dangerous situation to the Manager 

at Mandala, Mr. Fotheringham, Mr. Nicoll, and 
the others who had joined them, decided to with- 
draw with the Wankonde chiefs into a part of 
the country where they would be better sheltered 
from the Arab attack. They removed most of 
their goods in canoes, abandoned the station at 
Karonga, and remained in the country at the 
extreme north end of the lake until reinforce- 
ments arrived. Amongst the volunteers who 
came to their aid, were Mr. Consul Hawes and 
Mr. John Moir. The arrival of these slight 
reinforcements and the aid of five thousand 
natives enabled Mr. Fotheringham to attack, 
enter, and partially destroy Mlozi's stockade at 
Mpata (in which attack both Mr. Alfred Sharpe 
and Mr. John Moir were wounded). But the native allies abandoned the 
stockade after having loaded themselves with loot and the whites had to 
retreat without consummating their defeat of the Arabs by the destruction 
of all their stockades. After this all the volunteers returned to South 
Nyasa and Messrs. Fotheringham, Nicoll, and Kerr Cross lived for a time 
at Chirenje, to the north-west of Karonga, while the Arabs regained to some 
extent their former position, though they never were able actively to assume the 
offensive. Early in March, more volunteers returned to North Nyasa. With 
them came Mr. John Buchanan (Acting Consul) and Mr. Fred Moir, joint 
manager of the Lakes Co. Mr. Buchanan attempted 
to negotiate a peace with the Arabs, but the negotia- 
tions had no result. Hostilities were then resumed, 
but Mr. Fred Moir was severely wounded, and again 
owing to the vacillation of their native allies the British 
failed to score any great success. 

When the news of this fighting at the north end of 
Lake Nyasa reached the outer world, several gentlemen 
volunteered to assist the Lakes Company, the principal 
among these being Capt. Lugard, 1 who was constituted 
by the Lakes Company the Commander of their forces im w , ^^ 
in North Nyasa. Capt. Lugard was subsequently re- FREDERICK MAITLAND MOIR 
joined by Mr. Alfred Sharpe, 2 by Mr. Richard Crawshay 
(who had also come to the country as a hunter), by Mr. John Moir, and others. 

1 Now Major Lugard, C.B. 

* Now Her Majesty's Deputy Commissioner and Consul. Mr. Sharpe originally came to Nyasaland 
to hunt elephants and big game, but hearing of the Lakes Company's distress he came to their assistance 
with Consul O'Neill in the manner above related. After being wounded and proceeding to the 
south to recover he returned with Captain Lugard and 'fought out the rest of the campaign, marching 
up overland at the head of a large number of Atonga. 



Mr. Frederick Moir, whose arm had been severely wounded, had returned to 
Scotland to recover his health. From thence he succeeded in sending out a 
/-pounder gun, as it was felt the Arabs could only be adequately fought 
with artillery. But unfortunately, although this gun ultimately reached its 
destination, it was not provided with the right kind of ammunition. Its 


shells merely drilled round holes in the tough stockades which, being made of 
withes and mud, did not offer sufficient resistance for a real breach to be made. 
A good deal of damage was done to the Arabs who were shut up in their 
fortresses and much inconvenienced for lack of food, but the British, on the 
other hand, suffered severely, having one of their officers killed and several 
more or less severely wounded, besides the terrible ill-health which resulted 
from fighting during the rainy season. Amongst the wounded was Captain 
Lugard who returned to Blantyre, got his wound partially healed, and then 


once more took command at Karonga. Captain Lugard finally quitted Nyasa- 
land in the spring of 1889, finding it impossible to bring the Arab war to 
a conclusion without disciplined troops and efficient artillery. 

An attempt was made by Sir Charles Euan-Smith, Her Majesty's Consul- 
General at Zanzibar, to induce the Sultan of that place to intervene, and to 
bring the war to a conclusion by compelling the Arabs to come to terms 
with the British. The Sultan accordingly dispatched an envoy, but he 
commanded very little weight in the councils of the Senga Arabs, who 
considered themselves quite independent of the Sultan's authority. 

The consequences of this war with the Arabs, which was clearly known 
by the natives of Xyasaland to be a war for the suppression of the slave 
trade, aroused a good many expressions of ill-feeling against the English on 
the part of the Muhammadan Vao on the east coast of Lake Nyasa. Mr. 
John Buchanan, who had been Acting Consul since the departure on leave 
of Mr. Hawes, attempted to open up friendly relations with Makanjira, the 
Yao chief on the south-east coast of the lake. He paid him a visit with the 
Rev. W. P. Johnson, in the Mission steamer, the Charles Janson. To their 
surprise, however, they had no sooner landed than they were seized, stripped 
of their clothes, and grossly maltreated They w r ere imprisoned in huts, 
and Makanjira announced his intention of killing them, and would probably 
have done so, but for the persuasion of some Zanzibar Arabs, who represented 
that their deaths would certainly be avenged, and that the Sultan of Zanzibar 
would hold them the intercessors responsible, after what had occurred, if 
English subjects were killed in their presence, and without remonstrance on 
their part. Makanjira accordingly held his captives up to ransom. They 
were obliged to write to the engineer of their steamer, which was in the 
offing, to send on shore an enormous supply of trade goods and ship's 
stores. When these things arrived Makanjira released them, though he 
neither restored their clothes nor the personal property of which they had 
been robbed. Mr. Buchanan, the Acting Consul, had even been whipped 
with a chikote 1 by Makanjira's orders not severely, but just with two or 
three stripes to show his contempt for the British. 

After a little vacillation the Arabs of Tanganyika had decided not to join 
with their fellow countrymen in the war against the British, and indeed after 
a little more deliberation, that section under the orders of Tiputipu 2 had 
determined to protect the British missionaries on Lake Tanganyika from 
violence at the hands of any other Arabs who might, in consequence of their 
uprising against the Germans, have resolved to assassinate all Europeans 
in the interior. Likewise the Arab settlement at Kotakota, which was under 
the third in succession of " Jumbes," who continued to be the wali of the 
Sultan of Zanzibar, resolved to remain neutral. Generally speaking, it may 
be said that at this crisis the influence of the Sultan of Zanzibar was exercised 
strongly in favour of the British. Had he not compelled peace and a good 
understanding with them, all the Arabs of Central Africa would have gladly 
united in a war to drive us out of Lake Nyasa, and would have doubtless 
succeeded in doing so, as in those days owing to difficulties with the Portuguese, 
it was found very difficult to import supplies of guns and ammunition. 

The general situation in British Central Africa, before I was personally 
connected with its fortunes, was as follows. 

1 A whip of hippopotamus hide. 

- Whom, of course, the British -will call "Tippoo-tib." 


In the Barutse country, a strong kingdom of large extent, existed a ruling 
caste of Bechuana (who had first organised the territories on the Upper 
Zambezi into a large kingdom, and had been subsequently dispossessed of 
power to some extent by revolution) and the descendants of the old rulers, 
who w r ere of Baloi, or Balui, stock. These latter had replaced in sovereign 
power the Bechuana 1 kings. But otherwise the government of the Upper 
Zambezi countries in their political tendencies remained much what it was 
in the days when Livingstone first discovered Barutseland. Eastwards of the 
Barutse country, the lands of the Bashikulombwe, of the Batonga and Manika, 
remained in a state of utter barbarism, fiercely recalcitrant to European 
researches. Little was known of the country since the explorations of Kirk 
and Livingstone; Dr. Emil Holub, an Austrian explorer, had been repulsed; 
Mr. Selous, who had penetrated farthest into this part of Central Africa, was 
attacked and obliged to fly for his life; and Jesuit Missionaries had either been 
maltreated, killed, or expelled, in their attempts to penetrate these countries. 
On the lower part of the great Luangwa river, the country was harried by black 
chieftains from the Zambezi, who called themselves " Portuguese," on the 
strength of remote Goanese descent. In the Senga and Lubisa countries, 
Arabs and Swahilis were carrying on the slave trade, and gradually establishing 
themselves in the land by means of building stockaded towns. At the south 
end of Lake Tanganyika there were one or two missionaries settled and 
building. At the north end of Lake Nyasa a war between Arabs and Scotch 
traders had been going on for two years. Missionaries were peacefully at work 
in West Nyasaland, but on the east coast of the lake their work was 
paralysed by the hostility of Makanjira. The Yao, who, since Livingstone's 
first arrival in the country, had gradually conquered much of the Shire 
Highlands, and had established themselves at the south end, and along the 
south-east and south-west coasts of Lake Nyasa, were engaged, either in 
incessant civil war amongst themselves, in attacks on their weaker neighbours, 
or in hostilities against the British. In the Shire Highlands coffee-planting had 
already begun under Mr. Buchanan, who had been joined by two of his 
brothers, and under Mr. Sharrer, a British subject of German descent, who 
had established himself as a planter and trader in Nyasaland. In the Shire 
Highlands the missionaries of the Church of Scotland Mission had acquired a 
considerable influence, an influence justly due to their high character and their 
devotion to the interests of the natives, but an influence which at that time 
they were too much inclined to exercise with the view to governing the country 
themselves, independently of Consuls or other representatives of Her Majesty. 
The rival to the Scotch Missionaries, as a governing body, was the African 
Lakes Company, which was half hoping for a Charter, and was striving to 
obtain from the native chiefs a concession of governing rights. Sometimes 
the interests of the Lakes Company and the Mission were conflicting, and 
not infrequently the two or three independent planters could agree with neither. 
The Universities Mission was supposed to hold the opinion that the war with 
the Arabs was unwise, and owing to its friendly relations on the lake with 
the Arabs more or less attached to the Sultan of Zanzibar, that Mission 
did not identify itself with any movement for the expulsion of the Arabs 
from Nyasaland. A French Evangelical Mission had established itself in 
the Barutse country, and was acquiring a very great influence over the natives.- 
The seat of this Mission, however, lay in British South Africa, and so far 

' i.e., Makololo. - An influence always used for disinterested and proper ends. 


as these French Missionaries had any political sentiments at all they were 
on the side of bringing the Barutse under British influence. The history of 
Barutseland is only artificially connected with the rest of British Central 
Africa, by the fact that at present it is included within the same political 
sphere. Otherwise its history is mainly connected in the past with that of 
British South Africa, and in the future it will unquestionably become an 
appanage of that portion of the Empire. 1 

The greatest difficulty which at that time hampered the development of the 
eastern part of British Central Africa, was the fact that it could only be 
approached from the outer world through Portuguese East African Possessions. 
In those days, anyone wishing to proceed to Lake Nyasa, and shirking the 
overland journey from Zanzibar, which was lengthy, arduous, and often full 
of risk, landed at Quelimane, a little to the north of the Zambezi delta, 
journeyed up the Kwakwa River in small boats to a point called Mopeia, then 
crossed overland, a distance of three or four miles, to Vicenti, a trading station 
on the Zambezi. At Vicenti one was met by either of the African Lakes 
Company's two steamers, the James Stevenson or the Lady Nyasa, and so 
travelled on up the Zambezi and up the Shire, as far as the season of the year, 
and consequent depth of the waters would permit, and thence overland 
to the British settlements. This route, however, compelled travellers to land 
at the Portuguese port of Quelimane ; and even assuming the Kwakwa to be, 
like the Zambezi, an international waterway, a fact which could not be asserted 
and maintained, it was impossible to reach the waters of the Zambezi without 
crossing a mile or so of Portuguese territory. No arrangement existed with 
Portugal to secure us exemption from Customs duties or even graver 
hindrances that might be placed in our way by the local Portuguese authorities, 
and these authorities bearing in mind that the boundaries of Portuguese and 
British influence in the Hinterland had not yet been settled were naturally 
very jealous of this immigration of British subjects, the said British subjects 
being never too careful of Portuguese rights and susceptibilities. It was this 
difficulty with the Portuguese which had caused Her Majesty's Government 
in 1863 to arrive at the conclusion that the Zambezi expedition of Livingstone 
must be recalled. It was again this difficulty which hampered Her Majesty's 
Government in the "eighties," in preventing them from affording active assistance 
to the traders on Lake Nyasa in their war with the Arabs, and, indeed, in 
formulating an}- decisive policy in regard to Nyasaland. Had it been possible 
for vessels of fair size and draught to enter the river Zambezi from the sea, 
all these difficulties from overland transport would have disappeared. Her 
Majesty's Government had for some time past maintained the principle of the 
freedom of navigation of the Zambezi, but although ships did occasionally 
succeed in getting over the bar of the Kongone mouth a bar on which at 
low tide there was only a depth of 5 to 6 feet of water the enterprise was too 
uncertain to be often prosecuted, and the best proof of its impracticability lay 
in the fact that the African Lakes Company had almost abandoned this way 
into the Zambezi, and preferred to pay the heavy Customs duties of Quelimane 
and submit to all reasonable restrictions on the part of the Portuguese, rather 
than attempt to communicate with the Shire by means of the Kongone mouth 
of the Zambezi an attempt indeed which they could only make at fitful 

1 Whereas, on the other hand, the history of the eastern half of British Central Africa, east of the 
Kafue River, has always been mixed up with that of Zanzibar and the northern half of Portuguese I as) 


intervals, and by specially chartering ocean-going steamers, as no established 
Steamship Line \vould hear of calling in at the Kongone mouth as a matter 
of course. 

At this juncture a discovery of the greatest importance was made, which 
completely altered the political aspect of the question. Mr. Daniel J. Rankin, 
an explorer who had originally proceeded to Nyasaland as private secretary 
to Consul Foot, and who had also acted in a Consular capacity at Mozambique, 
was enabled by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society to institute an 
exploration of the Zambezi delta. In the course of his journey he discovered 
the Chinde mouth of the Zambezi, which apparently was quite unknown to the 
Portuguese Government, though it had probably been first discovered by a 
Portuguese planter who was working a concession in the delta. This planter's 
information put Mr. Rankin on the track of his discovery, which he announced 
to the world in the spring of iSSQ. 1 It was briefly this, that the Chinde mouth 
of the Zambezi possessed a bar shorter and safer and simpler than that of any 
other outlet of the Zambezi, and with a minimum depth of water at high tide 
of 17 feet (as against, say, 10 feet at the Kongone). At the time Mr. Rankin 
sounded the bar, I believe he found a depth of water on it of 21 or 22 feet, 
a depth which has several times since been recorded, but chiefly at that season 
of the year when the river was visited by Mr. Rankin, namely when the 
Zambezi is in full flood. Ordinarily the depth of water at high spring-tides 
is 17 to 19 feet. Not only was the Chinde bar a far less serious obstacle 
than that of any other mouth of the Zambezi, but its channel from the sea 
into the main Zambezi was easier of navigation than the other branches of 
that river. In its far-reaching political importance, probably no greater 
discover}- in the history of British Central Africa has been made than that 
of the navigability of the Chinde River from the Indian Ocean to the main 

1 In the Times Newspaper. 



ANY direct personal interest which I may have taken in the affairs of 
Nyasaland dates from the commencement of 1884. 
I had returned from a prolonged examination of the western basin 
of the River Congo and my opinion was invited at the Foreign Office on certain 
points connected with the proposed treaty with Portugal regulating the political 
and commercial affairs of the Lower Congo. 

This treaty contained a clause providing that Portuguese political influence 
should cease in the direction of Nyasaland at the junction of the Ruo and 
Shire rivers. Had the treaty been ratified this clause would have obviated any 
further frontier disputes with Portugal, north of the Zambezi ; but owing to 
unreasonable opposition in certain quarters it was not ratified, and then the 
Berlin Conference was called to deal generally with questions affecting the 
Congo and the Niger, and Zambezian affairs were postponed in their settlement. 
The Portuguese were now free of any obligation in regard to Nyasaland, and 
being an enterprising and ambitious people, determined once more to revive 
their scheme of a trans-continental Empire from Angola to Mozambique, 
including the southern part of what is now Central Africa. They were aided 
in these assumptions by the remarkable journeys of their explorers, Capello 
and Ivens. 

Lord Salisbury's Ministry, however, had succeeded to power, and in several 
speeches in the House of Lords the Premier could not conceal the interest that 
he felt in the struggle going on between the Arabs and the African Lakes 
Company, or his resolve to maintain Nyasaland as a country open to British 
enterprise without the restrictions which would result from its transference 
to any other European Power. Owing to the difficulty about a direct water 
route into the heart of South Central Africa to which I have alluded in the 
last chapter, I believe it was not the object of Her Majesty's Ministers in 1887 
to establish any actual Protectorate over Nyasaland : they merely wished that 
it should become neither German nor Portuguese, but be ruled by its native 
chiefs, under the advice, it might be, of a British Consul, but in any case 
that it should remain open to the British traders, planters and missionaries 
without let or hindrance. 

In 1888 I had returned from three years of Consular work in the Niger 
Coast Protectorate, and in the summer of that year Lord Salisbury held a short 
conversation with me at Hatfield in which he developed his views about 
Zambezia. From this conversation I date, to a great extent, my own concep- 



tion of the policy to be pursued. 1 In the autumn of 1888 I was offered and 
accepted the post of Consul to Portuguese East Africa. At the beginning 
of 1889 it was decided by the Foreign Office that I should travel in the interior, 
and report on the troubles which had arisen with the Arabs, and above all with 
the Portuguese ; and that in those districts admittedly beyond Portuguese 
jurisdiction I should take measures to secure the country from abrupt seizure 
by other European Powers, by concluding treaties of friendship with the native 
chiefs, in which they bound themselves not to transfer their governing rights 
to any European Power without the consent of Her Majesty's Government. 
Before starting for my post, however, it was thought by Lord Salisbury that 
I might, by personal intercourse with the Portuguese Authorities at Lisbon, 
suggest some modus vivcndi with regard to the settlement of out conflicting 
claims. I, accordingly, spent some six weeks in Portugal, and in conjunction 
with Her Majesty's Envoy, Mr., now Sir George, Petre, discussed the subject 
of Xyasaland at the Portuguese Foreign Office. A draft arrangement was 
drawn up, which after some modifications was shown to the Portuguese Minister 
for Foreign Affairs, and approved by him. It was then submitted to the 
English Foreign Office, but as it did not provide for the exclusion of the Shire 
Highlands from the Portuguese Sphere it was not deemed acceptable by Her 
Majesty's Government, as the chief object of any such arrangement at that 
time was to secure the work of the English missionaries and planters from 
interference. This arrangement might, however, have been modified in that 
respect without difficulty on the part of the Portuguese, but the fact was that 
the Government felt reluctant to push the matter to an immediate conclusion 
in the face of two obstacles, one being the want of direct water communication 
with the interior beyond the Portuguese Sphere, and the other, the difficulty 
which would be experienced by the Imperial Government at that time, in 
finding funds for incurring the great responsibility of administering the districts 
bordering on Lake Nyasa, a territory that did not then promise much or, indeed, 
any local revenue of its own. Two things now occurred to dispel Government 
anxieties on these accounts : Mr. Rankin announced his discovery of the Chinde 
mouth, and Mr. Cecil Rhodes arrived in England to obtain a Charter for his 
Company. I made the acquaintance of Mr. Rhodes, and found him much 
disposed to interest himself in the extension of British influence across the 
Zambezi. As the result of several conferences Mr. Rhodes was able to assure 
the Foreign Office that his proposed Chartered Company would find at least 
,10,000 a year, for several years, for the development and administration 
of Xyasaland. Under these new circumstances, therefore, the Government 
felt justified in attempting to secure for Great Britain a reasonable amount 
of political influence over those countries of Central Africa, not claimed by 
Germany, Portugal, or the Congo Free State. The form of Treaty that was 
drawn up was not, however, altered, as it was not intended to proclaim any 
Protectorate, if more indirect means of political supremacy could be attained. 

It should, perhaps, be stated that the attention of Her Majesty's Government 
had been drawn in the spring of 1889 to the imposing expedition which was to 
be commanded by Major Serpa Pinto in Portuguese Zambezia. 

Explanations had been asked for in Lisbon as to its eventual destination, 

1 Y\ hat this conception was may be found in an article in the Times of August 22nd, i88S. which it 
may be interesting for some persons to re-read now as it was written at a time when such ideas as a British 
dominion, including an establishment on the shores of Tanganyika and through communication between 
the Cape and Kgypt had never before been specifically enunciated. 


but the Portuguese Minister for Foreign Affairs assured Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment that Serpa Pinto would merely proceed to the Portuguese establishments 
on the Upper Zambezi and on the Luangwa River, and would not enter 
the debatable ground of the Shire Highlands. Consequently, as the Portuguese 
claim to Zumbo and to the Lower Luangwa had not been contested or 
indeed their claims anywhere where occupation or political supremacy could 
shown it was thought that if the Portuguese did not attempt to impose then- 
rule on any new lands where our interests might be affected, no such direct step 
as the establishment of a Protectorate on our part should be undertaken until 
negotiations with Germany and Portugal had, more or less precisely, fixed 
the limits of our political influence. 

I started for Mozambique in the early summer of 1889. On my arriva 
at that place the Foreign Office, at my request, appointed Mr. W. A. Churchill, 
Vice-Consul, so that I might be free to start on my journey to the interior, 
without leaving Consular matters unattended to. Soon after 
Mocambique there arrived H.M.S. Stork, a surveying vessel commanded 
by Lieut-Commander Balfour, R.N. The Stork had just returned from Chinde, 
where it had been sent to verify Mr. Rankin's discoveries. The Commander 
informed me that in his steam-launch he had passed up into the Zambezi, an 
had found the channel all the way deep enough for even the Stork herself, and 
the Stork was a vessel drawing I 3 | feet. I felt that it would be good policy to 
show that I had reached these regions of the interior, without necessarily 
landino- O n Portuguese territory, so I obtained permission from the Government 
to use the Stork for the conveyance of my expedition. At the same time the 
authorities at Mocambique were made fully aware of the purposes I intended to 
fulfil namely the negotiation of a peace with the Arabs and the conclusion of 
treaties of friendship with the local chiefs, who were not under Portuguese juris- 
diction The Governor asked me pointedly if I intended to proclaim a British 
Protectorate, and I told him I was authorised to do nothing of the kind, so 
as Major Serpa Pinto or other Portuguese explorers took no political 
outside Portuguese territory. No difficulty whatever was placed in my way by 
the Portuguese, whether or not they approved of my expedition. think parti- 
cular stress should be laid on this fact, as had Portugal been animated by really 
hostile intentions to Great Britain, there were a hundred pretexts by whic 
might have stopped my journey. So little need was there to preserve any 
mystery about my operations, that instead of proceeding direct to Chiridt 
I called in with the Stork at Quelimane, and there visited the Portuguese 
officials, and communicated with the African Lakes Company. The Stork 
crossed the bar of the Chinde mouth without difficulty, on the 28th ot J u y, 
1889 and steamed up the Chinde River into the main Zambezi, to the 
unbounded astonishment of such few inhabitants as were on the banks, K 
neither they nor any other people had seen so large a vessel enter the Zam 
before A short distance above the confluence of the Chinde with the mam Zambezi 
the Stork came to anchor, and we continued our journey in a flotilla ot stean 
launches and boats, by which means we finally came up with the African 
I akes Company's steamer, the fames Stevenson, near Morambala, a very r 
mountain which is situated some twenty miles up the Shire River. My expe 
tion consisted of Mr. J. L. Nicoll, formerly of the Lakes Company s service,- 
whom I had engaged at Quelimane as an assistant ; AH Kiongwe, my Zanzibar! 
headman, who had accompanied me on my journey to Kilimanjaro, and wh< 
1 Now Consul at IVfogambique. '-' Just returning from the Aral. War. 


had re-engaged at Zanzibar in 1889; and fifteen Makua, engaged \vith the con- 
sent of the Portuguese authorities at Mozambique. T\IQ James Stevenson was a 
river steamer of about forty tons burden, worked by a stern wheel, and wit'i 
fairly comfortable cabin accommodation, and an upper deck. In this steamer 
we pursued our course up the river, until we reached Serpa Pinto's camp, 
which was a little distance below the confluence of the Ruo and the Shire. I 
had been startled, on reaching Quelimane, to learn from the Portuguese officials 
there, that Major Serpa Pinto, after journeying to Sena on the Lower Zambezi 
with his expedition, had suddenly, and abruptly, deflected his course northwards 
to the Shire, and was apparently making for the Makololo country, and the 
Shire Highlands. Major Serpa Pinto had been 
apprised of my coming, and when the James 
Stevenson drew near he dispatched an officer and 
a boat, so that I might land and see him. I found 
Serpa Pinto surrounded by a staff of white officers, 
and was informed that he had with him over seven 
hundred Zulu soldiers. 1 

The Major received me in a little hut, and after 
insisting on my sharing his afternoon tea, we began 
to discuss the political situation. He informed me 
that he sought my intervention with the Makololo 
people, to persuade them to allow him to pass un- 
hindered through their country, as he was on his 
way to Lake Nyasa in charge of a Scientific Expedi- 
tion. " We go," he said, " to visit that Portuguese 
subject, Mponda, at the south end of Lake Nyasa." 2 
I replied to Major Serpa Pinto, "If you are only in 
charge of a Scientific Expedition, you need, at most, 
an escort of fifty soldiers ; but the Makololo are sure 
to view your journey with distrust if you attempt to 
bring so large an armed force into the country ; 
moreover, your Government has distinctly assured 
us that the object of your mission was the Upper 
Zambezi, and not the Shire. Consequently, if you 
take any political action north of the Ruo, which we 
consider, provisionally, to be the Portuguese limit, 
you will oblige me, on my part, to go beyond my 
immediate instructions and effectively protect the 
interests of Her Majesty's Government. If you merely wish to pass through 
the country for scientific purposes we will travel together, and I will do my 
best to persuade the Makololo to offer no opposition." 

Major Serpa Pinto did not give any very definite reply to these remarks 
of mine, merely reiterating his hope that I would prevail on the Makololo 
to offer no opposition to his passage ; otherwise he would be obliged to fight 

I proceeded on my way in the James Stevenson, and soon afterwards 

1 Many of these men were inhabitants of Gazaland and Inyambane, but a few of them were 
undoubtedly Zulus, who had been recruited in Swaziland and in the vicinity of Delagoa Bay. 

2 I was aware that the Portuguese had endeavoured by means of Senor Cardo/o, the only 
explorer who had at that date reached the shores of Lake Nyasa, to conclude a treaty with M \ 

but it was common knowledge that although he had received the Mission in a friendly way. he had i.ot 
signed the treaty. 



we passed the junction of the Ruo and the Shire, and the steamer stopped 
at Chiromo, on the north bank of the river Ruo. Here we found a large 
native village, under two young chiefs, Mbengwa and Makwira, sons of 
the Chipatula who had been killed by Fenwick. There was an English 
trading station at Chiromo, belonging to two young English elephant 
hunters, named Pettitt. Whilst the steamer stopped at Chiromo, I saw 
the two chiefs, and explained to them that they were not to take any 
aggressive action against the Portuguese, even if the latter crossed the 
Ruo in force. In such a case as this they were to inform the Acting 
Consul at Blantyre. From Chiromo we passed on up the River Shire, 
through the Elephant Marsh, but as we approached nearer to the Makololo 
settlements beyond the Elephant Marsh, the captain of the James Stevenson 
became greatly perturbed as to the attitude which might be observed by the 
powerful Makololo chief, Mlauri. Mlauri was no more friendly at that time 
to the English than to the Portuguese. Towards the English he had been 
very aggressive on account of his not having been recognised as supreme 
chief of the Makololo. He had several times tried to get hold of the two 
young chiefs of Chiromo, in order that he might kill them, and was furious 
with the Pettitts and with a Mr. Simpson, an engineer in the service of the 
Lakes Company, for having intervened to protect them. Mlauri in those 
days occupied a strong position at Mbewe, a place some little distance 
below Katunga, the termination of river navigation on the Lower Shire. 
The set of the current compelled all steamers to pass close under the cliff 
of Mbewe, and they were therefore completely at the mercy of Mlauri's guns, 
and Mlauri was frequently in the habit of firing at the steamers to compel 
them to stop, and either give him a present or await his good pleasure in 
other respects. He had been the leading spirit in the sinking of the Lady 
Xyasa at the time of the disturbance following the death of Chipatula, and 
not having been punished for this his tyrannical obstructions to river navigation 
were becoming unbearable. 

As we neared Mbewe, we saw the banks lined with armed men. The 
captain of the James Stevenson at first determined to steam by at full 
speed, but the natives shouted from the banks that if we did not stop and 
come to an anchor they would fire on us. I therefore advised the captain 
to anchor his vessel at Mbewe, and determined to go on shore and interview 
Mlauri, with the double object of protesting against his behaviour towards 
the British steamers, and cautioning him about falling out with the Portuguese. 
The Rev. Alexander Hetherwick, of the Church of Scotland Mission, was a 
fellow traveller with me on board the James Stevenson, and when he heard 
of my intention to see Mlauri, he kindly volunteered his services as interpreter. 
In those days I could speak nothing but Swahili, and although this language 
might be partially understood by Mlauri, it was preferable to talk straight 
to him in his own language Chi-nyanja. 

We landed amongst a jeering crowd of warriors, armed with guns, who 
were rather inclined to hustle us, but eventually we found our way without 
misadventure to the presence of Mlauri, who was seated in an open space on 
a chair, with a gaudy blanket wrapped round his loins, and a tall white 
chimney-pot hat on his head. He was surrounded by a semi-circle of warriors 
and headmen, and directed us to be seated on some ricketty-looking camp 
chairs placed opposite to him, evidently in readiness for our visit. On our 
attempting to sit on the chairs they collapsed, and we fell to the ground amid 


shouts of derisive laughter from the natives. After this I lost my temper, and 
so severely rated Mlauri in Swahili that whether he understood the drift of 
ni}' words or not, he was convinced I was extremely angry, and being like 
most of these negro chiefs a coward as well as a bully, he became quite 
apologetic. When fresh and more secure seats had been brought for us I 
explained to him through Mr. Hetherwick firstly, that these attempts to 
obstruct the navigation of the Shire would get him into trouble with Her 
Majesty's Government, and, secondly, that he had better not attempt to fight 
the Portuguese if they forced their way through his country, but should leave 
this matter to be decided between the two Governments. Mlauri replied, 
discursively, giving as his reason for annoying the steamers that he was not 
allowed to seize Chipatula's two sons, and that the English would not recognise 
him as paramount chief of the Makololo. Also that he felt convinced that 
\ve were in league with the Portuguese, and that all white men were equally 
bad. He would, therefore, fight Major Serpa Pinto, unless the latter broke 
up his camp and retired to the Zambezi. 

I reiterated my advice to him, not to pursue such a course, and then 
returned to the steamer, which was allowed to leave without further opposition 
on the part of the natives. We soon reached Katunga's, which in some sense 
is the port of Blantyre, that place being about twenty-five miles distant over 
the hills. At Katunga I was met by Mr. John Buchanan, the Acting Consul ; 
by the Rev. D. C. Scott, of the Church of Scotland Mission ; Mr. John Moir. 
the Manager of the Lakes Company ; and by a trader whom I will call Mr. S., 
who was a British subject of German 
origin. I explained to these gentle- 
men the end that I had in view, 
namely, to secure treaties of friendship 
with the Makololo and Yao chiefs, but 
not to declare a British Protectorate 
if possible, unless the Portuguese 
forced my hand, for I considered it 
better to leave the ultimate decision as 
to a Protectorate with Her Majesty's 
Government, who would probably wait 
till the}- had first negotiated a settle- 
ment of boundaries with the Portu- 
guese. Mr. Buchanan and Mr. Moir 
were delighted at the idea of the 
treaties of friendship, but a violent 
opposition was declared thereto by 
Mr. S., the trader, an opposition which, 
at the time, I was totally unable to 
understand, but which was made clear MK ,, )HN BUCHANAN 

to me afterwards by the discovery 

that Mr. S. had, himself, attempted to conclude treaties with the native 
chiefs, by which they were to yield to him their sovereign rights. He had 
not, up to that time, succeeded in inducing them to do so, but he was 
counting much on exploiting the ill-humour of Mlauri. It is not very clear 
what were the intentions of Mr. S. whether to start a Chartered Company 
of his own, or, having acquired a sovereignty over the Shire Highlands, to 
make terms for himself with either England or German}-, England being the 


country of his adoption, and Germany the land of his birth. I do not give 
this gentleman's name in full, because, when the British Protectorate was finally 
declared, he accepted it loyally. I only mention the incident here because 
it was one which rather precipitated our political action. 

A treaty of friendship was concluded by Mr. Buchanan at Katunga with 
all the Makololo chiefs except Mlauri. Subsequently, when Mlauri had 
received his first defeat at the hands of the Portuguese, he made a treaty 
also with Mr. Buchanan. 

Mr. Moir, the manager of the Lakes Company, had invited me to be his 
guest at Mandala, near Blantyre, and had brought down a horse for me to 
ride. In those days there were only two horses in British Central Africa ; 
one of these was ill, and the other lent to me was rather an unmanageable 
beast. It had evidently been bored by the long delay in treaty-making at 
Katunga, and was desperately anxious to return to the pleasanter climate of 
Blantyre, so that when I mounted at Katunga station, it instantly bolted, 
nearly beheading me in the low gateway which formed the entrance to the 
station. Its frantic gallop was checked at the ascent to the hills, and I regained 
command over it ; but soon afterwards the rotten leather bridle came to pieces, 
and before I could clutch at the two ends they had fallen to the ground, the 
horse had put his foot on them, snapping them off, and there I was on his 
back, without any means of controlling him. He realised the situation, and 
once more raced along the narrow path. I did not fall off, but entered 
Blantyre more like Mazeppa than a well-conducted British official. In 
passing through the various archways and tunnels covered with very thorny 
roses, which diversified the garden approach to Mr. Moir's house, I could 
only save myself from serious damage by lying as flat as possible on the 
horse's back, with my arms round his neck. He made straight for his stable, 
and at the fortunately closed door came to a dead stop. I rolled off his back, 
bleeding and bruised, and have always regarded that first ride from Katunga to 
Blantyre as the greatest risk I ever ran in British Central Africa. 

At Blantyre treaties were concluded with the Yao chiefs; and I organised, 
with the help of Mr. John Moir, my expedition to the north end of Lake 
Xyasa. Before leaving for the lake, I made arrangements with Mr. John 
Buchanan as to the course which should be pursued if the Portuguese attempted 
to take forcible possession of the Shire Highlands. In such an event as this, 
if the Portuguese crossed the Ruo in force and gave any evidence of an inten- 
tion to occupy the country politically, Mr. Buchanan was to proclaim a British 
Protectorate over the Shire province, between Lake Chilwa and the Kirk 
Mountains of Angoniland, the River Ruo and Zomba Mountain. This step, 
however, was not to be taken and Her Majesty's Government was not to be 
pledged to a Protectorate over the Shire Highlands, unless there was no 
option between such a proceeding and passively admitting the Portuguese 
conquest of the country. 1 

Subsequent to my departure the following events took place. Major Serpa 
Pinto advanced northwards, along the west bank of the Shire, and was attacked 
by the Makololo' 2 under Mlauri. Mlauri excused himself for this action after- 
wards by complaining that the Portuguese on the east bank of the Shire had 

1 The Protectorate was proclaimed September 21, 1889, after the news of the first conflict between 
the Portuguese and the Makololo (at Mpatsa. just below the Ruo) had reached Mr. Buchanan, who was 
then trying to pacify the Makololo. 

2 November 8, 1889. 


been the aggressors, and had raided some of his villages. His attack, however, 
was completely repulsed by the Portuguese, who inflicted upon him a very 
sanguinary defeat. Up to this point Major Serpa Pinto had not crossed the 
hypothetical boundary of English and Portuguese interests, which had been 
once or twice mentioned to be the River Ruo, and a line more or less parallel 
with the confluence of the Ruo drawn westward across the Shire. So far as I 
am aware Major Serpa Pinto never crossed this line, but when brought face to 
face with the question of doing so, and thereby bringing the Portuguese 
Government into almost open conflict with the British, he left the expedition 

under the charge of Lieut. Coutinho, and proceeded to Mozambique for further 
instructions. 1 In his absence, however, Lieut. Coutinho, whose attitude towards 
Major Serpa Pinto may be described in Lady Macbeth's lines 

" Infirm of purpose ! Give me the day^er ! ;) 

resolved to conquer the Shire province, and meet English remonstrances with 
a fait accompli. Hitherto all the other Makololo chiefs had followed my advice, 
and had not joined Mlauri in attacking the Portuguese. Mlauri's action was 
quite isolated, but Lieut. Coutinho had established a camp on the other side 
of the River Ruo, facing Chiromo. The two young Chiromo chiefs were careful 
to give no cause of offence to Lieut. Coutinho, who suddenly crossed the Ruo 
and seized Chiromo. The Makololo withdrew before him, and he destroyed 
their village and erected very strong fortifications on the small spit of land, 

1 Arriving there December 25, 1889. 


which is a peninsula, with the Shire on the one side and the Ruo on the 
other. 1 

The Portuguese forces then marched up both banks of the Shire, driving 
Mlauri before them. Prior to his first defeat at the hands of the Portuguese 
Mlauri had concluded a treaty with Mr. Buchanan, but as the latter had 
forbidden him to fight with the Portuguese, he was not encouraged, after his 
defeat, to take refuge at Blantyre, whither all the other Makololo chiefs 
proceeded. The Portuguese forces advanced as far as Katunga, and were 
making preparations to occupy Blantyre, when the English Ultimatum to 
Portugal brought matters to a standstill. I have always believed that the 
Portuguese Government in Lisbon neither sanctioned nor approved this forcible 
entry into the district in dispute between England and Portugal, and that they 
even transmitted instructions to Major Serpa Pinto and others not to cross the 
Ruo, if by so doing any conflict was likely to arise with British interests ; but 
that their representative at Mozambique desired a bolder policy and acted far 
beyond his instructions, and even in defiance of them : for at the time when the 
Portuguese Government in Lisbon had assured Lord Salisbury that Major 
Serpa Pinto had left "for Mozambique, and that the expedition would proceed 
no farther in the direction of the Shire Highlands, the Portuguese Governor- 
General at Mozambique issued an official gazette announcing that the Shire 
province had been annexed to the Portuguese dominions, and appointed Lieut. 
Coutinho "Governor of the Shire." These acts were annulled by the Portuguese 
Government after they were brought to their knowledge by the Ultimatum, and 
the Portuguese forces were withdrawn to the Portuguese side of the Ruo, 
though they continued to exercise a strict control over the Shire navigation^ 
frequently stopping the British steamers and boats. At the same time, I think 
it is only right, in historical justice to Portugal, to make it clear that although 
this struggle for the possession of Nyasaland was a sufficiently acute question 
to the Portuguese, and one in which they were passionately interested, no such 
struggle for priority of rights was conducted with more fairness and even 
chivalry. For instance, had Major Serpa Pinto been an unscrupulous man he 
would have, on some pretext or another, stopped my small expedition, and 
whilst detaining me on this pretext, have marched ahead and arbitrarily seized 
the country, before anything could be done to preserve British interests. Again, 
even after the Portuguese had advanced as far as Katunga, and occupied both 
banks of the Shire river, between that place and Chiromo, they placed no 
obstacle in the way of my return. On the contrary, the following incident 
occurred between myself and Lieut. Coutinho, who had been appointed 
" Governor of the Shire." When I passed down that river on my return from 
Tanganyika my boat was stopped by his orders and drawn into the bank by a 
Portuguese sergeant. I was, at first, annoyed at what seemed to be an attempt 
to arrest my progress towards the coast, but fortunately, before I could give 
expression to my angry sentiments, Lieut. Coutinho had met me on the bank, 
and, raising his hat, said, " I have taken the liberty of stopping you so that you 
might not miss your mail-bags which are here awaiting you. As you have had 

1 Chiromo^ means "a big lip." from the word -romo, or -lomo, which in so many Bantu languages 
means ''a lip." The chi- or ki- prefix in Chi-nyanja has the effect of an augmentative. Mromo means 
' a hp : "Chiromo" means "a big lip/' This chi- prefix, which becomes si- in Zulu, has in that 
language the effect of a diminutive, consequently " Silomo," the Zulu name given to a well-known 
member of Parliament by the Swazi Envoys, means " a little lip," but is otherwise identical in origin with 
the name of this place in British Central Africa, for a year such a bone of contention between Knglaml 
and Portugal. 


a long and arduous journey in the interior, and are also, I hear, short of 
provisions, I have taken the liberty of making up this small supply for your 
use on your way to Quelimane." Therewith he handed into the boat two 
hampers, which contained not only a supply of champagne and other wines, 
but all sorts of little luxuries very grateful to the jaded palate of a travel-weary 
man. Then, giving me a letter to ensure my not being stopped on my way to 
Quelimane, he bade me farewell. Upon my expressing my thanks very warmly, 
he said, " We are both doing our best for our respective countries, and however 
much our political views may differ that is no reason why one white man should 
quarrel with another in Central Africa." This was indeed the keynote of the 
Portuguese demeanour towards me, then and thenceforth, and I feel it only just 
to place these facts on record, for I have been often vexed at the unjust 
aspersions which have been cast upon the Portuguese in the British Press. 

On my way up the Shire to Blantyre I had encountered Mr. Alfred 
Sharpe, who was travelling up the river in his own boat. Knowing that a great 
deal of ground would have to be covered in treaty-making, and that I should be 
unable to reach all parts of British Central Africa myself, I desired to engage 
some one who might suitably represent me in such portions of this territory 
as lay outside my line of route, especially in Central Zambezia and the countries 
between Nyasaland and the Barutse. The latter country had been placed under 
the British flag by Mr. Rhodes's agents acting for the Chartered Company. 

I had heard much of Mr. Alfred Sharpe from persons acquainted with 
Xyasaland. He had taken a leading part in the war between the Arabs 
and the Lakes Company, in which war he had been wounded. Mr. Sharpe, 
who had been trained for the law, had held a Colonial appointment in Fiji for 
some years, but when this appointment, in common with many others, was 
abolished at a time when the state of Fiji finances compelled severe retrench- 
ments, he had been offered a District Commissionership on the Gold Coast. 
For a time, however, he preferred to travel and hunt in Central Africa. In 
1890 Mr. Sharpe accepted employment under the British South Africa 
Company, in whose service he remained about a year, securing for them many 
important concessions north of the Zambezi. Early in 1891 he was appointed 
H.M. Vice-Consul in British Central Africa. 1 It had been arranged between 
Mr. Sharpe and myself, before I quitted Blantyre for the north, that he should 
proceed due westward to beyond the Portuguese dominions at Zumbo, and 
secure to the British the Central Zambezi, and that afterwards he should make 
treaties along the Luangwa River and, northwards, to Lake Mweru and Lake 
Tanganyika. All this he successfully accomplished. After passing into the 
service of the British South Africa Company he made an expedition to 
Katunga, but did not succeed in making a treaty, as the chief, Msiri, though 
expressing a desire to remain on friendly terms with all white men, refused to 
become subservient to any particular European Nation. Subsequently Msiri 
similarly refused to make a treaty with Captain Stair's expedition, which repre- 
sented the Congo Free State, and having assumed a hostile demeanour towards 
the expedition he was shot by the late Captain Bodson, who himself was killed 
immediately afterwards by Msiri's followers. His country was afterwards 
annexed to the Congo Free State. 2 

1 Consul in 1894 ; Deputy Commissioner in 1896. 

- Msiri docs not deserve much pity. He was a stranger to the country (if Katunga, being merely 
a Mnyamwezi slave trader who by the aid of an armed rabble of Wanyamwezi freebooters and coaM Arab- 
had carved out a kingdom for himself in South Central Africa. lie was a persistent slave raider and \va.- 
hated by the people over whom he ruled. These latter rallied to the Belgian authorities after Msiri's death. 


Mr. Joseph Thomson in 1890 came out with Mr. J. A. Grant, on behalf of 
the British South Africa Company, and supplemented Mr. Sharpe's work by 
securing further treaties and concessions in the central region of British Central 
Africa, but the main credit of having secured all this portion of our new 
dependency to the British Flag emphatically lies with Mr. Sharpe, who 
traversed the country with a following scarcely exceeding fifteen to twenty 
men, and, by the weight of his personal influence only, secured these countries 
to British interests, besides adding a great deal to our geographical knowledge. 1 

In my journey from Blantyre to Lake Nyasa along the Upper Shire, my 
progress was beset with great difficulties owing to the civil war which was 
raging between the Yao chiefs, Mponda and Msamara. 

My assistant, Mr. Nicoll, took charge of that portion of the expedition 
which travelled by water, whilst I marched overland. As we neared the south 
end of the lake we were stopped by Msamara's forces in the belief that we 
were about to render assistance to Mponda. I managed, however, to pacify 
Msamara by making a treaty of friendship with him, and months afterwards I 
succeeded in patching up a peace between him and Mponda. 

Mponda's reception of us was rather doubtful. He denied having concluded 
any treaty with the Portuguese, but was averse to concluding even a treaty 
of friendship with Great Britain, at any rate without the sanction of the Sultan 
of Zanzibar s representative on the lake the Jumbe at Kotakota. Mponda 
was a very repellent type of Yao robber, alternately cringing and insolent. 
Had not the Universities Mission steamer arrived by good chance to give me a 
passage to Likoma (where I was to see Bishop Smythies) I might have 
been robbed and murdered by Mponda. As it was my retreat to the Mission 
steamer was very like a flight. However, I got away safely with all my goods 
and proceeded to the Island of Likoma. My object in seeing Bishop Smythies 
was to obtain the use of the Charles Janson for a period, in order to enable me 
to bring about peace with the Arabs. At that time the Lakes Company had 
only one steamer plying on the lake, the little Ilala which besides being 
much out of repair, was too small for the conveyance of even my limited 
expedition. The Bishop was good enough to place his steamer at my disposal, 
for though the Universities Mission then and always declared its intention 
of remaining absolutely neutral in political matters, they were anxious to do 
all in their power to assist me to bring about peace between the Lakes 
Company and the Arabs. 

We then crossed to Bandawe on the west side of the lake. From this place 
Mr. Nicoll proceeded direct to Karonga in the Ilala, bearing letters from me to 
the North Nyasa Arabs. I remained some days at Bandawe, concluding 
treaties with the Atonga chiefs. Then the Charles Janson called in and took me 
down to a point fifteen miles distant from Jumbe's capital at Kotakota, where 
its commander landed my expedition on the lake shore. His reasons for not 
proceeding to Kotakota arose from two considerations. One was that Jumbe, 
after all, was an Arab and might make common cause with the north-end 
Arabs and seize the steamer. The second was that at that time the harbour 
at Kotakota was unsurveyed and was not thought to be safe for steamers 
of considerable draught. I must admit that I landed with Ali Kiongwe, my 

1 The late Mr. Joseph Thomson's claims to fame and to our gratitude are so numerous that it is no 
loss to him to spare a few laurel leaves to Mr. Sharpe. The treaty which Mr. Thomson made with 
the Emperor of Sakatu on behalf of the Royal Niger Company, was alone a transcendent benefit to 
British interests never to be forgotten. 


headman, and my small expedition of fifteen Makua in some considerable 
trepidation. The Lakes Company half feared that Jumbe was going to join 
the Arab movement at the north end. At this time, too, all Arabs in Central 
Africa were much incensed against Europeans by their quarrels with the 
Germans and the Belgians. The way in which they would receive me, there- 
fore, was very doubtful. Makanjira on the opposite coast had recently stripped 
and flogged a British Consul and held him up to ransom, and no measures had 
been taken to avenge this insult. After landing near the mouth of the Bua 
river I sent Ali Kiongwe ahead to interview Jumbe and to deliver to him the 
letters that I had brought from the Sultan of Zanzibar. On my journey down 
the east coast of Africa I had stopped at Zanzibar, and had conferred with the 
late Sir Gerald Portal, then Acting Consul-General at that place, on the subject 



of my mission to Lake Nyasa. Mr. Portal (as he then was) had interested 
himself very much in this undertaking to make peace with the Arabs, and 
urged the Sultan Khalifa bin Said (whose own envoy previously dispatched 
had been unsuccessful in bringing the Arabs to reason; to provide me with 
the most authoritative letters to his representatives on Lake Xyasa, notably to 
the Jumbe of Kotakota, who was the Sultan's ostensible wall, or representative. 
The Sultan Khalifa willingly gave these letters, which were most potent in 
effecting the subsequent results. 

Some hours after Ali Kiongwe had started for Kotakota, a Swahili soldier 
of Jumbe's came rushing down into our camp, dropped on one knee and seized 
me by the leg, as an act of homage. He then said, " Master, do not be alarmed, 
Jumbe sends us to greet the representative of the great Queen and of the 
Suyyicl of Zanzibar, and he has told us to fire a salute of guns in your honour.' 1 
Shortly afterwards a tremendous fusilade commenced, much to the alarm of nix- 
porters, Who had not understood the purport of Jumbe's message. \Ve then 
started for Kotakota, Jumbe's men insisting on carrying me in a machilla. 1 
Jumbe was waiting to receive me as I entered the town. A large house 
and compound was set aside for my use. Oxen were killed for myself and 

1 Machilla is a Portuguese word (Latin Manilla], which is universally applied in Eastern Afrir 
hammock or chair slung on a pole and carried by porters. 

9 2 


my men, and quantities of provisions of all kinds were sent in for our 
sustenance. After a day's rest I had a long conversation with Jumbe, to 
whom I exposed frankly the whole political situation. As soon as I had 
quitted the Shire River I had felt free to take open political action, as 
after my stay in Lisbon there had been a tacit understanding between 
the Portuguese and ourselves that although the Shire province and a portion 
of the east coast of Lake Nyasa were territories not to be seized by either 
Power without arrangement, the west coast of Lake Xyasa was admittedly 

open to British enterprise. I therefore 
' advised Jumbe, who was now practi- 
cally recognised by the Sultan of 
Zanzibar as an independent Prince, 
to place his country under British 
protection, and to mobilise a sufficient 
number of his men to compel the 
North Xyasa Arabs to agree to make 
terrn^ of peace ; and in the event of 
their not so agreeing to place this 
force at my disposal for their coercion. 
Jumbe, in return for all these services, 
was to receive a subsidy of ^200 per 
annum. The slave trade was to be 
declared at an end in his dominions. 
After one day's deliberation with his 
head men, Jumbe assented to my 
propositions. Treaties and agreements 
were signed, the British flag was 
hoisted, and the first portion of British 
Central Africa was secured. I should 
then have been picked up by the 
Ilala and conveyed to the north, but 
unfortunately the Ilala, unknown to 
me, had been wrecked in a storm, 
and she did not resume her voyages 
on the lake for several years after- 
wards. Meantime I waited on and 
on at Jumbe's. treated by that chief 
with unwearied hospitality, though I 
used up almost all his stock of candles, 
and consumed all his supplies of tinned 
fruits. The only thing I could offer 
him in return for all his hospitality 
was a bottle of yellow Chartreuse. 
Jumbe was a very strict Muhammadan, 

especially on the subject of alcohol, but he suffered much from asthma. lie 
appealed to me repeated!)- for medicine, and as I had no drugs with me I 
was in despair, until it occurred to me that a small glass of Chartreuse might 
at any rate distract his thoughts if it did not remedy the asthma. I gave 
him a taste of what he called "the golden water."' He at once declared 
himself cured, and the least I could do was to hand him the entire bottle, 
which he spent. I believe, several months in consuming. It was the one 

THE I. A IK l.\\\ AKAI.I >l IM 



thing, he told me afterwards, that he felt obliged to deny to his head \vife 
" the lady Siena." 1 

At last my detention was becoming a little tedious, and I was very anxious 
about the missing steamer. To soothe my anxiety, Jumbe sent for his 
necromancer, \vho was to ascertain, by means of " raml " (sand), what the 


immediate future had in store for me as regards steamer communication. 

necromancer informed us that the small steamer (the //*/,,) had run 

aground on the rocks, but the "Bishop's steamer"" would shortly call for me 

Ihis information turned out to be perfectly correct, and no doubt the 

romancer had other sources of knowledge than those which were occult. 

! ? lh ;L" hi , bi njkubwa," ("great lady ") as she was commonly called 
steamer" Ja " S " "^ ' bt> alwa >' S called h >' the Arabs ' " I'tima-aLAskaf," 'he "Bishop's 


His news \vus true, for eventually the Charles Janson, with Archdeacon Maples 
on board, came to fetch me and convey me to Karonga. 

I found on arrival here that Mr. Nicoll had concluded in my name a 
truce with the Arabs, and that the ground was prepared for negotiation. 
I may briefly relate that as the Arabs were very distrustful, I arranged t;> 
meet them in the bush midway between their nearest stockade and Karonga, 
stipulating that they should only be accompanied by a small escort, and that 
I would only bring with me the same number of men. I was accompanied 
by Mr. Xicoll. Mr. Monteith Fotheringham, and a few armed Atonga. Mlozi, 
Kopakopa, Bwana 'Omari, Msalemu, and other Arabs, duly met me at the 
point agreed upon. After a brief discussion I read out to them the terms of 
the treaty which I proposed, and told them that if they refused it we should 
prosecute the war to the bitter end until not one of them was left in the 
country. They accepted these terms almost without deliberation and the 
treaty was forthwith signed, and peace was declared. 

A bull was killed as a sacrifice, and the flesh was distributed amongst our 
men and the men who had accompanied the Arabs. On the following day 
the British flag was run up at Karonga, and the native chiefs from the 
surrounding districts came in and signed treaties, accepting British protection. 
On the following day the Arabs paid 'us a return visit at Karonga, signed 
treaties of protection and accepted the British flag. Mr. Crawshay 1 then 
arrived from Deep Bay with a large number of Wahenga chiefs in canoes, 
who signed treaties of protection. Thus protection treaties had now been 
concluded between Jumbe's territory on the south-west of Lake Nyasa, and 
the extreme north-east corner of the lake. 

I was at this time much exercised about the want of a secure harbour at the 
north end of Lake Xyasa. Karonga was an open roadstead, most dangerous 
for landing, for it must always be remembered that Lake Nyasa is as rough 
at times as the British Channel, with heavy breakers on unprotected shores. 
The existence of a secure harbour in Kambwe lagoon, 3^ miles to the north 
of Karonga, had not then been made known, or it may be that owing to 
various circumstances it did not then exist as a harbour which vessels of 
considerable draught could enter. After examining carefully the north coast 
of Lake Xyasa, I decided to secure the harbour of Parumbira, at the 
extreme northernmost corner of the lake, for the African Lakes Company. 
I accordingly bought the land for them, and placed an agent there to build 
and occupy. Subsequently, however, by the Anglo-German Agreement of 
1890, the boundary between the two European Powers was drawn at the 
River Songwe, and Parumbira fell to Germany. It is now the headquarters 
of the German Government, on Lake Xyasa, and has been rechristened 

Only one week was occupied at Karonga in making peace with the Arabs ; 
securing Xorth Xyasa by treaty ; choosing this harbour for the African Lakes 
Company; and arranging my caravan for Lake Tanganyika. But the reason 

1 Mr. Crawshay, originally a lieutenant in the Inniskilling Dragoons, had come out to British Central 
Africa to shoot big game, and had joined the Lakes Company's forces as a volunteer in the war against 
the AraKs. After Captain Lugard had captured Deep Bay, an important harbour on the north-west coast 
of Lake Xyasa. ued by the Arabs as the end of a ferry to the east side of the Lake, Mr. Crawshay for 
some months garrisontd this place as a fort, and kept the Arabs out of Deep Bay. He acquired a 
considerable influence amongst the Wahenga, and was of much service to me in the early days of the 
Protectorate. Until quite recently he was Vice-Consul for the north of Lake Nyasa, but retired from this 
appointment on account of ill-health. 


why it was possible to dispatch such a mass of important business in seven 
days, was that I was most ably seconded by Mr. J. L. Xicoll. My having 
secured this gentleman at Quelimane as my second in command really did 
more than anything else to secure the complete success to my mission. \Yc 
started for Tanganyika on the loth of November, 1889. To obtain as 
much territory for England as possible I journeyed at first in a northerly 
direction, and penetrated as far to the north-east as the southern shores 
of Lake Rukwa, a salt lake of considerable size. Mr. Nicoll, Dr. Kerr Cross 
(who had joined us) and myself, were the first Europeans to discover 
the southern end of this lake. The country all round Rukwa, however, was 
so desolate and inhabited by such a reprehensible set of slave raiders, that 
I concluded no treaties with them, and was thankful to get my expedition 
out of their clutches without loss of goods or lives. Returning to the 
beautiful Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, we found ourselves again among people 


who were warm friends of the British, and who everywhere concluded treaties 
with expressions of positive enthusiasm. The A-mambwe, especially, had come 
to look upon the British as their champions against the Arab slave traders, 
and were almost frantic in their expressions of friendship. Nevertheless 
the A-mambwe were very quarrelsome amongst themselves, and when I 
reached the London Missionary Society's station at Fwambo, about thirty 
miles from the south end of Lake Tanganyika, I found the Missionaries 
were in a serious fix. In the first place they had been for more than a year 
cut off from supplies and letters and were much delighted to get their mails 
and such supplies as I could bring them, but they were still more seriously 
embarrassed because two chiefs were fighting one another, and their servants 
had left them to join the respective sides to which they belonged. A 
little good-humoured argument, however, secured peace between these rival 
chieftains, who in turn concluded treaties with us ; and I reached the south 
end of Tanganyika with no further difficulty except occasional scares amongst 
my porters caused by the dread of Awemba raiders. At the south end of 
Tanganyika I was greeted by Mr. A. J. Svvann, who was the master of the 
London Missionary Society's steamer on that lake. Mr. Swann threw himself 
heart and soul into assisting me in my projects. Unfortunately the Mission 


steamer was laid up for repairs, but Mr. Swann placed their sailing boat at 
my disposal. By means of this boat I visited all the chiefs on the south end 
of I ake Tanganyika, made treaties with them, and further penetrated 
the settlements of Kabunda, an Arab trader, who had almost constituted 
himself a native chief. It was important in those days to conciliate 
Kabunda who had remained neutral in the war between the Arabs and 
I akes Company, and who had a great influence over the native chiefs. 
was really a Baluch in origin, not an Arab, and considered himself in some 
respects a British subject. He entertained Mr. Swann and myself with the 
greatest hospitality, and assisted us to enter into treaties with the chiefs of 
Ttawa in the direction of Lake Mweru. This being the limit, of the journey 
which I had to perform (Mr. Sharpe was working for me to the west) 
decided to return at once to the Shire Highlands, as rumours had reached 
me of war with the Portuguese. It was a great disappointment for me to 
turn back at this juncture, as I desired to go to the north end of Tanganyika 
and secure for England the north end of that lake, 1 but I felt it to be my 
duty to <ret through to the coast and send a report of the work already done; 
so I reluctantly postponed the completion of a scheme, which was, as 1 
hoped to <nve us continuous communication between Cape Town and Cairo, 
either 'over international waterways or along British territory. On my return 
journey in which no unpleasant incident occurred, I found Mponda, the 
Yao chief at the south end of Lake Nyasa, in a more reasonable frame o 
mind and concluded a treaty with him. I reached Mozambique at the end 
of January 1890, telegraphed the result of my work to the Foreign O 
and subsequently proceeded to Zanzibar to make arrangements for the 
conclusion of treaties at the north end of Tanganyika. Not being able to 
return thither myself, as my health was failing, I entrusted the task to Mr. 
A T Swann and sent up to him an expedition under the leadership of my 
invaluable Swahili headman, Ali-Kiongwe. Mr. Swann's expedition was 
entirely successful. Treaties were made and the British flag was planted at 
the extreme north end of Lake Tanganyika. Unfortunately, however his 
treaties arrived too late to be taken into consideration at the conclusion of the 
An<Tlo-German Convention ; but Lord Salisbury managed to secure by that 
Convention facilities for the crossing of German territory between Tanganyika 
-ind Uganda, which will be very important to us in future developments. 

In forwarding my report to the Foreign Office I proposed the term "British 
Central Africa" for the territories just brought under British influence. Soc 
ifter my return to England in the early summer of 1890 the Anglo-German 
Convention was signed, which, among other important gams to Great 
Britain set a seal on the work which the British South Africa Company, 
Sharpe' Nicoll, Swann, Fotheringham, Buchanan and I had done. This was 
followed by an abortive Convention with Portugal which, however, proved to 
be the basis of a definite understanding concluded with that Power in 1891. 
In the spring of 1891 the British Protectorate over the countries adjoimn 
I -ike Xyasa was proclaimed, and by the Conventions with Germany and 
Portugal, the remainder of British Central Africa was declared to be an 
exclusively British sphere of influence. 

After the conclusion of the Anglo-German Convention Her Majesty ^con- 
ferred on Mr. John Buchanan a C.M.G., and on myself a C.B. Mr. W. A. 
Churchill, who, during my absence in the interior, had done excellent woi 
1 \Viih land hunger I'appetit vienl en inan^ant. 


at Mozambique, when matters had been in a most critical state with Portugal, 
was promoted to be Her Majesty's Vice-Consul ; Mr. Alfred Sharpe and Mr. 
Alexander Carnegie Ross 1 (who had been British Vice-Consul at Quelimane) 
were equally made Commissioned Vice-Consuls ; Mr. J. L. Nicoll (who had 
remained a year at Tanganyika to strengthen the British position at the south 
end of that lake) was given an important post in the Administration of the 
new Protectorate ; Mr. John Buchanan, when he ceased to be Acting Consul, 
was made a Vice-Consul ; Mr. Crawshay, Mr. Swann, and Mr. Belcher (the 
Commander of the Universities Mission steamer on Lake Nyasa) 2 all subse- 
quently joined the Administration of the British Central Africa Protectorate. 
Mr. Monteith Fotheringham, the agent of the Lakes Company at Karonga, 
\\h<> had rendered me very great services, preferred, however, to remain in the 
employment of the African Lakes Company, as he was subsequently offered 
the important post of manager at Mandala. 

In the autumn of 1890 Her Majesty's Government began to consider the 
administration of these new territories. It was finally decided to confine the 
actual Protectorate to the regions adjacent to Lake Nyasa and the River Shire, 
and to administer that Protectorate directly by a Commissioner under the 
Imperial Government, and further to place all the rest of the Sphere of 
Influence, north of the Zambezi, under the Charter of the British South Africa 
Company, subject of course to certain conditions. I was appointed to be 
Commissioner and Consul-General to administer the Protectorate, and was 
chosen by the British South Africa Company as their Administrator north of 
the Zambezi, an unpaid post which I held for nearly five years. 3 

By an arrangement between the Chartered Company and Her Majesty's 
Government, the former contributed annually for a certain number of years 
the sum of ^"10,000 per annum, for the maintenance of a police force to be 
used by me indifferently in the Protectorate and in the Company's Sphere. 
The Company also met the cost of administering its own Sphere of Influence 
north of the Zambezi, and further agreed to provide us, by arrangement with 
the African Lakes Company, with the free use of that Company's boats and 
steamers. 4 

On my return to British Central Africa as Commissioner and Consul- 
General and Administrator for the British South Africa Company's territories 
to the north of the Zambezi, I appointed to my staff Lieut., now Captain, B. L. 
Sclater, R.E. (who took with him three non-commissioned officers of the Royal 
Kngineers) ; Mr. Alexander Whyte, F.z.s. (as a practical Botanist and Natural 
History Collector); and, with the consent of the Indian Government, engaged 

1 Now II. M. Consul at Beira. 

'-' Now H.M. Vice-Consul at Quelimane. 

I preferred to receive no pay from the Company, so that I might not in any way compromise my 
position as an Imperial Officer. 

4 Roughly speaking the Company thus pledged itself to spend about ,17,500 a year on British 
Central Africa. For the first two years, however, the average amount spent per annum did not reach 
this sum, but in the third year it was deemed advisable that I should come to some definite agreement 
\\iih the Company in regard to their annual contribution, which was then fixed at .17,500. In addition 
to this allowance Mr. Rhodes agreed to provide as much as ,10,000 for the special purpose of conquering 
the chief Makanjira, who persistently raided the south-eastern portion of our territories. Of this sum a 
ittk- over 4,000 was actually spent. In 1894 this arrangement came to an end. At the beginning ot 
the financial year 1895, the Company ceased to provide any contribution whatever towards the adminis- 
tration of the Protectorate, and the Imperial Government returned to them a proportion of the amounts 
already contributed. The Company in 1895 undertook the administration of its own Sphere at its own 
expense, and the Protectorate was thenceforth assisted by contributions from Her Majestv's Government 

9 8 


Captain Cecil Montgomery Maguire 1 (of the Haiderabad Contingent Lancers) 
to raise a small force of Indian troops as a nucleus for our police force in 
Central Africa. Captain Maguire was to start from India and meet me at 
the mouth of the River Chinde. Captain Sclater and the rest of my staff 
were to leave England subsequent to myself and also meet me at Chinde. In 
the meantime I proceeded to Zanzibar and Mozambique, to make arrangements 
for the disembarkation of my expedition at the mouth of the Zambezi. In 
the autumn of 1890 Lord Salisbury had resolved to place two gunboats on 
the Zambezi, and these vessels, the Herald and the Mosquito, were very ably 
put together at Chinde under the superintendence of the Senior Naval Officer, 
Commander J. H. Keane, R.N., C.M.G., who managed to launch his gunboats 
without undue friction with the Portuguese. All the various sections of my 


expedition arrived with delightful punctuality at Chinde, and with the aid of 
the two gunboats and the steamers of the African Lakes Company we con- 
veyed men, beasts, and goods without accident to Chiromo. 

By the Anglo-Portuguese Convention of 1891 we had lost a little territory 
to the west of the Shire basin, but had been allotted in exchange by the 
Portuguese a portion of the right bank of the River Shire, below the Ruo 
Junction. This brought the British Protectorate almost within sight of the 
Zambezi. On my journey up the river, therefore, in H.M.S. Herald, I had to 
fix the Anglo-Portuguese boundary according to the Convention, and take 
over political possession of the Lower Shire District. 

We had no sooner arrived at Chiromo in the month of July, 1891, than we 
were greeted with the news that the Yao chief, Chikumbu, 2 had attacked the 
British settlers who had commenced coffee-planting in that country. The 

1 Captain Maguire obtained from the Indian Army seventy volunteers, of whom about forty were 
Mazbi Sikhs, of the 2jrd and 32nd Pioneers, and the remainder Muhammadan cavalrymen from the 
various regiments of Haiderabad Lancers. As nearly all our first batch of horses died of horse sickness 
or tsetse fly, the Cavalry became useless and were eventually sent back to India. We subsequently 
decided to engage in future nothing but Sikhs for our Indian Contingent. 

2 A recent arrival in the Mlanje district, who had developed by degrees into a powerful African 



ill-feeling between Chikumbu and the British was of some years' duration. 
Chikumbu was a Yao who had settled amongst the peaceful Xyanja people 
of Mlanje, whom he had been gradually subjugating until in 1890 they 
appealed to Mr. John Buchanan for protection. The old Nyanja chief, 
Chipoka, had died in 1890, and on his death-bed had, with the consent of 
all his sub-chiefs and subjects, transferred the sovereign rights of his country 
to the Queen, in order to pledge the British Government to the protection of 
the indigenous Nyanja people against Yao attacks. Two or three planters 
had just begun to settle in the Mlanje district, and although they had paid 


relatively large sums to Chikumbu he continued to extort larger and larger 
payments from them ; and at last, upon their refusing to give any more, 
committed various acts of violence, and stopped the natives working for them. 
Chikumbu was a very great slave trader and kept up a direcct communication 
with the East Coast of Africa at Angoche, whither his caravans of slaves 
were generally forwarded. He was allied with Matipwiri and other Yao 
slave-trading chiefs. 

Accordingly Captain Maguire was dispatched two days after our reaching 
Chiromo, with a force of Sikhs to bring Chikumbu to reason. The campaign 
was not of long duration, though there were one or two days of stiff fighting. 
Chikumbu fled and his brother was taken prisoner. The latter was eventually 
released and appointed chief in Chikumbu's stead, upon his giving promises 
of good behaviour which have since been kept. After a considerable banish- 
ment Chikumbu was recently allowed to return, and lives now as a private 


Whilst Captain Maguire was thus engaged I had to spend two months at 
Chiromo, settling a great many matters in connection with the Lower Shire 
districts. I did not reach Zomba till the month of September 1891, and here 
I was joined by Captain Maguire. After a brief rest we were both obliged to 
start with a strong expedition for the south end of Lake Nyasa, owing to 
troubles of a complex kind which had broken out between Mponda and other 
Yao chiefs, and between Mponda and Chikusi, a chief of the Southern Angoni. 
We took with us a force of 70 Indian soldiers and 9 Zanzibaris ; also a 
7-pounder mountain gun, and marched up the east bank of the Shire. 
Although we had come to mediate between the chiefs whose fighting was 
temporarily stopping communications on the Shire and were not bent on any 
punitive measures except in regard to Makanjira, we were obliged to take 
considerable precautions against Mponda, who was uncertain in his attitude 
towards the British, and who waged these wars chiefly with the intention 
of securing slaves for the Kilwa 1 caravans which visited his country. To 
avoid coming into collision with him unnecessarily we encamped on the 
uninhabited reed wilderness opposite his main town on the east bank of the 
Shire, about three miles distant from the south end of Lake Nyasa. Though 
some of these Yao chiefs had invoked our intervention at a distance, their 
attitude became suspiciously hostile upon our entering their country with an 
armed force. Accordingly Captain Maguire deemed it prudent to throw up 
fortifications round our camp opposite Mponda's town. These had to be 
erected with stealth as Mponda was continually sending to enquire what 
we were doing, and we were anxious to avoid any attack on his part until we 
were capable of defending ourselves and our stores. Accordingly the defences 
of what Captain Maguire called, half in fun, " Fort Johnston," were constructed 
during the day-time in separate sections, which apparently had no con- 
nection with one another. Mponda was informed, when he came to see 
what we were doing, that these pits and sections of embankment were 
intended as sleeping shelters for the men. We then took advantage of 
a moonlight night, when the moon was half full, to work almost twelve 
hours on end, and by the next morning our camp was completely 
surrounded by mud and sand breastworks behind a revetement of bamboo. 
Before this point was reached, however, an engagement had taken place with 
one of our enemies. Makandanji, a chief who dwelt on the south-east corner 
of Nyasa, had tied up and imprisoned our envoys. His town was about seven 
miles distant from Fort Johnston. Captain Maguire resolved on the true 
Napoleonic policy of crushing our enemies singly, and not waiting for them 
to come to terms as to a combined movement against us. He suddenly fell 
on Makandanji and drove him out of his village, releasing our imprisoned men, 
and scattering Makandanji's forces, which were never again able to take the 
field against us. Mponda, however, instead of joining Makandanji, seized the 
opportunity to capture nearly all the runaways, whom he forthwith marched 
off to his own town and sold as slaves to the Swahili caravans waiting there. 
Over seventy of the captives he had the insolence to drive through our camp at 
Fort Johnston, at a time when Captain Maguire was absent and I was left with 
only ten men. As soon as Captain Maguire was back and the little fort was 
completed, I summoned Mponda to set all these slaves at liberty. He declined 
to do so, and commenced warlike proceedings against us. We had timed our 
ultimatum for a day which was followed by full moon, and resolved to attack 

1 Kilwa, on the east coast of Africa, was formerly the great distributing depot of the Nyasa slaves. 



at night. Accordingly at nine o'clock, on the evening of the iQth of October, 
1891, one hour after the expiration of the term given for the restoration of the 
slaves, we fired a shell across the river into Mponda's town, perhaps a quarter 
of a mile distant. Mponda had no conception of the range of artillery fire, 
or the effects of incendiary shells. The return fire of his guns and his muzzle- 
loading cannon was harmless, as we were almost beyond their effective range. 
A few more shells soon set much of Mponda's town on fire, and he called for 
a truce. This was granted, but he only made use of it to withdraw with his 
women and ivory to a strong place he possessed in the hills. His fighting men 
remained and we renewed the struggle, which we kept up till the early morning, 
when we landed on the opposite shore and drove the remainder of the defenders 
out of Mponda's town, which we then destroyed. A great many slaves were 
found by us in the town, and brought over to our camp. Many of these 
wretched people had come from vast distances in the interior of South Central 


Africa. The following day Mponda asked for terms of peace, and peace was 
eventually concluded. He then informed us as to the whereabouts of the slave- 
trading caravans : Captain Maguire pursued these people, capturing seven of 
them and releasing large numbers of slaves. The terms of peace offered to 
Mponda were very fair, and he probably rather gained in power by coming to 
an understanding with us. For four years afterwards he kept the peace; then 
in the belief that we were going to get the worst of it at the hands of Zarafi, 
he unwisely went to war once more, with the result that he is now temporarily 
exiled from his country. 

Makandanji, the first chief with whom we had fought, acknowledged the 
supremacy of Zarafi, a powerful chief who dwelt on a very high mountain 20 
miles to the east of Fort Johnston. We knew little about Zarafi in those days, 
except that he had not long succeeded his mother, a famous woman-chief called 
Kabutu. Zarafi, imagining that we should follow the attack on Makandanji by 
an advance into his country, sent envoys down to treat with us for peace. \Yc, 
therefore, on one day, concluded treaties with Mponda, Zarafi. and Makandanji, 
and seemed to have accomplished the pacification of South Xyasa. 


Encouraged by this success, \ve then and there resolved to undertake the 
chastisement of Makanjira, who had, as already related, committed various 
outrages on British subjects, and had recently robbed the Universities Mission 
of a boat and killed some of their boatmen. We hired the African Lakes 
Company's steamer Doniira, and mounted our /-pounder gun in the bows 
Arriving suddenly off Makanjira's in the early morning, we were saluted by 
volleys from his fighting men, who were drawn up on the beach, and who had 
evidently been expecting our arrival. A shell landed in the middle of this 
yelling crowd produced an impression on them which was absolutely novel, and 
there was soon not one of the enemy in sight. After setting fire to a portion 
of the town with other shells, I effected a landing with a small number of 
Sikhs, whilst Captain Maguire kept the enemy at bay by bombarding the town 
from the steamer. We managed to land with only one or two casualties, and 
the Sikhs carried off two of Makanjira's cannon and set fire to one of his daus. 1 
The enemy, however, came on us in such strength that we had to retreat 
to our boat, and should probably have not escaped with our lives had not 
Captain Maguire arrived with reinforcements. He drove the enemy back into 
the town, and completed the destruction of the dau. 

The next morning Captain Maguire landed in force, and after hard fighting, 
in which several of our Sikhs were severely wounded, he captured all Makanjira's 
defences. I joined him, and we then drove the enemy out of the huge town, 
which we completely destroyed. We also destroyed two or three of their daus. 

After waiting a day in vain to see if any person would come from Makanjira 
to treat for a peace, we steamed over to the opposite side of the lake, where it 
was necessary to come to an understanding with Kazembe, who lived opposite 
to Makanjira and was a near relation. Lake Nyasa is at its narrowest opposite 
Makanjira's town. Its breadth here is probably not more than fifteen miles. 
The favourite ferry across Lake Nyasa, therefore, has generally been between 
these two points, the one on the eastern shore held by Makanjira, the other on 
the west by Kazembe. Kazembe was a great slave trader, but was not hostile 
to the British. He had concluded a treaty with me in 1890, but it was 
necessary to warn him that the slave trade could no longer continue. He took 
the warning in good part, and promised good behaviour in future. This promise 
was not faithfully adhered to, and the result was that Kazembe was exiled from 
the Protectorate for a few months, but was subsequently restored to power, and 
is now chief in Makanjira's place. 

After leaving Kazembe's, we revisited Makanjira's coast in the Domini. 
Captain Maguire landed at a town belonging to Makanjira's headman, Saidi 
Mwazungu, in the southern part of Makanjira's country, for the purpose of 
acquiring information. The people had not evinced unfriendliness as we 
approached, and Captain Maguire landed under a flag of truce. He was 
received by an Arab (who was said to have been a native of Aden) with a 
show of courtesy, but no sooner had he reached the veranda of the Arab's 
house than he was suddenly fired on by the Arab himself, who by some 
marvellous accident missed him, though only two or three yards distant. 
Captain Maguire had landed with only six men ; but, hearing the shot, I 
immediately dispatched reinforcements to his assistance, and the town was 
soon taken and destroyed. The two remaining daus of Makanjira, in search 

1 A "dau" is an Arab sailing vessel, sometimes of considerable size. Spelt phonetically it should 
be dan, but the British, with their extraordinary racial perversity in matters of spelling, prefer without 
rhyme or reason to spell it "dhow." 



of which Captain Maguire had landed, were either not there or had escaped 
before our coming. 

We now returned to Zomba, leaving a garrison behind at Fort Johnston. We 
had no sooner reached Zomba than we heard of trouble from Kawinga, a power- 
ful Yao chief who lived on a hill which was at the north-eastern extremity of 
the Zomba range. It was deemed advisable to dispatch an expedition against 
Kawinga, and this was accompanied by Mr. John Buchanan, c', who had 
become a Vice-Consul in the service of the Protectorate. Kawinga's fortress 
proved however to be a much harder nut to crack than we had expected. A 
gallant attempt was made by Captain 
Maguire and Mr. Buchanan to scale the 
hill in face of a heavy fire. Captain 
Maguire was wounded in the chest, 
several of our men were killed or 
wounded, and the force was partially 
repulsed, though it had captured nearly 
all Kawinga's positions except the 
highest, and had so far scared him that 
he treated for peace and obtained it. 
After the conclusion of peace with 
Kawinga, Captain Maguire considered 
it necessary to return to Fort Johnston, 
to complete the building at that place, 
and relieve the garrison. He was to be 
back at Zomba to spend Christmas with 
me, but I was doomed never to see him 

Upon reaching Fort Johnston he 
had received information as to the 
locality where Makanjira's two daus 
were hidden. Without waiting to con- 
sult me, therefore, he started in the 
Doinira, with a small force of Indian 
soldiers. He found the daus in a little 
cove close to where Fort Maguire is 
now situated, and somewhat to the north of Makanjira's main town. Ik- 
landed with a small force of about 28 men, and was proceeding to destroy 
and incapacitate the daus, when Makanjira, with about 2,000 men, attacked 
him. He retreated to the beach. 

Unfortunately a storm had arisen which had wrenched his boat from her 
moorings, and had dashed her on to the rocks. The Domira in endeavouring 
to approach as near as possible in order to come to his assistance, was blown on 
to a sand-bank, and stuck fast within a short distance of the shore. When 
he had lost three of his men Captain Maguire told the others to enter the 
water and make for the Domini. After seeing them off, and with a few faithful 
Sikhs repulsing with the bayonet the onslaught of the enemy, he turned to the 
water himself, but just as he was nearing the steamer a bullet apparently struck 
him in the back of the head and he sank. Just about this time the master 
of the Domira, Mr. Keiller, was wounded, and shortly after Mr. Urquhart, 
the second engineer, was severely wounded. All the Indian soldiers except the 
three who had been killed reached the steamer safely, and preparations were at 



once made to defend the Domini from the attack of Makanjira's men, who were 
at very close range. After two or three days' incessant fighting, Makanjira's 
people put up a flag of truce. His envoys were received on board and offered, 
in return for a certain ransom (which was paid), to cease fighting and to assist in 
moving the Dornira off the sand-bank, and to give up the bodies of Captain 
Maguire and the dead sepoys. The negotiations were chiefly conducted by Dr. 
Boyce 1 and Mr. McEwan,' 2 in order that the two wounded Europeans might not 
be shown to the enemy. After peace had, seemingly, been concluded with 
Makanjira's envoys, the latter said that no effect could be given to the provisions 
of this agreement until the white men had visited Makanjira on the shore, and 
as an extra inducement for them to come they promised Dr. Boyce that he 
should receive for burial the body of Captain Maguire. Owing to the two 
wounded officers being concealed in the cabin below, it appears that Makanjira's 
envoys imagined Dr. Boyce and Mr. McEwan were the only white men on the 
steamer. They therefore made a point of insisting they should both come to 
see Makanjira. 

No idea of treachery seems to have entered the minds of the Europeans, who 
did not even think of insisting on Makanjira's leaving hostages on board, whilst 
they went on shore. They therefore started for the beach with only a few 
unarmed attendants. One of these was Captain Maguire's orderly, an Indian 
Muhammadan soldier. Soon after reaching the beach an Arab led this orderly 
away from the rest of the party, offering to show him Captain Maguire's body. 
So far as is known, after taking the orderly for a roundabout walk he urged him 
strongly to return to the boat, which the man did. 3 Dr. Boyce and his party 
were told that Makanjira was just a short distance from the shore, in the bush, 
awaiting them. They w r ere thus led on to a distance of perhaps two miles from 
the lake shore ; then they suddenly found themselves surrounded by a number 
of Makanjira's men, at the head of whom was Saidi Mwazungu, a man half 
Arab and half Yao. Saidi Mwazungu suddenly called out, " Makanjira has 
ordered the white men to be killed." His men then turned their guns on 
the party. Mr. McEwan was shot repeatedly. Dr. Boyce was shot several 
times, but did not die. They therefore threw him down and cut his head 
off. The Swahili servants who had accompanied this party were not killed, but 
secured and subsequently sold as slaves. 4 The Atonga steamer-boys were 
killed, or left for dead. One of these Atonga, however, whom the Arabs 
believed themselves to have killed, managed in spite of his terrible wounds to- 
crawl by degrees to the lake shore, where he shouted for help. He was got on 
board the steamer, and gave them an account of what had happened. Mean- 
time the survivors in the steamer heard the Yao shouting on the shore that all 
the white men were killed, and that now was the time to attack the steamer. 
The Sikhs behaved splendidly, but the hero at this crisis was Mr. Urquhart, the 
wounded engineer, who by dint of almost superhuman efforts, and by working 
at the dead of night, managed to get the steamer afloat. After a five days' 
detention five days without sleep, in constant and incessant danger, and almost 

1 Dr. Boyce was a Pari Doctor of Medicine, who had been engaged by me at Zanzibar as Surgeon 
to the Indian contingent. 

2 The first engineer of the Dotnira. 

:! The orderly, with the horror of what had taken place during these few days, subsequently went out of 
his mind, and was never able to give a coherent account of the circumstances, but it is believed that the 
Arab did not wish a fellow Muhammadan to be killed, and therefore induced the orderly to return to 
the steamer. 

4 After the most extraordinary adventures they succeeded in reaching the coast. 


without food the steamer floated off the sand-bank into deep water. The 
7-pounder gun was silently got ready by the Sikhs, and before the vessel 
steamed away, shells were fired in rapid succession into howling crowds of 
Makanjira's men, who were dancing round camp fires, confident that a few more 
hours would see the Domira in their possession. 

The death of Captain Maguire took place on the I5th December, 1891. 
No news of it reached me until Christmas Eve, just at the time when I was 
expecting him to arrive for Christmas day. I left at once for Blantyre, which 
I reached on the evening of Christmas day, and there conferred with Mr. John 
Buchanan and Mr. Fotheringham, the manager of the African Lakes Company. 
The latter at once proffered his co-operation in meeting the difficult situation 
on Lake Nyasa. We both started for the Upper Shire by different routes, and 
reached Fort Johnston at the end of December. Here we found that the chief 
Msamara who lived a little below Mponda on the west bank of the Shire, had 
turned against us and with Zarafi had sent a force of men to attack Fort 
Johnston, and although nothing more had come of the attack but a few wild 
shots, he had nevertheless been raiding all round the Fort. 

The bad news had brought volunteers hurrying up from the south. Amongst 
them came Mr. J. G. King, from Port Herald ; Dr. A. Blair Watson ; the late 
Mr. Gilbert Stevenson ; and, a little later on, Commander J. H. Keane, R.N. 1 
Fortunately Mponda had remained loyal, and although for a few days the Fort 
and its garrison of wounded and exhausted men lay at his mercy, he had not 
only been neutral but had assisted to defend the place against Zarafi's attacks. 
My arrival soon restored the morale of the Sikhs, who were literally in tears at 
the death of their commander, but the Muhammadan Indian soldiers had not 
rallied from the feeling of discouragement caused by this disaster. Soon after- 
wards they had, in fact, to be sent back to India, though there were men 
amongst them who had strikingly distinguished themselves. It must be 
remembered, however, that they were all cavalry men, and not used to fighting 
on foot, or on board a ship, and all things considered behaved as well as might 
be expected. The Sikhs, however, throughout all this crisis, never showed their 
sterling worth more effectually. 

Another attack on Makanjira was impossible until we had got gunboats on 
the lake. So I decided to restore our prestige by subduing those enemies who 
were nearer at hand and more vulnerable, to wit, Msamara and Zarafi. The 
chief Msamara was captured and imprisoned in the fort, together with some 
of his headmen, whilst an enquiry was instituted into his culpability for the 
recent raids. I regret to say that whilst in prison he poisoned himself but 
it was fortunately done with the knowledge and connivance of his followers and 
consequently no slur was cast on the Administration for his death, his headmen 
themselves asserting that their chief had committed suicide because he believed 
he was going to be hanged, an eventuality, however, of which there was little 
probability. The \var against Zarafi was a more difficult matter. I was able 
with the help of the volunteer officers and the Sikhs to capture all Zarafi's 
villages in the plains with relatively little loss of men ; but to attack Zarafi 
in the hills was another matter. While on our way thither, all Mponda's men 
who were acting as our porters ran away, and we were therefore compelled to 
retreat to Fort Johnston. Under the circumstances the flight of our porters was 
the best thing that could have happened to us, since we were embarked on an 
enterprise far beyond our strength, although we did not know' it at that time; 

1 Afterwards made C.M.f .. 


for another march would have brought us to the base of Zarafi's hill, where we 
should probably have met with as serious a disaster as subsequently happened 
to another expedition. 

During all this crisis we were much helped by the Angoni, under Chifisi, 
who dwelt at the back of Mponda's country. These men came down in 
hundreds to assist us in fighting Zarafi. Unfortunately the Angoni are not 
as brave as they look, and we subsequently found they were very broken reeds 
to depend on in hard fighting. Zarafi had, nevertheless, suffered so much at 
our hands by the loss of all his villages in the plains that he ceased his raids, 
and commenced negotiations for peace. No doubt these negotiations were only 
intended to gain time, but I welcomed them as a valuable respite, and did not 
intend to take any further steps against Zarafi until I could receive reinforce- 
ments of officers and men. By the capture of Zarafi's low-lying towns I had 
prevented for some time to come any attempts on his part to obstruct the 
navigation of the Shire ; this end was still further attained by the imprisonment 
of the chief Msamara who subsequently committed suicide at Fort Johnston. 

I again returned to Zomba, determined to apply myself now to the con- 
sideration of our financial position, for since my arrival in British Central Africa 
in July, 1891, I had not had a spare day in which to turn to accounts. Up till 
this time it must be remembered that I had to be my own secretary and 
accountant, and the pressure of office work was almost more than I could 
stand. Captain Sclater was busily employed in making roads, and this work 
was so necessary I did not like to call him off it for other purposes ; Mr. Sharpe 
was not yet back from leave of absence in England. 

I had just begun to settle down once more to office work at Zomba when 
another message arrived with disastrous news. On the 24th February, 1892, 
I received a note from Dr. Watson informing me that after my departure a 
large force of Angoni had come down and placed their services at the disposal 
of Mr. J. G. King, whom I had left in charge of Fort Johnston as chief of that 
station , and Mr. King had resolved, then and there, to attack Zarafi, who had 
once more become troublesome; that the expedition had resulted in a very 
serious repulse at the foot of Zarafi's hill, in which but for the dogged bravery 
of a Naval Petty Officer, Mr. Henry Inge, lent by the river gunboats, nearly the 
whole of the expedition must have been annihilated. He went on to relate 
that at the beginning of the engagement Mr. King had been shot through the 
lungs, and that he himself (Dr. Watson) had been wounded in the fight ; that 
some six Indian soldiers had been killed and several Svvahilis ; that another 
fourteen Indian soldiers were missing; 1 and that the /-pounder gun which 
Mr. Inge used till the ammunition was exhausted, to distract the enemy from 
following the defeated expedition, had had to be abandoned in the bush. 
Fortunately at this juncture Commander Keane, R.N., was staying with me, 
having only quitted Fort Johnston a short time before. On my invitation he 
returned there and restored the situation as well as possible. 

I am glad to say that both Mr. King and Dr. Watson recovered from their 
wounds. The recovery of the former was quite extraordinary as he was 
practically shot through the lungs. 2 Our ultimate losses were found to have 
consisted of the y-pounder gun, a few rifles and cases of ammunition ; and six 

1 These subsequently reached Fort Johnston by devious routes, one after more than thirteen clays in 
the bush with nothing but grass, leaves, and roots to eat. 

For years afterwards lie was Vice-Consul at Chinde ; but to my deep regret died at that place 
on November 30, 1896. 



Indian sepoys and three Zanzibar! soldiers killed. This time may be taken as 
the nadir of our fortunes. The slave- trading chiefs at Chiradzulu began to 
give trouble by committing highway robberies on the roads between Zomba 
and Blantyre and Blantyre and Matope. The Ndirande l people joined them in 
these depredations, and Matipwiri, a very powerful Yao chief who dwelt near 
the Portuguese border at the back of the Mlanje Mountain, together with 
Kawinga, sent out raiding parties from time to time to rob our carriers and to 
carry off slaves. Makanjira having received an enormous accession of strength 
and prestige from the death of Captain Maguire, crossed the lake to the opposite 
peninsula of the Rifu, and with the aid of the disaffected party there drove 
Kazembe from power as punishment for his alliance with the English. 
Kazembe fled to the south. Thus both sides of this narrow ferry were in the 
hands of the enemies of the English. Makanjira's next attempts were directed 
against Jumbe, and he began a war with him, which eventually terminated in the 
following year by Jumbe's loss of all his territory except his capital town. 
Fortunately the Arabs at the north end were not ready to recommence the 
war ; and Mponda, who held the key of the situation at the south end of Lake 
N'yasa, remained faithful to us. Then Mr. Sharpe returned from leave of 
absence in England, and the terrible pressure of the official work on my 
shoulders was lightened. Moreover I received my first accountant in the 
person of Mr. William Wheeler, 
who assisted me in getting our 
finances into order. 

Captain Sclater had been of 

great assistance to me through 

this trying time, and had made 

a rapid journey to the coast to 

obtain things that were wanted, 

and to engage some more men. 

Amongst his recruits was Mr. 

Wheeler, who had come to us 

from a position of accountant in 

the service of the Union Steam- 
ship Company. 

But in March, 1892, after the 

disaster at Zarafi's, the fortunes of 

the young Administration seemed 

certainly at their lowest ebb ; and 

what distressed me much more at 

this period than our wars with the 

Yao, or any trouble that could 

be given by the black men, was 

the attitude of the white settlers 

and some of the missionaries. It cannot be said that the Administration in its 

earlier days was universally popular amongst the Europeans, especially those 

who dwelt in the Shire province. The proclamation of the British Protectorate 

had been followed by a wholesale grabbing of land; or, where it is not fair 

to describe the acquisition of land as "grabbing," at any rate huge tracts 

had been bought for disproportionate amounts from the natives, and there were 

1 NMirande is a mountain overlooking Ulantyre. 

- Now the chief accountant of the British Central Africa Administrate n. 


MR. \\II.1. 1AM \\I1KKLER 


many claims that overlapped and required adjustment. The settlers knew that 
I was entrusted with the task of enquiring into and settling their claims, and 
many of them anticipated with some accuracy that their claims would not be 
sanctioned, either wholly or even at all. They were therefore disposed to 
weaken my position as much as they could by cavilling at all my acts, and 
making all the capital they could out of my misfortunes. In regard to a 
certain Missionary Society in the Shire Highlands, its hostile attitude was 
of more complex origin. It had acquired, and acquired by good means, a very 
strong influence over the natives. Its representatives were men of great 
natural ability who, whether conscious of it or not, enjoyed to the full the 
power of governing. Still they had not been appointed to administer this 
country by the Government, and it was impossible to allow them to take 
the law into their own hands as they were in the habit of doing, by holding 
informal courts and administering justice. Loth as I was to come into conflict 
with any Missionary Society as I have always been a sincere admirer of the 
results of mission work I found myself inevitably at issue with certain men 
at Blantyre and elsewhere. It is not worth while describing the ways in which 
through misrepresentation in the Press, letters to the Foreign Office, and strong 
local opposition my life and the lives of my subordinates were made unbearable : 
for I suppose the same conflict has occurred with the commencement of all 
attempts to found an Administration among headstrong, sturdy pioneers. I 
merely refer to these foolish dead-and-forgotten quarrels because in a small way 
they enter into the woof of our history at this period, for I cannot too strongly 
assert, as a fact perhaps not sufficiently appreciated, that during my seventeen 
years' acquaintance with Africa the difficulties raised up against my work by 
Europeans have infinitely exceeded the trouble given me by negroes or Arabs. 

Captain Charles Edward Johnson, of the 36th Sikhs, arrived in the month 
of June to take the place of the late Captain Maguire. He soon brought order 
into our disorganised forces, and there accompanied him a small detachment of 
Sikhs which proved a very useful reinforcement. Commander Keane was 
released by the arrival of Captain Johnson and received a C.M.G. in reward 
for his services. Before Captain Johnson could get an expedition ready I was 
obliged to dispatch a small force under Mr. Sharpe and Captain Sclater against 
the highway robbers of Mt. Chiradzulu. 1 

At the beginning of July, 1892, we received a visit from Admiral Nicholson, 
who was commanding on the Cape Station. Being absent at Fort Johnston, 
I dispatched Mr. Sharpe to meet the Admiral at Chiromo, whilst I journeyed 
to Blantyre. As regards bad news, I had one hour after I reached Blantyre 
which I shall always remember as a kind of Job's experience. Within that 
one hour arrived the following pieces of information. First came a messenger 
to say that a raid had been made by the Yao on the Blantyre-Zomba road, a 
caravan attacked and a quantity of goods stolen. Then came another message 
from Katunga, on the Shire, with the news that Mr. Sharpe's boat, on his way 
down to Chiromo, had been capsized by a hippopotamus, and that Mr. Sharpe 
and all his companions were drowned. 2 Lastly came the post with the news 

1 Chiradzulu is a very fine picturesque mountain about 5,500 ft. in height, midway between Zomba and 
Blantyre. The Yao settled on this mountain since the Yao raids of 1861-2 and -3 were very troublesome 
to the first missionaries and planters, and gave a great deal of annoyance in the early days of the Adminis- 
tration. They were thoroughgoing slave-raiders, and were not finally subdued until the winter of 1893. 

- Two or three of Mr. Sharpe's men were drowned, but he fortunately succeeded in swimming 
ashore where he was eventually picked up by a native canoe. He lost, however, everything he had with 
him, including some valuable guns. 



that the New Oriental Bank, in which were invested a good proportion of our 
funds, had failed. 1 Following close on this tale of disasters came Admiral 
Nicholson, fortunately accompanied by Mr. Sharpe, the news of whose 
untimely death had fairly taken all the heart out of me. Probably Admiral 
Nicholson has never known to this day why I received him with so much 

In May, 1892, Mr. John L. Nicoll had returned from leave of absence in 
England, and had entered the service of the British Central Africa Administra- 
tion. He was appointed collector for the South Nyasa district, to reside at 


Fort Johnston. In nearly three years' residence he effected a remarkable 
improvement in affairs on the Upper Shire and at the south end of the 
lake. Zarafi's raids were checked, the river was policed and rendered safe, 
and Mponda was kept in order. In the summer of this same year two 
important expeditions arrived in the country. One was the dispatch from 
England of three gunboats in sections for Lake Nyasa and the Upper Shire. 
These boats had been obtained by the initiative of Lord Salisbury, when 
the news first arrived of the disasters on the lake, consequent on the death 
of Captain Cecil Maguire. The Admiralty undertook the charge of furnishing 
these gunboats, and they were sent out under the charge of Lieutenant 
(now Commander) Hope Robertson, R.N.- The other expedition was that 

1 The Bank subsequently paid us in full, though not for about a year afterwards. 

- For his services in conveying these gunboats to Lake Nyasa. bringing about their rapid and success- 
ful construction, and afterwards commanding them on Lake Nyasa 'in 'various campaigns, Lieutenant 
Robertson was promoted, and was made a C. M.<i. 

I 10 


under Major von Wissmann, who at the head of a large expedition was con- 
veying a steamer (named after himself) to Lake Nyasa, on behalf of the 
German Anti-Slavery Society. 

In the middle of 1892 our Customs Regulations received definite form. 
Mr. H. A. Hillier, who had joined the Administration in 1891, was made 
principal Customs Officer at Chiromo, and the efficiency of our Customs 
service owes much to his organization. In 1896 he was made Director-General 
of Customs. In 1892 also the first steps were taken to institute a Hut tax. 
I he question of the taxation of the natives was in its initial stages a 



difficult one to settle. In taking over the Lower Shire district on the west 
bank of the Shire from the Portuguese in the middle of 1891, the natives 
who had been accustomed to pay taxes to the Portuguese had asked me 
to assess their taxes, if possible, at a lower rate. On enquiry I ascertained 
that they had paid a capitation tax of something like half-a-crown a head 
per annum, which tax was levied indifferently on men, women, and children. 
The chiefs of the Lower Shire natives, however, were of opinion that the}' 
would prefer a Hut to a Poll tax. Estimating the average number of hut 
occupants at three, their former Poll tax would have resulted in each 
household paying about js. 6d. per annum. I therefore proposed to 
compromise the matter by fixing the annual Hut tax at 6s. per annum 
and abolishing the Capitation Dues. The natives seemed well satisfied with 


1 1 1 

this proposal. Gradually, however, it became obvious that if the natives of the 
Lower Shire district were to pay taxes, the other natives of such portions 
of the Protectorate as we were obliged to administer at our own cost, should 
do the same. For a year I talked this over with the leading chiefs of the Shire 
province (the only portion of the Protectorate we were then prepared to 
administer), and got most of them to agree to the principle that the natives 
of the Protectorate should contribute, to a reasonable extent, towards the 
revenue. The idea of taxing the natives, however, was strongly opposed by 
the missionaries, and also by many of the traders and planters, who believed 
it would cause discontent and would make native labour dearer. I still held 
to my view, nevertheless, that those natives of British Central Africa who 


were unable to protect themselves from the incursions of slave raiders, or 
who by their own misconduct compelled the intervention of the Administration 
for the maintenance of law and order, should contribute as far as their means 
allowed towards the revenue of the Protectorate, for it was not to be supposed 
that the British taxpayer, or the British South Africa Company, could continue 
indefinitely finding subsidies for the support of the Protectorate ; that the 
Protectorate must justify its existence by eventually supporting itself on its 
locally raised revenue. At a meeting with some of the leading missionaries 
and planters at Blantyrc, in the winter of 1892, I agreed to propose to the 
Secretary of State that the Hut tax should be reduced to $s. per annum, and 
eventually it was fixed in the Queen's Regulations at that sum. 

The only other taxation incumbent on the natives was the taking out 
of a gun license, for which the same sum was charged as in the case of 
Europeans and foreigners, namely, i for five years, or in the case of the 
natives, 4^. per annum. The payment of the Hut tax was at first confined 


to certain portions of the Shire province. Gradually it was enforced through- 
out the Shire province. At the present time it is enforced throughout 
all the Protectorate with the exception of that portion of the West Nyasa 
district which is inhabited by the northern Angoni, who at present decline 
to pay taxes to the Administration but on the other hand remain quiet 
and free from civil war, and therefore do not compel us to go to the expense of 
administering their country. Eventually, no doubt, by friendly arrangement the 
Hut tax will be enforced even here. In all other parts of the Protectorate it has 
never been put in force without a proper arrangement being come to with the 

native chiefs, except in such districts as where the chiefs Yao or Arabs 

have gone to war with us. Then as one of the conditions of peace or one of 
the results of conquest, the Hut tax has been eventually enforced. The 


revenue derived from this source in 1893 was about 1,639. In the financial 
year ended March 3ist, 1896, it amounted to 4,695 in value. 

In the early autumn of 1892 I commenced the land settlement, and by 
degrees every estate or land claim between the Lower Shire district and Lakes 
Tanganyika and Mweru and the Upper Luapula was visited and enquired into 
by Mr. Alfred Sharpe, Captain Sclater or myself. Admissible claims were 
divided into two kinds : claims to mineral rights, and claims to land with or 
without mineral rights. 1 In the case of treaties conferring mining rights 
the investigation was relatively simple. The chief or chiefs alleged to be 
the grantors of such concessions were examined and if they admitted making 
the grant, and it could be shown that they had received fair value for the same! 
the mining concessions were confirmed. In regard to land, long occupation' 
and improvements were regarded as almost the best titles. These qualifications, 
however, applied to very few estates in British Central Africa, as in most cases 

1 Inadmissible claims were those which conferred sovereign rights or granted any monopoly of trade 
inconsistent with the various treaties with Foreign Powers to vrtiich Great Britain wa-'n parly. 


the settlers had only arrived after the proclamation of the Protectorate. Only 
in cases of very lengthy occupation and much cultivation or building were 
claims sanctioned which were unsupported by properly executed documents. 
Even when land had been purchased, and the sale on the part of the chief was 
not repudiated, and the deed of sale was authentic, the concessionnaire was 
required to show what consideration had been paid, and if the grantor was not 
considered to have received fair value for his land the grantee had either to 
supplement his first payment by another, or the area of his estate was reduced 
to an extent fairly compatible with the sum paid. As land was of very little 
value before the establishment of the Administration, and as undoubtedly the 
settlers had conferred great benefits on the country by clearing and planting, 
land was not rated at a high value in these settlements. Threepence an acre 
was the maximum, and this only in exceptionally favoured districts like Allanje 
and Blantyre. Sometimes the value of the land was computed at as low as a 
halfpenny an acre. Except on very small estates the existing native villages 
and plantations were exempted from all these purchases, and the natives were 
informed that the sale of the surrounding land did not include the alienation of 
their homes and plantations. The fact is, that at the time the chiefs sold land 
to the Europeans they were very heedless of the results. All they desired was 
the immediate possession of the trade goods or money given in payment. The 
tenure of the land in reality was tribal ; that is to say theoretically the chief 
had no right to alienate the land, but he had assumed such right and his 
assumption was tacitly accepted by his people. It was, however, highly 
necessary to secure these people from the results of their chief's heedlessness, in 
many cases, as they were apt to become the serfs of the white man when he 
began to appear as their over-landlord. One of the results of the land settlement, 
therefore, was to completely free the natives from any dependency on the white 
settler, by restoring to them the inalienable occupancy of their villages and 
plantations. Moreover, in sanctioning the various concessions in the name 
of the Government we reserved to the Crown the right to make roads, railways, 
or canals over anybody's property without compensation ; the control of the 
water supply ; and where mining rights were included in the concession, a 
royalty on the produce of the mines. In each deed (the deeds were styled 
" Certificates of Claim ") the boundaries of the property were set forth with 
sedulous accuracy, and it was provided that all these deeds should be even- 
tually supplemented by an authoritative survey made by a Government surveyor, 
a process which is fast being completed. On the whole the settlement was well 
accepted by the Europeans, while it gave distinct satisfaction to the natives, and 
was approved without modification by Her Majesty's Government. Throughout 
the whole settlement I believe I am right in saying that only one dispute 
regarding boundaries was brought into Court and not settled amicably and 
informally in my office. When all these claims had been arranged I concluded, 
on behalf of the Crown, treaties with all the chiefs of the Protectorate, securing 
Crown control over the remainder of the land, which the natives were hence- 
forth unable to alienate without the sanction of the Commissioner. In some 
cases large sums of money were spent by the Government in buying up the 
waste land from the natives where it was deemed advisable that a complete 
control over its disposal should be exercised. Except over a small area of land 
which is absolutely Crown property, a percentage on the selling price or 
the rent is paid to the native chief when portions of the Crown lands are 
let or sold. 


In the same year, 1892, the foundation of our Courts of Justice was laid. 
At my recommendation a number of officials were given warrants as magis- 
trates by the Secretary of State, and were thus enabled to administer justice 
to Europeans and other foreigners under the "Africa Orders in Council of 1889 
and 1893." It was theoretically supposed that justice to natives only was ad- 
ministered by native chiefs, but in reality the native courts are practically held 
by British magistrates in the name of the local chief or as his representative ; 
for over most of the districts the native chiefs have surrendered to us by 
treaty their justiciary rights. Still, in some districts, native chiefs are 
encouraged to settle all minor cases themselves, and the natives are not 
allowed to go to the European magistrate except where the native chief cannot 
be relied on for fairness. No native chief or British magistrate, however, is 


allowed to carry out a death sentence on a native without first referring the 
case to the Commissioner for consideration, and obtaining his sanction to the 
verdict and sentence. 

As far back as 1891 we had commenced road-making. Captain Sclatcr 
had begun to clear a road from Chiromo to Zoa, with the intention of ultimately 
carrying on this road to Mlanje in one direcion, and to Blantyre and Zomba in 
another. It was found, however, to be of more urgent need to the community 
that the road between Katunga and Blantyre should be made passable for 
waggons. Consequently Captain Sclater undertook the reconstruction of the 
Katunga road, 2 which proved to be a very lengthy and expensive business 
and is not yet finally completed. 

In the summer of 1892 Captain Stairs' expedition returned from Katanga, 

1 That of 1889 only applied to British and British protected subjects ; that of 1893 k r;lve us > in virtue 
o! treaties concluded, jurisdiction over all subjects of i'oreign States within the limits of 'the IV 

-It had been originally made by the Lakes Company, but it was little more than a rough track, 
Without bridges, and almost impassable for waggons. 


through Xyasaland ; but Captain Stairs, who had been very ill with black-water 
fever, died at Chinde before he could embark on the ocean steamer. 

1893 dawned on us with somewhat brighter prospects. I had spent a very 
pleasant Christmas at Blantyre, and had been cheered by the safe return of Mr. 
Sharpe from an extensive journey through the Tanganyika, Mweru, and Upper 
Luapula districts, where he had added to our geographical discoveries, and had 
settled many outstanding difficulties with Arabs and native chiefs. M. Lionel 
Decle arrived at the beginning of 1893 on a scientific mission for the French 
Government. In the course of this mission he had already travelled over 
South Africa from the Cape to Xyasaland. He eventually continued his journey 


through British Central Africa to the south end of Tanganyika, and thence to 
Uganda and the east coast of Africa. 

In January, 1893, came Mr. J. F. Cunningham to be my private secretary. 1 

In the month of February, 1893, however, we found ourselves face to face 

with a serious outbreak on the Upper Shire, an outbreak of slave traders 

that had long been threatened. The upper portion of the Shire was ruled over 

by a chief named Liwonde, who was a relation of Kawinga's. - Liwonde had 

1 In 1894 he became Secretary to the British Central Africa Administration. Mr. Cunningham, 
besides organising our printing establishment and Ca/ette, was among many other accomplishment 
great road-maker. He constructed the road between Blantyre and Zomba as a " holiday task " while I 
was absent in South Africa in the spring of 1893 To praise one's private secretary is scarcely le>s- 
difficult than to praise oneself; such commendation must be private. Still I should like to acknowledge 
here how much I owe to this gentleman's unflagging industry and zealous co-operation during the period 
between 1893 and the present day. 

2 Kawinga, to whom constant allusion will be made in the pages of this History, was a powerful Yao 
chief of the Machinga clan, who had settled on Chikala Mountain, near the north-west end of Lake 
Chiloa. at the end of the fifties or beginning of the sixties. He is referred to by Livingstone in his 
Last Journeys as Kabinga. The chief Liwonde was his relation, and had, with some Yao followers, 
acquired the sovereignty of the I'pper Shire about thirty year- 



received me well in 1889, ar >d na d made a treaty with me ; but he was incurably 
addicted to the slave trade. An old Arab, named Abu Bakr (a white Arab of 
Maskat), lived with Liwonde, and acted as go-between for the supply of slaves 
to the Swahili caravans. At the beginning of 1893 one of these caravans had 
kidnapped and carried off some boys at Zomba who worked in Mr. Buchanan's 
plantations. Captain C. E. Johnson, who happened to be staying at Zomba, 
hurried off in pursuit of the caravan, accompanied by Mr. George Hoare 

(formerly a N.C.O. in the 
Royal Engineers) and a few 
Makua police. They came up 
with the caravan in Liwonde's 
country, and succeeded in re- 
leasing the Zomba boys, to- 
gether with a large number of 
other slaves, but the slave 
traders managed to elude them. 
On the return of the rescue 
party to the banks of the 
Shire, in Liwonde's country, 
they were attacked by Li- 
wonde's men. One of the 
Makua police was killed, and 
others were badly wounded, 
while Mr. Hoare had to swim 
for his life down the river till 
he was out of the range of 
the enemy's guns. Fortunately 
the rescued slaves were not 
recaptured. The whole river 
now was up in arms wherever 
there were Yao. A boat of 
the African Lakes Company 
was coming down in charge 
of some Atonga. It was seized 
by Liwonde's men, and one of 
the Atonga had his throat cut in Liwonde's presence. Others, though 
wounded, managed to escape. Finally, the Doinira unfortunately chose this 
moment to make one of her rare periodical trips down the Upper Shire to 
Matope, and stuck on a sandbank opposite to one of Liwonde's towns. When 
we heard the news at Zomba, we scraped together all the forces we could 
collect, but these only consisted of Makua police and Atonga labourers. With 
these men Captain Johnson and I started for the Upper Shire. At Mpimbi 
we were joined by Messrs. Sharpe, Gilbert Stevenson, and Crawshay. \\ e 
fought our way up the river to the place where the Doinira was stranded. Here 
we were over three days in a very disagreeable position. Our camp was com- 
manded by the higher ground in the vicinity, from which the natives continually 
fired into us. They also kept up a steady fire on the Doinira, and Mr. Steven- 
son, in going on board that steamer, was gravely, almost mortally, wounded. l 

1 He was shot through the body just in front of the kidneys, but made a marvellous recover)-, and 
subsequently did excellent service in the Protectorate in the Mlanje district. When out shooting game in 
September, 1896, his gun went off accidentally and killed him. 



We were getting anxious as to our position, owing to the possible exhaustion of 
our ammunition and the fact that the enemy had reoccupied the banks of the 
Shire behind us, thus cutting us off from overland communication with the 
Shire Highlands. The boats which attempted to go up or down the Shire 
were fired at, and several boatmen and soldiers were wounded. Mr. Alfred 
Sharpe was the first to relieve the acute crisis of our position by stealing out 
with a few Atonga from the stockade, and lying in ambush along one of the 
paths which the enemy used for advancing in our direction. In this way he 
was able to pick off with his rifle several of Liwonde's most noted warriors and 
leaders, and this considerably damped the enemy's ardour. 1 

On the third day of our beleaguered state there arrived very welcome 
reinforcements in the shape of Herr von Eltz (who was in charge of Major 
von Wissmann's expedition, intended to convey a steamer to Lake Nyasa), 
a German non-commissioned officer, a Hotchkiss gun, and about twenty 
Sudanese soldiers. These really relieved us from any peril, and enabled 
those who had been three days in this camp without sleep or a proper 
meal, to get both whilst the new arrivals kept watch. On the following clay 
Lieut. Commander Carr, who commanded H.M.S. Mosquito on the Zambezi, 
arrived with Dr. Harper and about twenty blue-jackets. 

We had succeeded in getting the Domini off the sand-bank, she had 
gone to Matope, and returned with Mr. Sharpe and further reinforcements. 
We were now, therefore, able to advance up the river and capture Liwonde's 
town which was done without much serious fighting; the brunt of the struggle 
falling to Herr von Eltz and his Sudanese, and Mr. F. J. Whicker.' 2 Liwonde's 
town was on an island and our forces advanced on both banks of the river. 
We managed to wade across one branch of the Shire to the island which the 
enemy had already abandoned on our near approach. 

Lieut. Carr and the blue-jackets assisted us in building two forts and then 
returned to the lower river, one or two blue-jackets remaining behind for a few 
weeks to assist us in garrisoning the forts. Commander Robertson and myself 
passed on up the river to the limits of Liwonde's country in the Doniira, but 
had no fighting of any serious character. Liwonde fled and we did not succeed 
in capturing him for several years, during which he occasionally gave us trouble/ 5 
The pacification of the country was ably effected by Mr. F. J. Whicker, under 
whose superintendence the Upper Shire has become one of the most prosperous 
districts in the Protectorate, with an abundant and contented population. 

In March, 1893, Captain Sclater was obliged to return to England on 
account of his health and the expiration of the time for which he was seconded. 
In April I started for South Africa to confer with Mr. Rhodes and the secretary 
of the South Africa Company, in regard to the contributions to be furnished 
by that Company towards the adminstration of British Central Africa. 

On my way down the river I met Lieut, (now Lieut.- Colonel) Edwards, who 
had arrived from India with a large reinforcement of Sikhs. For two years 
past the armed forces in the Protectorate had consisted of one English officer, 
sixty to seventy Indian Sepoys, and about fifty Zanzibaris and Makua (the 
latter being natives of Mozambique). The Indian soldiers, again, included over 
forty Mazbi Sikhs and about twenty Indian Muhammadan cavalrymen. The 
term for which these men were allowed to volunteer from the Indian Army 

1 An important settlement was afterwards founded here and called " Fort Sharpe." 

" Subsequently collector for the Upper Shire district. 

''' Fie is however now exiled to Port Herald on the Lower Shire. 




would expire in the summer of 1893, and I had therefore made arrangements 
with the Indian Government for their relief, but had asked on this occasion, at 
the suggestion of Captain Johnson, that when the second Indian contingent 
was sent out, all the new Indian soldiers should be Jat Sikhs and not Mazbis. 1 

Lieut. Edwards brought with him a hundred Sikhs on this occasion. A few 
months after their arrival the time expired of the Mazbi Sikhs, and the few 
Indian cavalrymen that remained were sent back to India. 
Later on in the year another hundred Sikhs arrived, under 
the command of Lieut, (now Captain) W. H. Manning, 
thus bringing up the full strength of our Indian contingent 
to 200 men, which maximum it has not since exceeded. 
In regard to black troops we had first of all tried natives of 
Zanzibar, but these men had not proved very satisfactory. 
They were nearly as expensive as the Sikhs, they were not 
- ^ all of them very brave or reliable in warfare, and they 

were difficult to procure, owing to the restrictions 
which had been placed at that time on the ex- 
patriation of the natives of Zanzibar ; restrictions 
rendered absolutely necessary owing to the drain 
\l on the population of that island caused by the 

engagement of Zanzibaris for the many expedi- 
tions engaged in African exploration. I had been 
much struck with the good qualities of the Makua 
of Mozambique The escort I had taken with 
me in my journeys of 1889-90 was composed of 
Makua, recruited at Mozambique. I had also 
obtained Makua for the Thomson-Grant expedi- 
tion to Bangweolo, and these men after Mr. 
Thomson's return had passed into our police 
force. We were also beginning to employ as 
police the Atonga natives of West Nyasa. I 
therefore decided to pay off and send back our 
\ few remaining Zanzibaris, and to replace them 

m y by Makua and natives of Nyasaland. Meantime, 

however, at a suggestion from the late Mr. Portal, 

I.IEUT.-COI, c. A. EDWARDS I tried the experiment of forming a small corps 

of Zanzibar Arabs (most of them ex-soldiers of 

the Sultan of Zanzibar's bodyguard). These men were of poor physique, and 
we only kept them in our service from one to two years. They were very plucky 
and, contrary to some people's anticipation, perfectly loyal. 2 

During the year 1893 arrangements which had been begun for the division 
of the British Central Africa Protectorate and the adjoining Sphere of the 

1 I need scarcely remind my readers that the Sikhs are not a race but merely a religious sect. They 
are really a section of the I'anjab people of very varied types of humanity, some being dark coloured and 
of almost Dravidian aspect, others having faces of Greek outline and very pale complexions. The Jat 
belongs to the cultivator class and is supposed to be much more aristocratic than the Ma/bi. Between the 
Ma/bis and the Tats, however, I could see very little difference in general appearance, and to my thinking 
both kinds of Sikhs were equally good; perhaps in one or two points the Mazbis had the advantage in 
regard to physical endurance, while on the other hand the Jats were more cheery in disposition, and even 
more loyally enthusiastic than the Mazbis. In the days when the Sikhs set much store by caste, the Mazbis 
were the " sweepers " or lowest caste of all, and by some were hardly recognised as proper Sikhs. 

1 A detailed description of our present military force in the 1'rotectorate will be found in the 
Appendix to this chapter. 




British South Africa Company into administrative divisions were completed. 

The Protectorate was divided into twelve districts, the names of which will 

be found in the accompanying map, and that portion of the South Africa 

Company's territory which we were able to administer was 

divided into the districts of Tanganyika, Chambezi, Mweru 

and Luapula. 1 

During my absence in South Africa Mr. Sharpe had 

taken an important step towards controlling the Mlanje 

district, and guarding our south-eastern border from the 

raids of a very troublesome chief, known as Matipwiri. 

To check these raids he had founded Fort Lister in the 

pass between Mounts Mlanje and Michesi. The idea of 

building a fort at this spot was no new one. It had first 

occurred to Consul Hawes in 1886, and I had taken up 

the idea again after my first visit to Mlanje in 1892. After 

that journey I decided that as soon as we could obtain 

reinforcements from India, we should build forts to guard 

the north and south ends of Mlanje Mountain. These 

forts I subsequently named Fort Lister and Fort Anderson 

to commemorate the sympathy and assistance I had re- 
ceived at the hands of Sir Villiers Lister and Sir Percy 

Anderson of the Foreign Office, in carrying out my 

projects for the suppression of the slave trade. Captain 

C. K. Johnson commenced the construction of Fort Lister, 

but although his advent in this country was warmly 
welcomed by the indigenous A-nyanja 
chiefs, it was anything but welcome to 

the Yao slave traders, prominent among whom was the 
chieftain named Nyaserera. 2 Nyaserera seems to have disliked 
the idea of making an attack in force on the fort as long as 
it was defended by a white man, but the idea apparently 
occurred to him to attempt the assassination of Captain 
Johnson. That, at least, was the belief of most of the native 
witnesses whom we subsequently examined. What took place 
was this: One night as Captain Johnson was sitting down 
to dinner in his temporary bungalow he heard a slight noise 
in his adjoining sleeping apartment, and on looking up saw 
a man with a spear concealed behind a portiere. He at once 
attempted to seize the intruder. The latter grappled with 
him in the bath-room, to which he had retreated, and stabbed 
the Captain till he swooned. He then made off before 
assistance came. This news was conveyed to me by the 
Indian hospital assistant at Fort Lister. 

I hurried over there with Mr. Whyte, and such was the 
panic created amongst the natives by Xyaserera's sudden 
evidence of hostility towards us that we had the greatest 
difficulty in getting any porters to carry our loads. Part of 

1 I believe to these districts the South Africa Company have now added the Mpc/eni district and the 
Luangwa districts. The capital of the latter is Fort Jameson. 

- Nyaserera though he ruled Yao and identified himself much with the Yao cau^e. was in reality 
a Mlolo from the countries west of Lake Chilwa. The A-lolo are closely related to the Makua and 
speak nearly the same language. 




I 20 


the way we had to travel through Nyaserera's country, and between bands of 
sullen-looking warriors on either side of the narrow path. They would probably 
have attacked us but that an escort of Sikhs had come out 'to meet us from 
^^^^^ Fort Lister. 

At this place I held meetings with many chiefs, and 
endeavoured to detach from Nyaserera his relations and 
allies ; and this diplomacy proved so far successful that 
when later on Lieut. Edwards arrived from Fort Johnston 
he had only Nyaserera to fight, and subdued him after a 
brief campaign. 

Later in the year further troubles broke out in the 
Mlanje district, with the chief Mkanda, whose subjects 
had been concerned in recent road robberies, and who was 
continually kidnapping women for the slave trade. I took 
advantage of the arrival of the second detachment of 
ioo Sikhs to bring Mkanda to his senses, but I thought 
at first it would be sufficient for him to be made aware 
that^the Sikhs were encamped in the plain on their way 
to Fort Lister, while the collector of the Mlanje district 
(Mr. Bell) visited Mkanda in the mountains with a small 
escort and delivered an ultimatum, to which I believed 
Mkanda would submit. Mkanda, however, was very in- 
solent, and his men commenced attacking Mr. Bell's escort. 
To protect themselves in retreating the escort set fire to 
some houses and loose stacks of grass for thatching, and 
succeeded in reaching the main force encamped in the 
plain. They then com- 
municated with Captain 
Johnson at Fort Lister, 

and awaited instructions as to further pro- 
cedure. Mkanda took advantage of this tem- 
porary inaction to attack the Scotch Mission 
station on the borders of his territory. The 
missionaries took to flight and Mkanda's men 
gutted and burnt most of the houses, and 
succeeded in carrying off several guns and a 
quantity of ammunition. Fortunately the up- 
rising spread no farther, and the other Yao 
chiefs did not join in, though Matipwiri sent 
out skirmishers to see what he could do in the 
way of highway robbery. 

Mkanda's men also intercepted and slew 
several Atonga labourers on their way to a 
European plantation, but after several days' 
hard fighting among the crags and precipices 
of Mlanje, Captain Johnson succeeded in 
capturing all Mkanda's positions, and Mkanda 

His near relation Kada, who had remained on our side during this struggle, 
succeeded him in the chieftainship. Most of his people returned when peace 
was made, and were allowed to settle in the plains instead of amongst the 






mountains. Mkanda himself eventually made terms with us and returned to 
his country. So did Nyaserera, who, strange to say, is now one of our greatest 

It was perhaps just as well that this outbreak occurred when it did, as 
it prevented Mkanda attacking us when all our forces were subsequently 
engaged in the Makanjira expedition. For this expedition I had been 
continually preparing since the death of Captain Maguire. I had succeeded 
in getting the gunboats placed on Lake Nyasa and the Upper Shire. These 
vessels were now completed, and in the summer of 1893 Admiral Bedford, 1 
Commander-in-chief on the Cape Station, had paid me a visit at Zomba, 
and had proceeded with me to Lake Nyasa to witness the launching of 
the two gunboats and to inspect the already completed vessel for the Upper 

I had discussed the need for this expedition with Mr. Rhodes when 

K s nnrsK AT FOR'; 

visiting Capetown, and he had agreed in addition to the ordinary subsidies 
of the Company to find io,OOO' 2 for increasing the police force in order to 
grapple with Makanjira and subdue him. This aid had enabled us to obtain 
an additional 100 Sikhs from India, who came out under the command 
of Lieut. W. H. Manning. 3 It was high time we moved because our faithful 
ally Jumbe was almost at his last gasp. A certain Yao headman of Jumbe's 
named Chiwaura had been encouraged by Makanjira to rebel, and with 
the assistance of Makanjira's men had defeated Jumbe and forced him 
to retire to his capital. Chiwaura had built a very strong town about five 
miles inland from Kotakota, with high loopholed walls of red clay, and an 
inner citadel surrounded by trees of great girth. Except on one side 
Chiwaura's town was surrounded by an impassable marsh, a swamp which it 
was almost impossible to cross. 

Accordingly we decided first of all to relieve Jumbe before proceeding 
against Makanjira directly. The African Lakes Company's boats Doinira 
and Ilala were chartered to convey the troops, while some of the officers 

1 Now Sir Frederick Bedford, K.r.n. 

- Of which sum over 4,000 were spent and the balance returned to Mr. Rhodes. 

3 Now Captain Manning and second in command of the H. C. A. forces. 



CAPT. \v. ii. VANNING 

and myself travelled on the gunboats which were under the direction of 
Commander Robertson, R.X. The officers consisted of Captain Johnson, 
Lieut. Edwards, Dr. Watson, and a volunteer in the person of Mr. Glave, 
who had come out to Central Africa to study these countries on behalf of 
the Century, an American magazine. 1 Mr. Alfred Sharpe also accompanied 

the expedition. 

^^^^^^^^^^^^ Our terms were rejected by Chiwaura who felt 

illimitable confidence in his clay walls, not realising 
that his town was absolutely at the mercy of a 
bombardment. It lay in a marshy plain within 700 
yards of the precipitous cliffs of a little plateau. The 
approach to this plateau was not defended by 
Chiwaura, though he might have made it very 
difficult for our forces to get there except with 
great loss of men ; but without other difficulties 
than those attending transport on men's heads, we 
succeeded in planting our 7-pounder guns on the 
edge of the aforementioned cliffs. From this position 
we shelled Chiwaura, and the main town was soon 
in flames. The people retired to the inner citadel, 
which was not in the same way destructible, since the 
shells burst harmlessly in the adjoining forest. The 
enemy after a while called for a truce, but more 

Africano employed this interval in the hostilities to strengthen his defences, 
and when he was ready to begin again he announced the fact by firing on 
our soldiers when they approached the walls under cover of the truce. In 
fact in African warfare the hoisting of a white flag really means, " I want a 
breathing spell," and when both sides are rested they go on again without 
troubling themselves to announce the cessation of the truce. 

J urn be had put 4,000 men under arms and had accompanied us to the 
scene of the fight, where he remained the whole of the time with his head 
wives. Jumbe though old and feeble was not lacking in bravery, and would 
willingly have risked his life against Chiwaura had I not held him back, 
but Jumbe's commander was by no means a rash man. He was gaudily 
dressed in scarlet cloth and had innumerable charms hung about him to 
dispel ill-luck, but he was very much afraid of coming to close quarters 
with the enemy. During the truce we would watch with amusement this 
great mass of several thousand men surge across the quarter of a mile of 
plain which lay between us and Chiwaura's town, but as soon as a gun was 
discharged from the ramparts by the enemy, Jumbe's commander would shout 
" Tamanga ! tamanga ! " (Run ! run !), and the whole four thousand would surge 
back to the base of the cliffs. At last the afternoon was drawing towards 
evening, and the enemy showed no disposition to yield. Jumbe's people 
were beginning to doubt whether the white man was equal to taking such a 
place as Chiwaura's. It was necessary to show them that not only could we 
set a place on fire at a distance of half a mile through our shells, but if 
incumbent on us we could come to close quarters and take a town by 

1 Mr. Glave was an Englishman who had served with Stanley on the Congo. He subsequently 
journeyed through British Central Africa to the Congo Free State, thence down the Congo to the 
vicinity of the Atlantic Ocean, where he unfortunately died of fever he fore he proceeded on board the 
ocean-going steamer. 



assault, even at the risk of losing lives in so doing. Accordingly Captain 
Johnson gave orders for a general assault, and with about seventy Sikhs 
and thirty Makua dashed across the plain through the ruined precincts of 
the outer town and up to the high wall of the inner citadel, over which he 
and the other officers and the Sikhs swarmed and scrambled. The first Sikh 


Avho succeeded in climbing to the top of the wall, which was about eight 
feet high, and began to haul up his comrades, was shot dead. Otherwise 
there were no casualties on our part but severe wounds. Once the troops had 
got on the top of this high wall of the citadel the enemy were completely 
at their mercy and huddled together in a seething mass below. Appalled at 
the idea of the slaughter that must ensue from continual firing, Captain 
Johnson gave the order " cease firing." This leniency on his part was taken 


by the enemy for sudden fear, and a furious fusillade was opened on our inert 
by which several more were wounded. Then with or without order our guns 
went off, and numbers of the enemy were shot down. The bulk of them, 
however, including Chiwaura, scrambled over the further wall and dropped 
into the marsh below, where a good many of them were drowned. Chiwaura 
himself was shot as he was running away, and fell dead into the marsh. The 
citadel was then entered by our men, and hundreds of women were found 
cooped up in the houses, many of them in slave sticks. They were set free 
and directed to proceed to Kotakota, where many of them had their homes. 1 
That same night our forces returned to Kotakota. The next two days were 
spent in levelling the \valls of Chiwaura's town. 

We then decided to proceed down the south-west shore of the lake, part of 
us going overland and the remainder on the gunboats and steamers to the Rifu 
peninsula, which was strongly held by Makanjira, whose relation Kuluunda, 
a famous woman chief amongst the Yao, had displaced Kazembe, our ally and 
her nephew. Whilst attacking Kazembe's old town (Kazembe himself had 
joined us with a few men remaining faithful to him) we received information 
that a dau had just crossed from Makanjira's with seventy fighting men 
on board, and a large quantity of gunpowder, and would probably land in 
" Leopard Bay." H.M.S. Pioneer was dispatched thither under the command 
of Lieut. Villiers, R.N. Although the Pioneer did not succeed in preventing 
the dau from reaching the shore she fired into her and disabled her so that she 
stranded on the rocks. But Makanjira's men succeeded in escaping to the hill 
overlooking Leopard Bay where they were joined by the defeated enemy 
who had been driven out of Kazembe's town. The situation was further 
complicated by the arrival of a large Arab slave-trading caravan, commanded 
by four or five white Arabs and containing several hundred slaves. The Arabs 
joined their forces to those of Kuluunda and Makanjira, and for several days 
we besieged these people by land and water round the lofty hill which overlooks 
Leopard Bay. Eventually the Arabs of the slave caravan, Kuluunda, and most 
of her followers were captured or surrendered; but meantime a force of Jumbe's 
men was left to continue the siege of the hill while our Sikhs, Makua, and 300 
of Jumbe's soldiers, together with Jumbe himself and all the officers, were 
conveyed across the lake to Makanjira's main town. We had made the journey 
by way of Monkey Bay so as to have a short rest before embarking on the 
most critical part of our programme. We had timed ourselves to arrive at 
Makanjira's town at dawn. The enemy were taken somewhat by surprise, and 
we succeeded in effecting a landing on the sandy promontory to the south 
of Makanjira's huge straggling metropolis of many thousand huts and houses 
without meeting with any serious resistance. This promontory was separated 
from the town by a strip of low-lying swampy country. After entrenching 
ourselves in a camp the bulk of our forces started with Captain Johnson, 
Lieut. . Edwards, and Mr. Glave to try conclusions with Makanjira's forces, 
while the town was shelled over their heads by Mr. Sharpe from the camp 
and from the two gunboats which steamed along the shore. The Pioneer found 

1 Not a few of these poor women were far gone with child, and the terror of the bombardment 
so upset them that on the way to Kotakota woman after woman sat down by the way and gave birth to a 
child, which she straightway abandoned in her panic fear of Chiwaura's pursuit. It was a quaint though 
touching sight to see the Sikh soldiers gravely gathering up the new-born babes and carrying them with 
their many other burdens of rifle and kit into Kotakota. where they were afterwards impartially distributed 
among the various women who claimed to be recently parturient. Never in any historical tale or 
Gilbertian burlesque were babies so hopelessly "mixed." 



one of Makanjira's daus drawn up in a narrow creek near to or at the place 
where Captain Maguire had been killed. In spite of a heavy fire from the 
enemy this dau was attached by a hawser to the gunboat, 1 and towed out into 
the lake. 2 

After about five hours' fighting Makanjira's forces gave up the struggle and 
disappeared. We then had at our mercy his many villages. Several times he 
asked for terms of peace, but apparently without any idea but to gain time. 
The place where Captain Maguire had been killed and Boyce and McEvvan 

massacred was destroyed, with several other villages and towns in Makanjira's 
country. These extreme measures were only resorted to, however, after 
Makanjira had refused our terms of peace. 

Kuluunda was sent as an exile to Port Herald on the Shire. :! 

As Makanjira would not make peace with us I had now to consider what 
steps should be taken to occupy his country. Some of my staff were of opinion 
that it would be better after destroying the towns to remove our forces, as we 
could always return on other occasions and prevent any attempt on the part 
of Makanjira to rebuild; but my own views were different. It seemed to me 

1 This deed uas accomplished by Ilajji . \skar, a Persian, uho was an interpreter on board the 

- It now plies to and fro across the lake under the British ilai; conveying natives over the ( lo\ eminent 

' In 1896 she was allowed to return to her country on the promise of good behaviour. 



that the expeditions against Makanjira would have to be annual unless we 
permanently occupied his country. I therefore decided to leave Major Edwards 
behind with a large force of Sikhs to build a strong fort near the place where 
Captain Maguire had been killed. This fort was then named " Fort Maguire." 

Having chosen the site and. seen the British flag hoisted with great ceremony 
I returned to Zomba and spent the winter in attending to the civil organisation 
of the Protectorate. At the beginning of 1894 Makanjira attacked Fort 
Maguire and the surrounding villages with a large force of men, but was 
defeated with great loss by Captain Edwards, who soon after succeeded 
Captain Johnson as the senior officer in command of the B.C.A. forces. 



Early in this year Mr. Harrhy, who had been lent by the Postmaster-General 
of Cape Colony (Mr. French) for a year to organise our Postal Service, returned 
to Cape Town, and his place was 'taken by Mr. J. E. McMaster (now Vice- 
Consul at Chinde), who has been a most efficient Postmaster-General. 

In April, 1894, I returned to England for a much-needed holiday, Mr. 
Sharpe conducting the administration of the country during my absence. 
Besides reasons of health which necessitated this return, the time had come 
when the development of the Protectorate required its administration to be 
placed on a thoroughly sound basis, and the period during which the South 
Africa Company had agreed to contribute towards the cost of its administration 
being near expiration ' it would be necessary for Her Majesty's Government 
to consider the financial provision which was needed for the future maintenance 


of the Protectorate. The summer and autumn of 1894 were spent in making 
these arrangements, the results of which were that the Civil Service was hence- 
forth efficiently organised, and the South Africa Company's subsidies were 
devoted to the administration of the Company's own territory; the direct 
administration of which was taken over from me by the Company in 1895. 
The Imperial Government repaid to the South Africa Company and to Mr. 
Rhodes a proportion of the sums spent on the defence and development of the 

The Civil Service of the Protectorate and the Postal Service were put on a 
satisfactory footing. A postage stamp l was designed and issued. Arrangements 
were made for taking over the lake gunboats from the Admiralty and working 
them henceforth by the Administration of the Protectorate. 

Freed from all future anxieties concerning finance I started for India to 


settle the question of the Indian contingent on a definite basis with the 
Indian authorities. 

A very satisfactory arrangement was come to, lasting six years, which 
permits of our employing as many as 200 Sikhs from the Indian Army in 
British Central Africa. 

I left India on the 1st of April, 1895, and reached Chinde on the I9th of 
that month, and Zomba on the 4th of May. I found that during my absence 
everything had proceeded smoothly until the early spring of 1895, when the 
Yao chief Kawinga, whose attitude had long been threatening, had attempted 
a very serious attack on the British Protectorate. He had felt his way by first 
raiding the villages of a chief named Malemia, in whose territory the Church of 

1 The design for this was slightly altered of late and differently printed, but remains practically the 
same as that devised in 1894. It consists of the Coat of Arms of the Protectorate (which is on the 
cover of this book). This Coat of Anns was designed by me, with the assistance and advice of Sir Albert 
Woods It may be described as a shield sable, with a pile or, and over all a fimbriated cross argent, bearing 
an inescutcheon gules on which is imprinted the Royal Arms in or. The shield is poised on an outspread 
map of Africa ; supporters, two negroes, one carrying a pick and the other a shovel ; crest, a coffee-tree in 
lull hearing; motto, "Light in darkness." Put in plain language the shield is intended to illustrate our 
three colours, black, yellow, and white, with a touch of the English red. Into the sable mass of Africa 
I have driven a pile (wedge) of Indian yellow. Over all is the white cross, representing in its best 
-significations the all-embracing white man. The inescutcheon of English red shows the Arms of the 
protecting Power. The motto. " Light in darkness," was the suggestion of the late Sir Percy Anderson. 


Scotland Mission was established. Mr. Sharpe sent a small force of Sikhs and 
Aton^a under Corporal William Fletcher, and an Atonga sergeant named 
Bandawe, to defend Malemia's principal village where the Scotch missionaries 

This expedition, which only consisted of six Sikhs and a few Atonga, 
built a "boma" 1 to protect themselves against any sudden attack from 
Kawinga. It was fortunate they did so, because a day or two afterwards he 
descended on them with 2,000 men, many of them recruited from amongst the 
warlike Anguru of the countries east of Lake Chilwa. It appears that Kawinga, 
in alliance with Zarafi and Matipwiri, had really resolved on attempting 
to drive the British out of the Shire Highlands. An attack was first to 
be made on the unarmed Mission stations at Domasi Their men, whetted 
with success, would then feel the necessary courage to attack the Residency at 
Zomba. Having captured this and possibly succeeded in murdering the Com- 
missioner, the forces of Zarafi and Kawinga would advance on Blantyre, whilst 


Matipwiri sweeping through the Mlanje district, would unite his forces to theirs, 
and the Yao then counted on taking possession of the gunboats at Chiromo. 
Zarafi had sent his son and some of his fighting men to assist in the preliminary 
attack on Domasi. 

War with Kawinga was always felt, since our abortive attack on his 
positions in 1891, to be a serious affair not lightly to be encountered. We had 
therefore put up with a great deal of robberies, outrages and slave kidnapping 
on the part of Kauinga without renewing the war with him till we had larger 
forces at our disposal. Mr. Sharpe therefore at first intended to do no more 
than guard the approaches to the main station at Domasi,- though he made 
preparations for assembling as large a force of Sikhs and Atonga as were 

Kawinga's aggressive action however got no farther than " Fletcher's 
boma." Thi-i trumpery little fort was so splendidly defended by the Sikhs 

1 He mm i.i a S\\aliili word meaning " a fence," "a stockade." It is a term which has come into 
general use in British Central Africa, and is often applied to (lovernment stations, most of which were al 
first provided \\iili some such defence. 

- Domasi S defended by Mr. S. Hewitt-Fletcher. 2nd Accountant to the Hritish Central 

Africa Administn'1 ion. Some confusion arose between the two Fletchers in the subsequent newspaper 


and the Atonga that the Yao again and again recoiled before the well-directed 
rifle fire. At last the ammunition on the side of the British was giving out, 
and in spite of the heavy losses amounting to over a hundred men on the part 
of the enemy it looked as though the defence must come to an end. At 
this juncture a reinforcement of Atonga was seen to be arriving, brought up 
by two planters, Messrs. Hynde and Starke. Bandawe proposed to Fletcher 
that they should charge the demoralised enemy who were already aware of 
the approach of reinforcements. Accordingly the defenders sallied out from 
the fort firing their last volleys. The Yao broke and fled, and were pursued 
for miles by the Sikhs and Atonga. Many prisoners were captured by 
Malemia's men, who had hitherto decidedly " sat on the fence," apparently 
ready, had Kawinga prevailed, to side with the conqueror against the British. 


Among the prisoners taken was a son of Zarafi, whom Malemia caused to 
be beheaded. 

Kawinga retired to his mountain of Chikala. It seemed however to -Air. 
Sharpe that whilst the army remained demoralised was the time to definitely 
bring this struggle with Kawinga to a close. At this time his reinforcements of 
Sikhs had arrived from Fort Johnston under the command of Lieut. Hamilton 
and Captain \Y. H. Manning. 

Kawinga's stronghold was approached by a new route and the enemy 
were taken by surprise. They defended the fords of the rivers with some 
pertinacity, and a few casualties took place amongst our native soldiers and 
allies. But while the main approach to the town was still being contested 

I 72 


Lieut. Hamilton had entered the place with his Sikhs from another quarter and 
the enemy broke and fled. 1 

With the subdual of Kavvinga the road robberies, except in the Mlanje 
district, came to an end ; a sense of security spread over the southern portion 
of the Protectorate which was quite pleasantly unfamiliar. It was felt that in a 

very trying crisis Mr. Sharpe 
had acted with decision and 
promptitude and without flurry, 
and many of the European 
settlers expressed the sense of 
obligation which they felt to- 
wards Mr. Sharpe. 

In other respects the record 
of the Protectorate during my 
absence in England had been 
singularly peaceful. By negotia- 
tions which Mr. Sharpe had 
commissioned Major Edwards 
to undertake, a civil war that 
had long raged between the 
Angoni chiefs Chikusi and 
Chifisi was brought to a close. - 
Mr. Sharpe returned to 
England on leave of absence, 
and Major Edwards and myself 
began to make steady prepara- 
tions for the inevitable cam- 
paign against Zarafi, a campaign 
rendered absolutely necessary 
because this chief finding that 
he was not visited with war 
after his co-operation in the 
Kawinga raids, began to attack 
Fort Johnston. However, our 
plans in regard to Zarafi were 
temporarily postponed because 
Matipwiri attacked one of our 
hill patrols in the Mlanje dis- 
trict, and it was obvious that this chief would renew his raids in that direction 
directly our forces were engaged with Zarafi. 

I was at Chiromo when the news came of Matipwiri's hostility. I therefore 

1 Kawinga has subsequently made peace with us, and though not allowed to return to Chikala he is 
stationed on British territory. Chikala Mountain is now guarded by a fort. As an instance of the rapid 
way in which the negro accepts the results of an appeal to force, and his want of rancour, I may state 
these facts : that when in 1896 we proceeded against Zarafi Kawinga did his very best to help us, giving 
as his reason for so doing "that he had been well beaten by the British ; it was now time that Zarafi had 
a licking." Kawinga's son provided us with guides who led us along the best route to Zarafi's country, 
and Kawinga sent with me a special bodyguard of Yao who were charged to look after my personal 
safety, and who certainly did their best in this respect. 

2 In this war Chikusi, who was a very ill-conditioned young fellow, had been the aggressor, and the 
way in which he was almost compelled to make peace with Chifisi left a certain amount of rancour in 
his mind against the British, which ill-feeling finally culminated in his attacking the British Protectorate 
in the autumn of 1896, in his defeat, and death. In our counter attack on Chikusi we had the entire 
support of Chifisi and his men. 





started for Mlanje where I arranged to rendezvous with Major Edwards. 
We made very careful preparations and suddenly fell on Matipwiri, travelling 
all night over the distance which separated his principal town from F<>rt 
Lister. His men made but a feeble stand and Matipwiri and his brother 
Kumtiramanja 1 fled to Tundu hill, where they made their last stand. From 
this position they were driven off by Captain the Hon. \Y. K. Cavendish 
and Lieut. Coape-Smith, and large supplies of war material were abandoned 

1 Tnc mure powerful chief of the two. 



in their flight and captured by Captain Cavendish. Subsequently both Matip- 
\viri and Kumtiramanja were taken prisoners by Lieut. Coape-Smith. A fort 
was built in their country and Matipwiri's former subjects settled down very 
contentedly under our rule, and the country has since been perfectly peaceful. 
This settlement was rendered all the easier because Matipwiri, like most of the 
Van chiefs, was a usurper, and not a native of the district in which he had 
established himself. Many of his subjects belonged to the A-lolo stock and 
spoke a language akin to Makua. 

From the hills in Matipwiri's- country we were able to look out eastwards 

over a most wonderful country 

-^jpijj^te hitherto untraversed by any white 

man, but within the Portuguese 
Sphere of Influence. We could 
see splendid ranges of mountains 
almost as high as Mlanje- that 
is to say, reaching in parts to an 
altitude of 8,000 feet. When the 
interior of Portuguese East Africa 
is opened up this A-lolo country 
should become a great resort of 
European planters, as it is very 
fertile and admirably well watered. 
In the Matipwiri expedition 
we had for the first time tried 
our new military organisation, 
especially in regard to the Native 
levies, and we were greatly en- 
couraged by the results and 
proceeded with some confidence 
on the expedition against Zarafi. 
This expedition was brought to a 
completely successful result after 
a week's fighting in which we lost 
our best Sikh non-commissioned 
officer. The heights of Mangoche 
Mountain were successfully taken 
by storm, the lost 7 - pounder 
cannon was recovered, and Zarafi 
fled far to the eastward into 

Portuguese East Africa, where of course we were unable to follow him. A 
fort was planned on the site of Zarafi's town, and was subsequently built 
by Lieut. Alston. We then proceeded to try conclusions with Mponda, 
who after several years of doubting had at last decided to renew his struggle 
with us and had retired to a strong place, Mauni, in the mountains of the 
Cape Maclear peninsula. Major Edwards started with a strong force for Mauni, 
but Mponda at the last moment deemed discretion to be the better part of 
valour, and, eluding the force sent against him, came down in a canoe to 
Eort Johnston and surrendered to me. As much bloodshed was saved by 
this act of Mponda's I dealt as leniently with him as possible, and secured 
to him his personal property, though I deemed it necessary to send him 
away from his country for a time as his presence was so obnoxious to the mass 




of the population which of late years had placed themselves under the British. 
Mponda, like most of the other chiefs in the southern part of the Protectorate, 
was of Yao origin, and the bulk of his subjects were A-nyanja. 

Major Edwards now advanced against Makanjira who of late had renewed 
his raids into British territory and had 
founded a new capital in the hills, just 
over the British side of the border, and 
about ten miles from the south-east coast 
of Lake Nyasa. This town was taken 
and destroyed by Lieut. Coape- Smith. 
Makanjira's forces were completely routed 
and fled in disorder into Portuguese 

On my return to Fort Johnston from 
Zarafi's I received letters from Karonga 
at the north end of Lake Nyasa and from 
Mr. Crawshay, the Vice-Consul at Deep 
Bay, informing me that the situation at 
the north end of the lake was serious, as 
Mlozi and the Arabs were now raiding in 
all directions for slaves, and openly an- 
nounced their intention of fighting the 
British as soon as the rainy season began. 
Mlozi had captured and severely flogged 
a lay missionary named Stevens ; he had 
even threatened the Free Church Mission 
station near Fife on the Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau, and Dr. Cross, a medical mission- 
ary, had been obliged to proceed to that 
place to bring away the wife of the 
missionary through German territory. 

Mlozi had amongst other things 
attacked the populous villages of the 
Awa-wandia, and besides slaughtering 
many of the men had carried off women 
and children to his stronghold. He had 
concluded an alliance with the powerful 
Awemba tribe to the west, and it was 
obvious that unless we moved first he 
would soon be attacking Karonga with 
an overwhelming force. I may state here 
parenthetically that since my return from 
Kngland I had in July, 1895, made a 
special journey to the north end of Lake 
Nyasa to see Mlozi and persuade him to 
keep the peace according to the original 
treaty concluded by him in 1889; but on 

arriving at Karonga Mlozi had flatly refused to see me, and had even written 
inr a very threatening letter, in the course of which he remarked, "The 
British have closed my route to the coast: very well, I will close their road 
to Tanganyika." 


i 3 6 



The Arabs were not able to go to 
war with us at that time, and also they 
wished first of all to gather in their 
crops. They knew besides that the 

Europeans fought at a disadvantage in the rainy season, and it was evident 
if we did not take steps to reduce the Arab power before the end of December 
they would attack us in January with many chances in their favour. 

Accordingly with some reluctance I resolved to continue our campaigns 
on Lake Xyasa by an expedition against the Arabs. Our little force had by 
this time been nicknamed the " ever victorious army." We had now 400 men 
(100 Sikhs and 300 natives) on whom we could place absolute reliance, and 
the force had been strengthened by the advent of several volunteer officers. 
The officers on the staff consisted of Major C. A. Edwards ; Captain F. T. 
Stewart; 1 Captain the Honble. W. E. Cavendish; Lieut. H. Coape - Smith ; 
Lieut. G. de Herries Smith ; and Lieut. Alston ; 2 Dr. Wordsworth Poole and 
Sergeant-Major Devoy. 

It was essential that the Arabs should be taken by surprise ; that we should 
fall on them with all our available force and surround their strongholds before 
they could escape to the interior, for they might prefer to run away instead of 
fighting out the struggle, which they could renew at a more convenient season. 
Therefore, our most important problem was how to transport 400 men, seven 
officers and the necessary munitions of war in one trip. The gunboats would 
only carry about fifteen men each and a similar proportion of our stores ; the 
African Lakes Company's steamer Doniira could not take much more than 

1 Who with Captain Cavendish was left to watch Makanjira and Zarafi. 

- The Volunteers were Major L. Bradshaw (of the 35th Sikhs), Major V. C. Trollope (Grenadier 
Guards), and last, but not least, Mr. Walter Gordon Cummin^. These gentlemen served in the autumn 
campaign of 1895 \\itliout pay and at their own expense. Major Trollope and Mr. Gordon dimming 
were visiting the country for the purposes of sp<>n. Major Bradshaw, who was a brother officer of 
Major Edwards, and assisted us when in India to recruit Sikhs, was very anxious to study the question of 
Indian soldiers fighting in Africa, and had obtained leave of absence so that he might join our campaign. 


100 men. I bethought myself of the German steamer the ll'i'ssindun, which was 
fortunately at that moment lying off Fort Johnston. I had an interview with 
her Commander, Captain Berndt, and relying on him as a man of honour, 
communicated my plans to him, and asked whether I could hire the German 
steamer to carry them out. He at once assented and proposed terms which 
were generous financially as they provided merely for the working expenses of 
the steamer. I may say here that my plans were kept absolutely secret by 
Captain Berndt, and that no hint reached the Arabs as to our intentions. 

Major Edwards and I made a hasty journey to Zomba for final preparations 
and the expedition left Fort Johnston on the 24th of November, 1895. On the 
way to the north end of the lake Major Edwards fell ill, so that when we landed 
at Karonga I was temporarily deprived of the services of my commander-in- 
chief, who for a few days was obliged to lie up. But his plans had been so well 


laid that they were carried out without a hitch by Lieut. Coape-Smith, who 
succeeded him temporarily in the command. Major Bradshaw was also an 
invalid, but fortunately both he and .Major Edwards recovered in time to take 
part in the final assault on Mlo/i's stockade. Our plan of campaign was this: 1 
Mlozi's stockaded town was situated about eleven miles inland from Karonga, 
the station of the African Lakes Company on the shore of Lake Xyasa. About 
six miles inland from Karonga were the stockades of Msalemu and Kopakopa 
which guarded the ford of the River Rukuru. Mlozi's town was in the plain 
near the south bank of the River Rukuru. It was overlooked by a ridge of hills 
to the south which ran transversely to the course of the river. The Arab road 
from Kopakopa's stockade to Mlozi's ran through a pass in these hills, and this 
low range on the side of the pass nearest the river terminated in a rather high 
house-shaped hill which it was possible to climb to the summit, and where guns 
could be planted. Our idea was to send out about 300 men and a number of 

1 In drawing up this plan at /.omba Major Edwards and I \\viv greatly helped by the notes and 

map-, i if M]o/,i's stockade which had been made for us by Dr. Kerr Cross and Major Trollope. 



officers under the command of Lieut. Coape-Smith, who should proceed by 
a circuitous course northwards till they came opposite Mlozi's town, with the 
River Rukuru running in between. This march should be undertaken at 
night and the River Rukuru forded in the darkness, opposite the house-shaped 
hill, which eminence was to be seized and garrisoned by one division under 
Major Trollope. Lieut. Coape-Smith was then to place a section of his force 
under Lieut. Alston to guard the approach to the River Rukuru from Mlozi's 
town. A further division under Mr. Gordon Gumming was to pass round to 
the back of Mlozi's town and take up a position to the west of it. Major 
Trollope's force by occupying the house-shaped hill would command the pass 
through which the road to Kotakota passed, and thus be able to cut off Mlozi's 
retreat in that direction. Mr. Walter Gordon Cumming's force would be able 
to check his flight westward and Lieut. Alston prevent him from crossing the 


River Rukuru to the Tanganyika road. Having posted these three divisions 
in the darkness of the night Lieut. Coape-Smith was to return along the 
banks of the river to Kopakopa's, and meet me there at eight o'clock in the 
morning ; for I in the meantime should have started with the naval division 
and a force of Sikhs under Lieut, de Herries Smith and have attacked, and 
presumably mastered Kopakopa and Msalemu. Lieut. Coape-Smith accordingly 
left Karonga at eight o'clock at night on the 1st of December, and although 
it was raining cats and dogs and the night was pitch dark he carried out 
the whole of the operations entrusted to him without a single mistake or 
deviation, and punctually turned up at Kopakopa at eight o'clock next 
morning. I left at five o'clock in the morning of the 2nd of December with 
a strong force of artillery under Commander Percy Cullen, R.N.R. (the senior 
naval officer on Lake Nyasa), and accompanied by Lieut. Rhoades and 
Phillips (of the Lake Nyasa gunboats) ; the petty officers of the said 
gunboats; Sergeant -Major Devoy ; Dr. Poole ; and Lieut. Merries Smith 
who commanded the Sikhs. We reached Msalemu's stockades soon after 


daylight, and began to shell it. A few shots were fired by the enemy, but 
their resistance was soon overcome and they fled from Msalemu's and 
Kopakopa simultaneously, and crossed the Rukuru River. We therefore 
entered the stockades and took possession of them. Kopakopa however 
had resolved to make but little stand here and to unite his force with those 
of Mlozi in the defence of the latter town, where the war would really be 
fought out. He had therefore retreated from his stockade in the night, 
directly the rumour of our landing had reached him, and although he lost 
some of his men from the fire of Major Trollope's party he succeeded in 
effecting his retreat to Mlozi's. 

After a short rest at Kopakopa's we marched along the Arab road to Mlozi's 
stockade and came up with Major Trollope's force at I p.m. Getting the guns 
into position Commander Cullen commenced a most effective fire, which would 
have probably burned Mlozi's town to the ground then and there but for a 
terribly heavy rain falling at the time. The enemy returned our fire with 


vigour but could only use against us rifles, muzzle-loading guns, and one 
muzzle-loading cannon. Although their firing was fairly good we kept pretty 
much outside their range. We sheltered ourselves in one or two outlying 
villages which apparently had been built for the housing of slaves. One of 
these settlements was within 250 yards of the main entrance of Mlozi's stockade 
and this we managed to occupy, with only one serious casualty. It is true 
we were not very well sheltered from Mlozi's fire in this position, but then the 
fire of his men was rather high and the bullets whistled harmlessly over our 
heads. We now drew the cordon tighter round Mlozi's stockade in an almost 
continuous ring of armed men. About 700 Wankonde people had tendered 
their services as carriers for our guns, and these men though unwilling to get 
within fire still assisted us in repelling sorties from the stockade, which, as the 
bombardment continued, became fiercer and more frequent. 

Mlozi's town was of large extent, perhaps half a square mile in area, and 
it was surrounded by a rather remarkable stockade which consisted of a double 
fence of withes thoroughly coated with hard clay and with a flat roof of wooden 
beams, thatch and clay. This hollow stockade was cut up by transverse parti- 
tions into innumerable dwellings. It was loopholed in two rows and pits were 
dug below the level of the ground for the shelter of the defenders who fired 


from the upper and the lower loopholes. Here and there angles of the 
stockade were guarded by specially strong bastions, and in most places there 
was a kind of moat below the glacis of the stockade. At intervals small gate- 
ways had been made, their doors being of heavy hewn planks and the passages 
through the doorway into the town most intricate. It was an admirable 
stockade for the purpose as shells had no effect on it, merely making a round 
hole as they passed through, the resistance being too weak to cause any breach 
to be made by an exploding shell. Mlozi's weakness lay, however, in his not 
having built his stockade alongside the water from which he was separated 
by nearly a quarter of a mile. We had cut him off from his water supply, and 
although rain fell in abundance the water obtained was not sufficient for the 
enormous number of people cooped up in the stockade, and the cattle. More- 
over within the stockade the houses were closely packed with inflammable grass 
roofs, and these were soon set on fire by incendiary shells. Naturally many 
of the people took shelter in pits below the ground ; still the bombardment 
caused great loss of life. A sortie en force was made on the night of the 
2nd of December, but was smartly repelled by Commander Cullen with his 
Nordenfelt gun. 

. At seven o'clock in the morning of the following day just as we had resumed 
our artillery fire, Mlozi hoisted a flag of truce. We ceased firing and I walked 
up to within a short distance of the walls to meet Mlozi who had come out 
of the main gateway. I was going to meet him face to face, but that one 
of the black sailors of the gunboats, a native of Zanzibar, warned me that 
he had overheard the Arabs advising Mlozi to stab me as soon as I came from 
under the guns of the fort and then to retreat through the open gateway. This 
may or may not have been Mlozi's intention. At any rate I deemed it prudent 
to halt him at about eight yards distance, and from this point I spoke to him. 
He asked what would be our terms of peace and I replied " the immediate 
surrender of himself and all the other Arabs and of their fighting men, and the 
giving up of their guns and the release of all slaves held in the fort." If he 
would fulfil these conditions I promised the Arabs and all their men their lives, 
but declined to commit myself to any other promises until I had investigated 
the whole case. Mlozi after some hesitation said that he would return and 
consult Kopakopa. Meantime two of his leading men were given to us as 
hostages, so that we might approach nearer to the fort and converse with the 
Arabs. Presently, however, an Arab it may have been Mlozi came out 
of the gateway and shouted to us that they would go on fighting ; if we wanted 
them we must come and take them. We therefore released the hostages and 
allowed them to return, but before the flag of truce could be taken down Mlozi 
had opened fire on Lieut. Alston and on my camp. Fortunately the bullets 
passed through Lieut. Alston's helmet and left him uninjured, while I had just 
entered a hut and so escaped the fire directed at me. 

I hesitated to sanction an immediate assault on the stockade as it appeared 
likely to result in a terrible loss of life to our men. I therefore decided it was 
best that we should continue the bombardment and protract the war, so as 
to cause Mlozi to use up much of his ammunition before we finally assaulted 
the stockade. But matters were precipitated by the excellence of our artillery 
fire. A refugee Mhenga chief, who had escaped from the stockade during trie- 
trace, pointed out to us the exact situation of Mlozi's house, the roof of which 
rose somewhat above the other buildings. Commander Cullen sighted a 
9-pounder gun very carefully, and Sergeant-Major Devoy landed three shells 



in the middle of this, one passing through the doorway and killing four men. 
One of the shells that burst in Mlozi's house, wounded Mlozi in the head 
and killed one of his followers. The rumoui went about that Mlozi was dead 
and a furious sortie took place a sortie which elicited from us no pity because 
it was almost as much an impetuous attack on our own positions. The bullets 
simply whistled through the air, and it was marvellous that we did not meet 
with more casualties ; but our soldiers fought splendidly, and strange to say 
the timid Wankonde also came to the front and between two and three hundred 
of Mlozi's men were shot or speared ; amongst them fell four Arabs, one of 
them alleged to be Kopakopa, though it would afterwards seem he was 
Kopakopa of Tanganyika, and not the man who had built the stockade 


near Karonga. The latter is said to have been severely wounded but 
is still living in the Senga country. Our attempts to repulse the sortie 
brought the Sikhs close up to the walls, and somehow or other with or without 
command from their officers they scaled the ramparts and stood on the roof. 
Lieuts. de Herries Smith and Coape- Smith were dragged up on to the roof 
of the stockade by the first Sikhs who had got there, and the first man to 
jump down into the stockade was Lieut, de Herries Smith, who immediately 
fell, shot through the right arm. Lieut. Coape-Smith and Mr. Gordon Gumming 
followed Herries Smith, lifted him up and carried him out of the Arab fire. 
Majors Edwards and Bradshaw had by this time arrived from Karonga, and 
together with Commander Cullen, Dr. Poole and myself and the other officers 
made for the stockade. Lieut. Alston and Major Trollope had joined the party 
under Coape-Smith. Edwards and Bradshaw scrambled over the walls. 
Commander Cullen made a breach through the doorway with axes, and he 


and I passed in, having been preceded by a number of Wankonde who drove 
out the cattle. Night had now fallen ; we had lost one Sikh and three Atonga 
killed, and Lieut, de Herries Smith severely wounded, besides one Sikh hospital 
assistant and five Sikhs and five native soldiers were more or less severely 

Nothing had as yet been seen of Mlozi. Every effort had been made 
to protect the women, no matter whether they were the Arabs' wives or 
their slaves, and fortunately little or no loss of life took place amongst them. 
They were soon safely housed in our main camp and here they gave us valuable 
information as to the whereabouts of Mlozi. All search for this man in his 
dwelling, however, proved fruitless, and we were returning to our camp at 
night very disconsolate, when suddenly the rumour went up that he had been 


captured and brought in by Sergeant-Major Bandawe of the Atonga. Bandawe 
soon appeared leading Mlozi captive and related the remarkable feat of his capture 
which was as follows : After the Sikhs and officers had given up searching M lo/i's 
house Bandawe had remained behind feeling certain that there was some secret 
hiding place. After an interval during which he remained perfectly quiet he 
fancied he heard voices speaking underground. In the corner of the main room 
was a bedstead, and under the bedstead was an opening leading to an under- 
ground chamber. Crawling under the bed Banda\ve heard Mlozi asking, " \\"ho 
is there?" Mimicking the voice of a Swahili, he' replied " It is I, master," and 
descended to the underground chamber, where he found Mlozi being guarded 
by a man with a spear. Bandawe had no weapon with him but threw himself 
on the man and wrenched his spear from him which he then ran through his 
body. Turning to Mlozi he threatened to kill him at once unless he followed 
him without resistance. Mlo/.i who was stupid with his wound did so, and he 
was safely brought into the camp by Bandawe. 

\\ r had found out from some of the runaway slaves that during the 


bombardment Mlozi had caused a good many of the hostages whom he had 
detained from the natives to be slaughtered. I therefore summoned a council 
of the Wankonde chiefs, and under my superintendence they tried Mlozi on 
this count. He was found guilty and sentenced to death. When called upon 
for his defence he merely said, " What is the good ? These people are resolved 
that I shall die. My hour is come." 

He was sentenced to be hanged, but it was originally intended that this 
sentence should be carried out at Karonga. After the trial, however, a number 
of Mlozi's men who were prisoners succeeded in overpowering the guard and 
escaping, and the rumour went about that Kapanda-nsaru's forces were at hand 
coming to the relief of Mlozi. As a strong flank attack on the part of the 
Arabs might have cut off our line of retreat to Karonga, it was resolved that 
Mlozi's execution should take place immediately, so that we might be released 



from the responsibility of guarding him. He was accordingly hanged on the 
afternoon of the 4th December, in the presence of the Wankonde chiefs. 

On the fourth day of the campaign we were back again at Karonga ; but 
here we found to our great disgust that the s.s. Domira, contrary to my orders, 
had been sent away by the agent of the African Lakes Company. The 
departure of the officers and men was therefore delayed for some' weeks. 
Meantime I left for the south with Major Kdwards to attend to other matters 
that were pressing. 

My three days at Mlo/i's without sufficient shelter in the midst of pouring 
rain, without proper food and having to place my mattress on the wet -round 
and to drink the foul water of the early rains, had begun to make me very 'ill, and 
a few days after leaving Karonga I was down with an attack of black-water 
fever, in which I was most tenderly and carefully nursed by Major KdwanU 
who conveyed me on the German steamer to Fort Johnston and thence to 
Liwonde, where 1 was joined by Dr. Poole, who eventually landed me safe and 
sound and recovered at Zomba. Meanwhile Lieut. Coape-Smith and Mr. Gordon 

i 4 4 


dimming were destroying the remainder of the Arab stockades in the North 
Nyasa districts, and Lieut. Alston and Mr. A. J. Swann were conducting a 
brilliantly successful expedition in the interior of the Marimba district where 
the notorious Saidi Mwazungu 1 had induced the powerful chief Mwasi Kazungu 
to declare war against the British. 

After a little fighting Saidi Mwazungu surrendered, but Mwasi declined to 
make peace. His capital was stormed and taken. He himself escaped, but 
soon afterwards committed suicide. He was of Achewa race, but was allied to 
the Angoni, and had under him many Angoni headmen. Originally it was 
intended that his attack on our positions in Jumbe's country should coincide 


with the Arab outbreak, but the movements were not quite simultaneous and 
we were therefore able to deal with each in turn. 

It had finally been resolved by me that the campaign should close with the 
driving out of two Yao robber chiefs who had settled in the Central Angoniland 
district Tambala and Mpemba. Captain Stewart led an expedition into 
Central Angoniland which was joined by Lieut. Alston. Tambala's stronghold 
was captured and he himself fled. Mpemba hid in the bush but later on was 
made prisoner by Commander Cullen and Mr. Gordon Cumming. The latter 
succeeded Captain Stewart in the command of the Central Angoniland district, 
and did a great deal to bring it into order. 

Here as elsewhere in Nyasaland we were much assisted in our campaigns 
by the real natives of the country who were almost always opposed to the 

1 This was the man who as before related ordered the massacre of Dr. Eoyce and Mr. McKwan. 
After our conquest of Makanjira's country, Saidi Mwazungu fled to the west of Nyasa, and settled \\ith 
Mwasi Kazungu where he w r as surrounded by a number of refugees from Makanjira's. 



chiefs of alien origin who ruled over them and were in conflict with the 
British. The bulk of the inhabitants in Central Angoniland are neither Angoni 
nor Yao but Achewa and A-chipeta, branches of the A-nyanja stock. 

At the north end of Lake Nyasa a new Administration station was built 
by Mr. G. A. Taylor the collector, near Karonga, and a strong fort, called Fort 
Hill, 1 was erected near the British South Africa Company's boundary by 
Mr. Yule, for the purpose of guarding the Nyasa-Tanganyika road from the 
raids of the Awemba. 

The Awemba are a warlike race inhabiting the regions of the Nyasa- 
Tanganyika plateau which are watered by the River Chambezi. They 


originally came from the country of Itawa on the south-west coast of 
Tanganyika. In Livingstone's day they do not appear to have been a 
particularly warlike or aggressive race; but soon after they came under Aral) 
influence and were supplied by the Arabs with guns and gunpowder, and 
thenceforth took to slave raiding with extraordinary zest. For several years 
past they had harried not only the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau at the south 
end of Tanganyika, but even the territory that has recently come under 
German influence ; and of late they had been taken up by Mloz'i as his special 
allies, and were introduced by him into the North Xyasa district from which 
their stragglers have been expelled since the conclusion of the Arab war. As 
a people, however, they are by no means indisposed to come to terms with 
us if they see that we are a strong power. 

A strong fort was built in the spring and summer of this year by Lieut. 

1 After Sir Clement Hill, the head of the African Department at the Foreign ( )!nVe. 



Alston on the site of Zarafi's town at Mangoche Mountain. Zarafi's former 
capital was situated on a neck or pass between high mountains and constituted 
one of the most obvious and frequented roads into British Central Africa. The 
boundaries of this Protectorate are so well guarded by lofty and inaccessible 
ranges of mountains or by broad lakes and swamps that there are not many 
routes by which it can be easily approached from the East Coast. The road 
through Zarafi's country however is so easy that it will always require to 
be specially guarded if the slave trade is to be stopped. 

In the month of May, 1896, I had a serious relapse of bilious remittent 
fever which ultimately developed hsematuric symptoms. I therefore returned to 
England on leave of absence, being relieved by Mr. Sharpe, who had been 
in England during the second half of 1895. Since my return the progress 
of the country has continued almost without check or interruption. Raids 
on the part of the southern Angoni into the south-western portion of the 
Protectorate occurred in the autumn of 1896, apparently as a reflex of the 
agitation amongst their Matabele kindred in the south. These were sharply 
punished by a force dispatched against the chiefs Chikusi and Odete under 
Captains F. T. Stewart and W. H. Manning, and Lieut. Alston. The latter 
had previously captured a slave-raiding chief named Katuri who lived near 
Fort Mangoche, and who might be described as the last unconquered adherent 
of the Zarafi clan. With these exceptions the tranquillity of the Protectorate 
has not been further disturbed. The Imperial Government has placed the 
British South Africa Company's forces in the adjoining Sphere of Influence 
under an Imperial Officer who is subordinated to the control of Lieut.- 
Colonel Edwards, or whoever commands the armed forces in the British 

Central Africa Protectorate. The efficiency 
of the Administration was further recog- 
nised by the Admiralty who proposed 
handing over to us the gunboats on the 
Zambezi and Lower Shire, in a way 
similar to the transference of the lake 
gunboats in 1895 ; but for various reasons 
it has been deemed preferable to retain 
these vessels under the White Ensign. 
A brief summary of the results of 
the British administration of this 
Protectorate from 1891 to 1896 
may be expressed as follows : - 
At the commencement of our 
administration in July, 1891, 
there were, as far as I can 
calculate, fifty-seven Europ- 
eans resident in the British 
Central Africa Protector- 
ate, and in the adjoining 
Sphere of the British South 
Africa Company. Of these 


Austrian Poles, and the 

remainder were British. In the summer of 1896 the European settlers in the 
Protectorate alone exceeded 300 in number, and probably amounted to forty- 


five in the adjoining Sphere of the British South Africa Company. 1 At the 
time I made this calculation as to the number of the Europeans in the 
Protectorate, in the summer of 1896, I ascertained that 30 were non-British 
subjects, and consisted of 13 Germans, 8 Dutch, i Frenchman, 2 Italians, 
5 Austro- Hungarians, and I Portuguese. Amongst the British subjects in 
the late summer of 1896 there were 119 Scotch, 123 English and Welsh, 
7 Irish, 2 Australians, 23 South Africans, I Anglo-Indian, and 3 Eurasians. 
1 he number of Indians has risen from nil to 263, of whom 56 were Indian 
traders. All these Indians, with the exception of 14 who were natives of 
Portuguese India, were British-Indian subjects. 

The total amount of trade done with British Central Africa in 1891, so far 
as I could calculate from information supplied by the African Lakes Company, 


was 39,965 in value. In April, 1896, the year's trade was computed at 
102,428. The export of coffee in 1891 amounted to at most a few pounds. 
It is computed that in 1896 320 tons were shipped home from British Central 
Africa, and much of this coffee attained the very high prices of 113^. od. and 
1 15^-. od. a c\vt. 

In 1891 there were four British steamers- on the Zambezi and Lower Shire 
(besides one steam launch owned by Mr. Sharrer), two of which were gunboats 
belonging to Her Majesty's Xavy. There are now seventeen British steamers 
on the Zambezi and the Shire, and forty-six cargo boats mostly built of steel, 
besides innumerable small wooden boats and large cargo, canoes. On Lake 
Xyasa and the Upper Shire the number of steamers has increased from three in 
1891 to six in 1896, in addition to which there are several large sailing beats 

1 At the date of the publication of this book the number of Kuropeuns in the ProUi!orat t - amount-; 
to 315. 

' 2 In the twelve month* from the 1st of January, 1895, lo tr >e 3lsl December, 1895, 109 steamers, 360 
barges, 169 boats, and 178 large canoes entered and discharged at the UritMi port al riiimmo on the 
Lower Shire. 


and cargo barges. The captured daus it may be noted have been repaired by 
us and are now plying in the service of the Government. 

There was of course no postal service in 1891, and letters were generally sent 
through the African Lakes Company to the Vice-Consul at Quelimane together 
with money for postage stamps, and this official stamped the letters with 
Portuguese stamps, and sent them home from the Portuguese Post Office. 
We commenced to establish a postal service in July, 1891. There are now 
eighteen Post Offices in the Protectorate, and five in the British South 
Africa Company's sphere, while our postal service extends from Chinde at 
the mouth of the Zambezi to Tanganyika, Mweru, and the Congo Free State. 


In the month of November, 1895, which was taken as an average month, 
the total number of articles carried by our postal service in the Protectorate, 
including letters, postcards, book packets, newspapers, and parcels, inwards and 
outwards, was 29,802 as compared with 25,592 in November, 1894, and 19,383 
in November, 1893. Besides this we carry the mails of the German Government 
from Lake Nyasa to Chinde. 1 Our parcel-post service was started in 1893 
and has been extended to the South African Colonies and England and 
to Zanzibar and Aden and India. A money order system has just been 

Want of funds in 1894 compelled us to adopt a rather cheap and inferior 

1 In return fur which the (iennan subsidized steamers carry our correspondence between Chinde 
and Zanzibar 


issue of stamps, but by a grant from the Treasury we have now been able 
to have a thoroughly satisfactory issue engraved by Messrs. De La Rue. 
The design of the stamps is that of the Coat of Arms of the Protectorate. 
Their values are id., 2d., 4^., 6d., is., 2s. 6d., $s., 45., i, 10. They are used 
alike in the collection of revenue as in the payment of postal charges. 

At Chinde on the British Concession there is a Post Office of Exchange, 
at which mails are landed from or transferred to the ocean-going steamers. 
Letters or other material arriving from the outer world at Chinde are sorted 
at this Post Office of Exchange into bags for the various postal districts in 
British Central Africa, and into bags for the German territories and for the 
Congo Free State, and are then shipped up river by the various steamers plying 
between Chinde and Chiromo. At Chiromo the bags are sent overland to the 
different Post Offices of distribution between the Lower Shire and Lake Nyasa, 
being carried by native postmen who wear a special uniform of scarlet and 
white. These men travel at the rate of 25 miles a day, and are wonderfully 
faithful and careful in the delivery of their precious charges. Cases have been 
known where postal carriers have been drowned in the crossing of flooded 
rivers by their obstinacy in not parting from their mail bags, and where they 
have fought bravely and successfully against odds in an attack by highway 
robbers. The negro of Central Africa has a genuine respect for the written 
word. Of course the time will come when attendant on the growth of civiliza- 
tion, native postmen will probably commit robberies of registered letters, as is 
occasionally done by their European colleagues; but at the present time our 
mails are perfectly safe in their hands. 

In 1891 there was about one mile of road that between the Mission station 
at Blantyre and the African Lakes Company's store over which a vehicle could 
be driven. By the end of 1896 we had constructed some 390 l miles of roads 
suited for wheeled traffic, while another 80 miles of broad paths have been 
cleared through the bush for the passage of porters and " machillas."- 

Attempts in great part successful have been made to improve the naviga- 
bility of the Shire by removing the snags from the approaches to Chiromo, and 
the sharp stones from the Nsapa Rapids on the Upper Shire ; and by deepening 
the bar at the entrance to Lake Nyasa. Last, and not least, the Slave trade, 
and it may almost be added the status of Slavery, have been brought absolutely 
to an end. Between 1891 and 1894, 86 1 slaves were released by various 
officials of the Protectorate, and between 1894 and 1896, 1700. Native labour 
is now organised in such a way as to protect the interests of both the white 
man and the negro. 

1600 acres of land were under cultivation at the hands of Europeans in 
1891, as against 5700 acres in 1896. 

In 1891 no coin was in circulation in the country, except to a very limited 
extent amongst Europeans. Transactions with natives were carried on by 
means of the barter of trade goods. In the three following years the use of 
English coinage was introduced by the Administration. We imported several 
thousand pounds' worth of gold, silver and copper coins from the Royal Mint, 
and put them in circulation amongst the natives who immediately took to the 

1 i.e., Katunga to Blantyre, Blantyre to Zomba, Zomba to Fort Liwonde (ria Pomasi), Zomba to Fort 
Lister, and thence round Mlanje to Fort Anderson, Fort Anderson to Chiromo, Chiromo to Chiradzulu 
and Ntonda, Blantyre to Cholo. Karonga to the Nyasa-Tanganyika Plateau, and short roads in the 
Blantyre, Zomba, South Xyasa, Central Angoniland and Marimba districts. 

3 A " machilla " it must be remembered is a hammock or wicker-work couch slung on a pole. 

i 5 o 


new system. In these efforts we were effectively seconded by the African 
Lakes Company which established a Banking Company, with its main office 
at Blantyre and branches at Chinde and Fort Johnston. Native wages are now 
paid in cash, and the Administration receives most of the native taxes in cash, 
though produce is still accepted in payment of taxes in the outlying districts. 
Finally, it may be stated that the local revenue raised from Customs Duties, 
Stamp Duties, and Native Taxes, which in the year ended March 3ist, 1892, 
was only 1700 in value, was in the year ended March 3ist, 1896, over 


Attempts, in some degree successful, have been made to check the indis- 
criminate slaughter of the elephant, rhinoceros, and gnu, 1 and this protection 
has now been accorded to the zebra, wild swine, buffalo, and most of the rare 
or more beautiful African antelopes. Two game reserves for the breeding 
of these animals unmolested by any attacks from man have been formed, and 
regulations for the protection of wild game were drawn up by the Foreign 
Office early in the present year (these will be found in an Appendix to 
Chapter IX.). 

Some mention should be made of the excellent work done by Mr. Alexander 
Whyte, F.Z.S., the head of our scientific department. He discovered on Mount 
Mlanje that most interesting conifer the Widdringtonia \Vhytci discovered 

1 The same restrictions also apply to the giraffe, but the giraffe is of very doubtful existence in British 
Central Africa. 


it just in time to save it from extinction at the hands of the natives who 
would every year ignite bush-fires on the upper parts of Mlanje, which were 
rapidly destroying this valuable tree. Successful efforts have now been made 
to replant other districts with the Widdringtonia, the seed of which has also 
been introduced into England, where it is now cultivated at Kew Gardens 
and at the establishments of one or two leading horticulturists. Mr. Whyte, 
with the co-operation of many officials in the B.C. A. Administration has made 
remarkable zoological and botanical collections which have enriched our national 
and provincial museums. (Some idea of the work we have done in this respect 
may be obtained by glancing at the Appendices to Chapters VIII. and IX.) 
Mr. \Vhyte laid the foundations of a Botanical Garden at Zomba, and has 
distributed amongst the planters seeds and plants which he has introduced 
on behalf of the Administration, or obtained from Kew. The authorities 
at Kew Gardens have from time to time sent out Wardian cases containing 
varieties and species of coffee, of bananas, of vanilla, and of a great many 
other useful and beautiful trees, shrubs, and plants suited to cultivation in a 
tropical country. 

Coal has been discovered by our officials in various districts, and specimens 
have been sent home for analysis. 





i CHAPTER IV. may be usefully supplemented by a brief statement of the present 
methods of administration. 

There are the following Civilian officials : 
H.M. Commissioner and Consul-General : 
H.M. Deputy Commissioner and Consul : 

A Vice-Consul and Agent of the British Central Africa Administration at Chinde : 
An Assistant Agent and Head Postmaster at the same place : 
A Vice-Consul at Blantyre, and another at Fort Johnston : 
A Secretary to the Administration ; an Assistant Secretary and 2 clerks : 
A Judicial Officer at Blantyre, who is at the head of the Judicial Establishment : 
A Chief Accountant ; 3 other Accountants ; a Store-keeper and Commissariat 

Officer ; an Assistant ditto and a native assistant ditto ; a local Auditor : 
A Postmaster General ; a head of the Scientific Department (Mr. Alexander 

Whyte) ; an Assistant and Forester in the same department : 
A Principal Medical Officer, and 2 other medical officers : 
A First Surveyor (European); 3 other Surveyors (Indian, lent by the Indian Govern- 

ment) ; a Superintendent of Road-making, and two Assistant Superintendents : 
A Superintendent of Public Works, with a European assistant and 6 Indian artisans : 
1 2 Collectors, 8 of whom hold Judicial Warrants : 
15 Assistant Collectors. 

Most of the Collectors and Assistant Collectors hold in addition the office of Post- 
master. There are further, besides the Postmaster-General at Blantyre, and the Head 
Postmaster at Chinde, 2 special Postmasters at Blantyre and at Zomba. 

The Armed Forces consist of the following officers and men : 
A Commandant (Lieut. -Colonel C A. Edwards) : 

Second-in-Command and Staff Officer ; Third Officer and Quarter-Master : 
Accountant, Clerk, Sergeant-Major of Artillery, and Transport Officer, and 2 Indian 

(The foregoing are specially attached to the Indian Contingent, though their control 
extends to the rest of the armed forces.) 

In the Contingent of Native troops there are : 

6 British Officers; 2 native Sergeant-Majors ; and a number of Police Corporals and 

The troops consist of 

1 80 Sikhs, with 20 followers and 2 Indian hospital assistants, and about 1,000 
native soldiers, armed porters and policemen. 



The Naval Service consists of a 
Commandant (Commander Percy Cullen, R.N.R.) and 

3 other Naval Officers, all of whom are chosen from the Royal Naval Reserve ; and 

4 Warrant Officers, who are pensioners in the Royal Navy ; 
A Chief Engineer, and 4 other engineers ; 

4 Indian Artificers ; 

Other European carpenters, clerks, store-keepers, c. ; and about 

80 " Sidi Boys," or native seamen. 


There are at present in the service of the Protectorate on the Upper Shire and on 
Lake Nyasa, 3 gunboats, i barge, 5 steel boats, and 2 daus (Arab sailing vessels). The 
war vessels are well armed with suitable guns. A new gunboat of considerable si/c is 
being built for service on Lake Nyasa, and should be launched at the beginning of 1898. 

The most important "item" in the service of the Protectorate is probably the 
Collector." This official superintends the collection of Customs Duties, the assessment 
and levying of native taxes ; he directs the Civil police in his district ; administers justice 
to Europeans and between Europeans and natives where he holds a Warrant from the 
Secretary of State to act as a judicial officer ; superintends the administration of native 
justice ; and acts generally as political officer and Tribune of the people. In all Civil 
matters he is supreme in his District, and only subordinate to the Commissioner. In 
many cases he is also responsible for the conduct of the postal service. If he possesses 
a great deal of power he is at the same time almost invariably an overworked individual, 
with many cares and responsibilities on his shoulders. 

Justice is administered to British subjects and other Europeans and foreigners under 



the Africa Orders in Council of 1891 and 1893 ; and to the natives by such native chiefs 
as are authorised to hold Courts of Justice ; or more ordinarily by the judicial officers in 
the district, acting in the name and by the authority of the native chiefs. Capital 
punishment on Europeans can only be carried out after the Minutes of the Trial have 
been submitted to a Supreme Court a which revises the sentence, and if it is confirmed 
sanctions the execution. Capital sentences on natives of the Protectorate, imposed by 
the native Court, cannot be carried out until they have received the sanction of the 
Commissioner of Zomba, to whom Minutes of the case are submitted 2 by a provision 
under the Africa Orders in Council. Additional laws, governing the Protectorate and 
the Sphere of Influence, can be made by the issue of "Queen's Regulations," which, 
after receiving the assent of the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, are promulgated 
by the Commissioner for British Central Africa. Special legislation of this kind is chiefly 
directed to the establishment of Customs Duties and Taxation, to the protection of Big 
Game, to the regulation of native labour and of navigation on the rivers and lakes. 

These Regulations and other announcements of a Governmental kind are published 
in the British Central Africa Gazette, which is the official organ 'of the Administration 
and appears fortnightly, issued by the Government Press at Zomba. 3 

Government land is sold by public auction, and its upset price at present varies from 
2S. 6d. to $s. od. an acre. 

There is a central Hospital at Zomba for the treatment of the European servants of 
the Administration, and a native hospital. 

For Administrative purposes the Protectorate is divided into the following districts: 

Lower Shire (Capital, Port Herald). 
Ruo (Capital, Chiromo). 
Mlanje (Capital, Fort Anderson). 
Zomba (Capital, Zomba). 
Blantyre (Capital, Blantyre). 
West Shire (Capital, Chikwawa). 

Upper Shire (Capital, Liwonde). 
South Nyasa (Capital, Fort Johnston). 
Central Angoniland (Capital, 4 Tambala). 
Marimba (Capital, Kotakota). 
West Nyasa (Capital, Nkata). 
North Nyasa (Capital, Karonga). 

1 Which at present is the High Court of Cape Colony. 

" There have only been four executions for murder amongst the natives since 1891. One was 
the execution of a native of Kotakota. who killed a Makua soldier ; the second, the execution of Mlozi ; 
the third, the execution of Saidi Mwa/.ungu, who killed Dr. Boyce and Mr. .McKwan ; and the fourth the 
execution of the Angoni Chief, Chikusi. 

' Where there are i European superintendent and 6 native printers. 

' It is probable that the capital will be removed to Chiwere. 


ifik/ t* h 


' >v I 



V ', 




0c .- k f;L# 

f \f ; ^ 

: ', k . a. 


IN regard to the slave trade, a few words of explanation and description may 
be of interest. Slavery has probably existed among mankind from time 
immemorial, and no doubt one race of negroes enslaved another ages before 
the ancient Egyptians and Phoenicians introduced the slave trade, by which is 
meant the deliberate expatriation of negroes to countries beyond the sea, or to 
parts of Africa not inhabited by the negro race. But the horrors of the slave 
trade are attributable, firstly to Europeans, and secondly to Arabs. 

The English, Spanish, Portuguese and French had commenced trafficking in 
negro slaves from the West Coast of Africa when that coast became opened up 
to geographical knowledge in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. In the 
sixteenth century organised attempts were made to replace the disappearing 
aborigines of the West Indies by negro slaves ; then came the introduction of 
negroes into the southern States of North America. At first the trade was 
confined to the West Coast but the Portuguese commenced to export slaves 
from East Africa in the seventeenth century, and thenceforward a mighty slave 
trade sprang up in the valley of the Zambezi which is not yet extinct, although 
several measures for its abolition have been taken by the Portuguese Govern- 
ment during the present century. 

Maskat Arabs who warred with the Portuguese in East Africa and gradually 
supplanted them in all the settlements between Aden and the Ruvuma River, 
organised a brisk traffic to supply the markets of the East with black concubines, 
black eunuchs, and strong-armed willing workers. 

Slaves thus became indispensable to Arabia, Egypt, Mesopotamia and 
Persia, and Abyssinian slaves were even introduced in numbers to the West 
Coast of India where they were turned into fighting men or into regular castes 
of seamen. 1 

The Moors of Northern Africa, however, had almost shown the way in the 
matter of the slave trade to the nations of Western Europe by developing an 
active intercourse with the regions of the Nigerian Sudan, so that all Northern 
Africa was abundantly supplied with a caste of negro workers while negro 
blood mingled freely in many of the Arab and Berber tribes. 

^ The worst horrors of the slave trade were probably the miseries endured by 
the closely-packed negroes on slave ships, where from want of ventilation and of 
such treatment as would nowadays be accorded as a duty to cargoes of beasts, 
they endured untold miseries and developed strange maladies.^ Moreover, to 

1 Curiously enough some of these slaves revolted and formed communities of their own in Western 
India, now recognised by the Imperial Government as small tributary States under negroid rulers of 
Abyssinian descent. 


i 5 6 


supply the slave market in America incessant civil war was raging amongst the 
coast tribes of West Africa. But the Arabs of East-Central Africa have run us 
hard in the matter of wickedness. I do not need to recapitulate the horrors of 
slave raids and the miseries of slave caravans : they are graphically described 
by Livingstone. 1 

The Arabs of Maskat from the Zanzibar coast and the half-breed Portuguese 
from the Zambezi joined together to devastate what is now called British Central 

The slaves from the Senga and Bisa countries in the Luangwa valley and 
from much of Southern Nyasaland found their way to Tete on the Zambezi, and 

thence to Quelimane and Mozambique, where 
they were picked up by American ships as 
late as the beginning of the " sixties." Some 
of these ships eluded the British gunboats ; 
others were captured and taken to Sierra 
Leone. Here, strange to say, many inhabitants 
of Nyasaland and of the countries as far west 
as the Lualaba, were landed in the " forties " 
and " fifties " of this century, and were ex- 
amined as to their languages by Mr. Koelle, 
a German missionary of great learning, who, 
in his Polyglotta Africana, produced one of 
the finest books ever written on the subject 
of African languages. Long before the 
existence of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika 
were known to Europe, Mr. Koelle, of Sierra 
Leone, was writing down the vocabularies 
and languages spoken on the shores of those 
lakes, gathered from slaves that had come 
from Mozambique and Quelimane. 

In between Mozambique and Quelimane 
the Arabs still retain to this day a hold on 
certain little-known ports, such as Angoche 

and Moma. From these points slaves from Eastern Nyasaland were shipped 
to Madagascar, which until its recent conquest by the French was another 
profitable market for slaves. In addition, the Matabele Zulus, who had surged 
back into South-Central Africa from Zululand at the beginning of this century 
raided across the Zambezi for slaves, and slave-raiding was also carried on by 
the Basuto who. under the name of the Makololo, conquered the Barutse 
kingdom. From the middle of the i8th to near the end of the igth century 
British Central Africa has been devastated by the slave trade. Whole tribes 
have been cut up and scattered ; vast districts depopulated ; arts and crafts 
and useful customs have been forgotten in the flight before the slave -raiders. 
The whole country was kept in a state of incessant turmoil by the attempt 
to supply the slave markets of the Zambezi, of Madagascar, of the United 
States, of Zanzibar, Arabia, Persia, and Turkey. 

A great blow was dealt to this trade by the conclusion of the American 
Civil War and the abolition of slavery. This and the Emancipation of Slaves 
first in the West Indies and subsequently in Brazil, brought the West African 

1 I have attempted also to give descriptions based on a good deal of personal observation as well as 
on much reading in my book, The History of a Slave. 



J 57 

slave trade to a close and largely diminished the source of profit in the 
South -East African slave trade; for American ships came no longer to the 
Mozambique coast to take away cargoes of slaves and to evade the British 
cruisers. Then the Portuguese awoke to a sense of duty and a series of edicts 
made slavery very difficult and the slave trade practically impossible in all the 
settled portions of Portuguese East Africa. But the Eastern market always 


remained open and the Arabs- carried their slaving enterprise farther and 
farther into the heart of British Central Africa. They had enlisted on their 
side powerful tribes like the Wa-yao, the Wa-nyamwezi, the Awemba, and the 
Angoni Zulus. Dr. Livingstone, however, appeared on the scene and his appeals 
to the British public gradually drew our attention to the slave trade in Eastern 
Central Africa until, as the direct result of Livingstone's work, slavery and the 
slave trade are now at an end within the British Central Africa Protectorate, 
and are fast disappearing in the regions beyond under the South Africa 

, 5 8 


Company ; and the abolition of slavery at Zanzibar will shortly be decreed as 
a final triumph to Livingstone's appeal. 

The attitude of our Administration in British Central Africa towards the 
status of slavery has been this : we have never recognised 
it, but where slavery existed without its being forced on 
our notice through an attempt to carry on the slave trade, 
or through unkindness to the slaves, we have not actually 
interfered to abolish the status. But if ever a slave has 
run away from a district not administered by us to a more 
settled portion of the Protectorate, we have always refused 
to surrender him. If the slave was a female and it could 
be shown that she was a wife or concubine of the man who 
owned her or that he had inflicted no unkindness she was 
usually given back upon a promise of immunity from 
punishment. When a district from various causes has 
come under our our immediate administration we have 
always informed the slaves that they were not slaves and 
that they were free to go and do what they pleased as long 
as they did not break the law. But it has rarely happened 
that the slaves of a chief who were well treated have chosen 
to quit their masters ; therefore, being free to do as they 
liked, if they chose to remain and work as slaves nobody 
interfered to prevent their doing so. The slave trade still 
more slave-raiding has always been punished, and it may 
be safely stated that such a thing does not now exist in the 
Protectorate, though it is still carried on in such districts as 
are not wholly under the control of the British South 
Africa Company ; while Mpezeni alone among the uncon- 
quered Angoni chiefs raids- the countries round his settle- 
ments and apparently adds his slaves to the population of 
his kingdom, or sells them to the Arabs on the Luangwa. 

The hardships of the slave trade were these : Homes 
were broken up, a large number of men, women and little 
children were collected together and dispatched on a many- 
hundred-mile journey overland to the coast, on which they 
often had to carry heavy burdens Their slave-sticks l were 
no light weight, and they were ill-fed and provided with no 
clothing to shield them from the cold or wet in mountainous 
regions. If they lagged by the way or lay down, worn 
out with exhaustion, their throats were cut or they were shot. Often before 
reaching the coast the Arabs would stop at some settlement and roughly 
castrate a number of the young boys so that they might be sold as eunuchs. 
Some died straightway from the operation, others lingered a little longer and 

1 The slave-stick in most of the languages of East-Central Africa is called gori, goli, or li-goli. It 
consists usually of a young tree lopped off near the ground and again cut where it divides into two 
branches. The ends of these two branches are left sufficiently long to enclose the neck of the slave. 
Their ends are then united by an iron pin which is driven through a hole drilled in the wood and 
hammered over on either side. 

The thick end of the gori-stick is usually fastened to a tree at night time when the caravan is resting, 
though sometimes it is merely left on the ground as the weight of the stick would make escape nearly 
impossible, especially as stubborn slaves have their hands tied behind the back. When the slaves are 
engaged in any work the end of the gori-stick is sufficiently supported to enable them to bear its weight 
and yet perform the task allotu-d to them. Except in the case of children, on whom no stick is placed, 


Slave-raider employed by Arab 


eventually perished from hernia induced by this operation. Those who survived 
usually had an extremely comfortable and prosperous after-life in the harem 
of some Turk, Arab or Persian. The mortality amongst the children was 
terrible: the Arab slave-drivers do not appear to have been actuated by motives 
of commercial expediency in endeavouring to land as many live and healthy 
slaves on the coast as possible. They seem on the contrary to have been 
inspired by something more like devilish cruelty at times in the reckless way 
in which they would expose their slaves to suffering and exhaustion, and then 
barbarously kill them. 1 

as they are sure to follow their mothers or friends, or of comely young women who are the temporary 
concubines of the slave-drivers, and who, with the facile nature of the negro, rapidly become attached 
to their brutal husbands all slaves are usually loaded with this terrible weight. Nevertheless escape 
does sometimes take place. Most slaves must of necessity have their hands free when on the march 
especially if they are to support the weight of the gori-stick. They then often manage to secrete a knife 
>r razor, or some sharp substance with which during the night they will attempt to saw through one 
the branches of the stick round the neck. They are then able to twist the iron pin round and release 
their necks from the burden. To escape in a strange country is impossible, and the attempt is invariably 
followed by a return to slavery in some shape or form. As a rule when the journey to the coast is half 
done the slaves are sufficiently to be depended upon for docility to be able to travel without the slave- 

1 Much of my information about slavery was derived from an interesting man, several years in my 
service, who was originally a native of the east coast of Lake Xvasa, and had been sent as a slave to the 
coast with an Arab caravan when he was about twelve years old. The slaves whom he accompanied 
were captured by a British cruiser. This boy was taken to Zanzibar and set free, was educated at the 
Universities Mission, and became the servant of a succession of Admirals on the East Coast Station 
ending up with Admiral Hewett ; after whose death he passed into my service, and was, until his recent 
death, the principal servant at the Consulate at Mo9ambique. 


AS mentioned in a preceding chapter, there were 345 Europeans at the 
end of the year 1896 settled in the eastern part of British Central Africa, 
of whom about thirty were non-British subjects. These Europeans are 
divisible into four classes officials, missionaries, planters and traders. 

The missionaries and their work will be dealt with in Chapter VII. The 
officials have been referred to in the Appendix to a preceding chapter ; there 
remain therefore the planters and traders to be now considered. 

The planters come from very much the same class which furnishes the coffee 
planters of Ceylon, India, Fiji, and Tropical America. They are most of them 
decent young fellows of good physique and good education, who, possessed 
of a small capital, desire to embark on a life which shall combine a profitable 
investment for their money, with no great need for elaborate technical education, 
and an open-air life in a wild country with plenty of good sport, and few or 
none of the restraints of civilisation. One of our planters can look back on 
something like twenty-two years' experience of British Central Africa, another 
on eighteen years' experience, a third ten, a fourth nine; but most of the 
men did not arrive in the country before 1890 or 1891. The planters now 
probably number nearly 100. The chief thing grown is coffee; but tea 
has been started on two estates (on one of which it has been growing for 
about six years;, and on others cinchona and ceara rubber, cotton and 
tobacco are cultivated. Some planters go in a great deal for cattle keeping 
and breeding. 1 

The coffee plant was originally introduced into British Central Africa by 
Mr. Jonathan Duncan, a horticulturist in the service of the Church of Scotland 
Mission, but the idea owes its inception to the late Mr. JoTm Buchanan, C.M.G., 
who was at the time also in the service of the Church of Scotland Mission, - 

1 During the past two or three years the use of cattle by the European settlers in the Protectorate 
lia> greatly increased. When I first came to British Central Africa in 1889 no one except at two or three 
mission stations and at the African Lakes Company's establishments at Mandala and at Karonga kept any 
cattle. A few native chiefs had herds of 20 or 30 beasts hidden away in the mountains, afraid to avow 
their existence in case they should be raided by the Angoni or the Yao. At the north end of the lake 
the Wankonde had enormous herds, as was the case with the Angoni in the west of the Protectorate, but 
no one came forward to trade in cattle and distribute oxen among the Europeans in the Shire Highlands. 
All thih is now changed. Many Europeans have been up into the Angoni country, and certain Adminis- 
tration officials have interested themselves in the introduction of cattle into the Shire province. The 
price of milch cows now stands at a little more than t\\o or three pounds a head, while oxen may fetch as 
little as I5/. each. The chief inducement in keeping cattle is to use the manure for the coftee plantations, 
but of course the supply of milk and butter is a valuable adjunct to health. 

- Which he joined as a lay member specially in charge of horticultural work in 1876. 

1 60 



and who on his arrival at Blantyre had arranged with the curator of the 
Botanical Gardens at Edinburgh for the sending out of coffee plants. 

Three small coffee plants of the Mocha variety (Coffcca Arabica) which 
were leading a sickly existence at Edinburgh were entrusted to Mr. Duncan to 
transport to Blantyre. Two of these plants died on the voyage, the third 
survived and was planted in the Blantyre Mission gardens, where until quite 
recently it was still living. Two years after it was thus replanted it bore a 
crop of about IOOO beans which were all planted, and from which 400 seedlings 
were eventually reared. In 1883, 14^ cwts. of coffee was gathered from these 
young trees. Mr. Henry Henderson of the Blantyre Mission brought out a 
small supply of Liberian coffee seed in 1887; but this variety has never met 
with much success in British Central Africa, as it will not grow well on the 
hills, though it answers well in the plains. Moreover, it does not fetch nearly 
such good prices as the small Mocha bean. Later on varieties of Jamaica 
coffee were introduced by the Moir Brothers whilst managers of the African 


Lakes Company at Mandala. The " blue mountain " variety of Jamaica has 
succeeded very well in the Shire Highlands, and to a less extent the "orange" 
coffee in the same locality has prospered. Still the bulk of the coffee trees 
now existing in this Protectorate owe their origin to the one surviving coffee 
plant introduced from the Edinburgh Botanical Gardens. It may therefore 
be said without much exaggeration that it is Scotch coffee which is the staple 
growth of British Central Africa. 

Owing to the troubles which broke out in the Church of Scotland 
Mission (briefly referred to in a previous chapter), much of the Society's 
work in connection with planting was suspended, though not before it had 
introduced coffee into the Zomba district through Mr. Buchanan ; but when 
Mr. Buchanan left the Mission in 1880 he determined to establish himself 
independently as a coffee planter. For years he and his brothers -(who 
eventually joined him) struggled on with a very limited capital, having 
almost insuperable difficulties to contend with in the shape of recalcitrant chiefs, 
ill-health, and invasions of the Angoni, which drove away all their native labour. 
They remained however without any rivals in the field until Mr. Eugene 
Sharrer, a British subject of German origin, arrived at Blantyre in 1889, bought 
land and started coffee planting. The Lakes Company also commenced 



planting about the same time, but the shipments of the Buchanan Brothers had 
already established the fact that coffee of the very best quality could be grown 
in British Central Africa. Moreover, the labour difficulty was being gradually 
solved. When the natives around the infant settlements of Blantyre and 
Zomba were convinced that the white men would pay fairly for their labour, 
they began to come in increasing numbers to work in the plantations, and 
strangest of all, the warlike Angoni came down with their slaves, not to raid 

and ravage as before, but to obtain 
employment for three or four months 
in the year in the coffee plantations. 

The total amount of coffee ex- 
ported from this Protectorate in 1896 
was 320 tons. This coffee was sold 
in London at prices ranging between 
99-r. and 1 1 5.$-. per cwt., much of it 
fetching prices over 100 shillings. 
The lowest price ever fetched by 
British Central Africa coffee was 86s. 
per cwt. 

The coffee undoubtedly varies 
according to the amount of rainfall, 
the fertility of the soil, and the manner 
in which it is plucked, pulped, dried 
and packed. Manure and shade 1 seem 
to be absolutely necessary to complete 
success. Artificial manures are now 
being imported, and as already stated 
cattle are kept in increasing quantities 
so that their dung may be used for 
the coffee plantations, and guano 
has recently been discovered on the 
islands of Lake Nyasa, which will 
prove very useful. It is also necessary 
that the plantations shall be scru- 
pulously weeded. When the soil is 

fertile, and all these conditions of manure, shade and weeding have been fulfilled, 
a yield of as much as 17 cwt. per acre has been taken. On the other hand, in 
much neglected gardens no more than 50 or 60 Ibs. per acre has been realised. 
The average yield in the plantations is 3^ cwt. per acre, though it is the opinion 
of experts that this yield would be greatly increased if more care was shown 
in the cultivation of the coffee. 

In some years of poor rainfall or where the first rains have fallen early, 
and have brought coffee prematurely into blossom leaving the newly-formed 
seed to suffer from the subsequent drought, the berry grows diseased or the 
husk is found to be empty with no kernels at all inside. Some people are of 
opinion that this empty husk or diseased berry is caused by the presence 
of a small beetle. Others assert that it is the result of a plague of green 

1 To attain this end, I believe, in new plantations for every two coffee shrubs inserted in the ground 
one African fig tree is planted. Thts_- splendid wild fig trees grow to a great height and give absolute 
shade. They also serve to protect the coffee trees from being wind blown or seared by the hot air coming 
off the plains in the dry season. 




bugs which suck the sap of the coffee tree. All are agreed, however, that 
the only preventative of the defective berry is plenty of shade and manure. 

A system of "topping" 1 has now been almost universally adopted, though 
perhaps not to the same extent to which it is carried on in Ceylon and India, 
for it is difficult to train immediately a sufficient staff of natives who will handle 
and prune the coffee in a proper manner ; and careless topping does more harm 
than good. The effect of the soil of this Protectorate on the coffee shrub 
is apparently to bring it into bearing at three years of age or under, and to 
cause it in its second crop to exhaust its vitality, if it be not previously pruned. 
Left to itself the coffee shrub in this main or second crop would give an 
enormous yield from the primary shoots and as a result of this exhaustion 
no secondary branches would be developed from which the next year's crop 
would come; consequently instead of bearing year after year for something 
like fourteen years the coffee shrubs would be useless when four or five years 
old. The coffee tree generally blossoms during the dry season in the months 
of September and October, especially if a few showers of rain fall, as they 
often do at this time of the year. The berries are usually ripe and ready for 
picking at the end of June. 

In my report to the Foreign Office on the trade of British Central Africa 
during 1895 and 1896 I have estimated that a planter requires a capital of 
about ,1000 for the upkeep and bringing into bearing of 100 acres of coffee. 
This sum should purchase an estate of say 500 acres and provide for the cost of 
clearing it, obtaining coffee seedlings and planting them, and building a fairly 
comfortable house, and of meeting the expense of the planter's living on a 
moderate scale during the three years. It would not, however, provide for the 
erection of a substantial brick house, 
nor of the pulping vats, and special 
machinery for pulping. With this he 
would have gradually to supplyhimself 
out of the profits his plantation would 
make after the first three years. Per- 
haps it may enable my readers to 
obtain a clear idea of the average 
experience of a young coffee planter ; 
what difficulties he has to face ; what 
are the chances of success what in 
fact any reader of my book who 
intends to become a coffee planter 
in British Central Africa would have 
to undergo if I give here extracts 
from the imaginary letters of a typical 
planter, so far as my imagination will 
enable me to enter into the mind of A, B, C, or D, and reveal their thoughts 
and the impressions which are made on them by what they see and feel. 


" DEAR FRED, As I have failed in my last chance for the army, the governor has 
decided that I am to go coffee planting somewhere in Central Africa. He has heard all 
about it from old Major McClear, who it appears has gone out there with his son (he is 
a widower you know) and is going to supplement his pension by making money out of 

1 "Topping" means cutting about four inches off the top of the tree, so as to throw it hack and 
cause the secondary branches to develop and come into bearing. 




coffee. You see, as I have failed finally to pass my exams for the army, I must not be 
too particular, as there are younger brothers and sisters to be educated and put out 
in the world, and my father is not over well off; besides, I hear there is capital sport, 
and the climate is not so bad though one gets a touch of fever every now and then. 
The governor can only afford ^1000 to start me, and I am going to do my best 
not to cost him another penny before I am self-supporting. ... I think the country 
is called the British Central Africa Protectorate; it is close to Lake Nyasa, and is 
about 300 or 400 miles inland from the east coast. I am getting my equipment ready, 
and shall leave on the ist of May by the Edinburgh Castle for Durban, where I change 
into the " Rennie " boat lnditna, and so travel up the east coast to a place called Chinde 
which is at the mouth of the Zambezi. Here I change into the river steamer, and 
travel up the Zambezi and the Shire, and so on to Blantyre where I shall stay with 
the McClears and look about me. ... As to equipment, 1 I am not taking very much 
as I am told that most things can be got fairly good and cheap out there, and it saves 
one the bother of a lot of luggage, and the risk of loading yourself with things that you 
don't want. I shall simply take along with me all my old clothes and a dress-suit in case 
there is any 'society.' Of course I am taking guns a doubled-barrelled i2-bore shot 
gun, and an express rifle. I have been strongly advised not to take a helmet, as 
it is said to be a ridiculous kind of headgear for Central Africa, where one requires 
something like a light Terai hat, and where it appears you should always carry a white 
cotton umbrella when the sun shines. The helmet is cumbersome and ugly and does 
not shield the body from the sun. It seems from what I can gather that a chap gets far 
sicker from the effect of the sun on his body than on his head, and that the best way 
to avoid sun fever and sunstroke is to carry an umbrella wherever one goes. I shall 
take a good saddle with me and riding gear, as most of the people in the Shire 
Highlands (the name of the coffee district) ride about on ponies. I think as I pass 
through Durban I shall invest in a Basuto pony (they are said to be the best for the 
purpose) and take him along' with me up to Blantyre. I hear they are very cheap 
at Durban, about $ will buy a good one, and it only comes altogether to about ^25 or 
26 to convey the little beast up river to a place called Katunga, and there you get on 
his back and ride up to Blantyre. I shall also take out my bicycle as some of the roads 
are fit for cycling. Nearly everything else can be got on the spot, but my mother 
insists on giving me a small medicine chest, so that I can dose myself with quinine and 
other things if there is no doctor handy. I shall also take out a small photographic 
camera and plenty of books. 

" And now good-bye for a bit in case I don't see you again, but as soon as I get out 
there I will write and let you know what it is like." 


"DEAR FRED, I am now in British Central Africa, and before I get any further into 
the country as I have a day or two to spare here I will give you an account of what my 
journey was like. 

"I managed to get my pony all right in Durban through Messrs. and - , 

who seem to be universal providers in that city. I had to give 9 for him but he is an 
extra good little beast. We changed into the Indnna at this place. She was very 
crowded and therefore not very comfortable, but the journey to Chinde only occupied 
five days as we ran through direct. 

" Chinde, you know, is one of the mouths of the Zambezi, and the only one which has 
a bar that can be crossed without risk by a well-navigated steamer. The Indnna crossed 
the bar all right and landed us on the British Concession, a piece of land which was 
granted by the Portuguese Government for the use of the British Central Africa 
Protectorate so that goods can be transhipped here from the ocean-going steamers 

1 vide Appendix II., p. 185. H. H. J. 


into the river boats. I did not stay on the Concession, however, but on a place 
called the Extra Concession which has no privileges regarding exemptions from Customs 
dues I put up at an hotel which is run by - . Of course everything seems very 
rough to me who have never been farther away than Switzerland before, but fellows 
here tell me that Chinde is simply luxurious to what it was a few years ago. In 
1890 it was practically unknown to Europeans, and there was not even a hut on the 
present sandspit, which is the site of the town everything was covered with thick 
bush ; now, although the place is horribly ugly, being built almost entirely of corrugated 

iron, it is fairly neat and clean. Most of the houses are of one story, but 's hotel 

is not half a bad place, a sort of bungalow built of iron and wood with broad shady 
verandahs. The food is anything but good, however, as fresh provisions are scarce and 
most of the things we eat come out of tins. 

" Chinde is a great peninsula of sand intersected with marshy tracts, which projects 
into the Indian Ocean, having the sea on one side and the Chinde mouth of the Zambezi 
on the other. 

* * * * * -h * * 

"Two days after our arrival at Chinde we started in the Lakes Company's steamer, the 
James Stevenson, which conveyed us up river as far as Chiromo. After leaving Chinde 
we pursued a tortuous course up the Chinde River till we got into the main Zambezi. 
Here the country was very uninteresting. The Zambezi is extremely broad and you are 
never sure whether you are looking at the opposite bank or a chain of long flat islands. 
Islands and shore are equally covered at this season of the year by grass of tremendous 
height, and except an occasional fan-palm you see nothing behind the grass. Hippos 
are very scarce and shy now owing to the way they have been shot at. Occasionally 
however you see little black dots at a distance, and if you are looking through glasses you 
can distinguish a hippo raising his head and stretching his jaws, but they always duck 
when the steamer gets anywhere near. At the end of our second day we got to a place 
called Vicenti, a sort of Portuguese station. A little while before we got there we 
began to see something more interesting than the grass banks the outline of a blue 
mountain called Morambala, which overlooks the Shire River. Morambala is the 
only hill to be seen for miles farther on beyond Vicenti. You hardly notice where you 
get into the River Shire, as the country seems to have become quite demoralised at the 
junction of the Shire with the Zambezi by 
the intersection of innumerable channels 
of water and swamps. Morambala looks 
a splendid mountain, however (about 4,000 
feet high), as it rises up above the foetid 
Morambala marsh. Beyond Morambala 
the banks are dotted with innumerable 
tall palms which I could not help thinking 
very picturesque with their lofty whitish- 
grey stems, and their crowns of elegantly- 
shaped blue-green fronds. 

ijf Mf ijt 


"The first place we stopped at in 

British territory was Port Herald on the west bank of the Shire, a pretty little settlement 
with very rich vegetation. The steamer had to stop here for a day for some reason 
or other so I and two of my fellow passengers went out for a shoot. The Administration 
official at the station lent us a guide, and we had awfully good sport, coming back 
with a large male waterbuck, a beast as big as a red deer and two reedbuck which 
are somewhat the size of a roe and very good eating The meat of the waterbuck is no 
good, so we gave it to the natives ; but as I had shot the beast 1 kept the horns which 
are very fine though not at all like a stag's, being quite simple without branches and 


with an elegant curve and ever so many rings. Jones, one of my fellow passengers, saw 
a lion whilst we were out shooting on this occasion, but was in too much of a funk to 
fire, so the beast got away. He says his cartridge jammed ! but I don't believe him. 

" Chiromo is an awfully pretty little place. The roads are broad and bordered with 
fine shady trees planted close together. Some of the buildings are quite smart, though 
of course at home we should think them small. 

" Up to the present the climate has been lovely and I have not had a touch of fever. 
It is quite cool at nights and one seldom gets mosquitos, but I am told that in the rainy 
season they are an awful pest. In the middle of the day it is about as hot as a summer's 
day at home, but not too hot to walk about with or without an umbrella. This is the 
beginning of the cool season of the year." 

"BLANTYRE, June 3o///. 

"I got up to Blantyre on June i8th. The small steamer of the Lakes Company 
took us on from Chiromo to Katunga, up the Shire. You cannot go beyond Katunga 
by water, or at least much beyond, because of the rapids and falls. The Steamer 
Company arranged about the transport of my baggage and I simply saddled my pony, 
which was in capital condition, and rode him gently up to Blantyre. The distance 
is about 25 miles. I had sent a telegram from Katunga to say I was coming and old 
McClear rode out and met me half-way. His plantation is not in Blantyre but about 
seven miles out. However, we slept that night at an hotel in Blantyre and went on to 
his plantation the next morning. The country is awfully pretty very thickly wooded 
in parts and with hills and mountains of bold outline. Water seems to be most 
abundant ; every few miles you cross a running stream or rivulet. As far as climate goes 
you might think yourself back in England, anywhere near Blantyre, at this season of the 
year. All the houses are built of brick and every room, nearly, has a fireplace. 

" It is very jolly at night to sit round a huge log fire and enjoy it, with the tempera- 
ture outside almost down to freezing point. In fact some mornings there is a white rime 
on the ground when you first go out. 


" I have almost settled on buying a piece of land adjoining McClear's plantation. 
It belongs to the Crown and I shall have to take these steps to buy it: First of all 
I have to get one of the surveyors here to go over the land with me and make a rough 
plan of the boundaries so that we can get at some idea of the area and furnish the 
Commissioner's Office with sufficient information to enable the officials to decide where 
the land is and whether it can be sold. With these particulars I send a fee of 2, 
which includes the surveyor's fees and the cost of inserting an announcement in the 
Gazette. If the Commissioner decides to sell the land he will put a notice to that effect 
in the Gazette and an upset-price will be fixed (probably 55-. an acre) and notice will be 
given that the estate will be sold by public auction a fortnight after the announcement 
appears. The sale will take place at the Court House in Blantyre. I shall have to 
go there and if nobody bids against me I shall get the estate knocked down to me 
at the upset-price. 


" BLANTYRE, August \st. 

" I have bought my land nobody bid against me but I have had my first attack 
of fever. Perhaps it is just as well to get it over, as they say you have it all the worse 
if it is bottled up in your system. I think mine must have come on from a chill. I had 
played in a tremendous cricket match got up at Blantyre, "The Administration v. 
Planters," and after getting very hot went and sat about in the cool breeze, which 
is about the most fatal thing you can do. The next day after breakfast I began to feel 
a bit cheap very shivery and a horrid pain in the back, and rather a sensation as though 



I was going to have a tremendous cold. I am staying at Major McClear's and he told 
me at once I was in for a doss of fever, made me go to bed, gave me a purge and put 
hot water bottles at my feet. Then I began to get awfully hot my temperature went up 
to 102 degrees and after that came a sweat which soaked all the bed clothes, and then 
I felt a bit better and wanted to get up but they advised me to stay in bed. I seemed 
all right the next morning except that my ears were singing, but towards evening again 
I felt beastly bad. I went to bed and vomited ever so many times, and thought I was 
going to die. A doctor came to see me and found my temperature 103 degrees ; he 
brought it down with a dose of phenacitine. Eventually I got to sleep and woke up 
much better, but I was down again the third day though not so bad. After that I felt 


very weak and looked very yellow for a day or two, and then my appetite came back and 
now I am just as fit as it is possible to be a tremendous appetite and think the country 
is the finest in the world though I can tell you whilst I had the fever on me I made an 
awful ass of myself, telling them all I was going to die and sending all sorts of messages 
to my people! I hear everybody does that when he has fever and no one seems 
inclined to make fun of you on that account. 

"Well : I have bought my land 500 acres at 5^. makes ,125. I shall have to pay 
the Stamp Duties and eventually the cost of a survey. All this will come to about 
another 20 say in all ^"150. I have arranged to live with old McClear (it is awfully 
kind of him to propose it) and learn the business whilst my own estate is being got 
ready. He will give me a room and my board, and during all the time that I can spare 
off my own land I am to help him and his son on their estate : this of course will teach 
me something about coffee planting. 

"Blantyre is not half a bad place but it seems to me a good deal of hard drinking 


goes on there. Smedley, the Missionary doctor, says a white man ought not to touch 
alcohol in Africa except when it is given to him as a medicine. That is all very well but 
I can't see that a little lager beer does much harm, or a glass of good claret ; and as the 
drinking water at Blantyre is not first rate and one can't always be swilling tea the entire 
teetotal plan does not suit me ; at the same time I am willing to admit that a deal too 
much whisky is consumed here. Somehow or other most of the chaps who come out 
here to plant seem to get into the way of it. Perhaps I shall do the same. I must say 
on these very cold nights before one turns in, whilst you are sitting round the pleasant 
log fire a glass of hot whisky and water is very tempting and surely can't be harmful ? 
The Doctor says it is, under all circumstances, and that all spirits have a most prejudicial 
effect on the liver in Central Africa. 

" PAZULU, September loth. 

" This is the name of old Major McClear's plantation. I believe it means ' up 
above.' It is on a hill-side looking down on the River Lunzu and the bush is being 
burnt in all directions. I am awfully fit and have been very busy clearing my land 
of bush. This is how I have had to set about it. I found that a man named Carter 
had just come down from the Atonga country on the west coast of Lake Nyasa with 
a huge gang of Atonga labourers. Some of the chaps do this every now and then when 
they have got time on their hands go up the west coast of Nyasa (where they get 
very good sport) and come back with a gang of men for work. After supplying their 
own plantations they pass on the others to planters and traders who want men. All 
these men are registered at the Government office, either in the country they come from 
or at some place like Blantyre. You have to engage them before a Government official 
and everything is written down fair and square the time you engage them for, the 
amount you are going to pay them, and so on. Each man gets a copy of the contract 
and you have to pay a shilling for the stamp on it, that is to say a shilling for each 
labourer. You may not engage them for more than a year even if you want to, and 
if they want to stay. Ordinarily one takes them for six months and you have to give 
a deposit or a bond to provide for the cost of their return passage money to their homes. 
If a man runs away before the time of his contract is completed without any breach 
of the agreement on your part he can be punished and you can proceed against him for 
damages up to a certain amount if he refuse to complete the term for which he is 
engaged ; of course you have a further hold over them because you do not pay them the 
full sum for their services till their time is up. When you pay them off you have to 
do so before the Government officer who sees that what you give them is that which 
is owing to them. 

" I have got a gang of fifty men and a ' capitao.' They are all Atonga a cheery 
lot though rather unruly at times and ready to knock off work if you do not keep a 
sharp look out. The head man of any gang is called a 'capitao' which I believe is 
a Portuguese word the same as 'captain.' My 'capitao' when he is at work wears 
precious little clothing, but on Sundays he puts on a long coat with brass buttons and 
a red fez which he has bought at a store or which was part of his last year's payment. 
His name is Moses. Of course he has got an Atonga name of his own but the 
missionaries in this country will give them all Biblical names (which I think is awfully 
bad taste, but the Atonga do not share my views and Mosesi, as he calls himself, admires 
his Bible name tremendously). 1 am to pay these men three shillings a month each and 
the 'capitao' five shillings. Besides this they get their food allowance or 'posho' as 
it is sometimes called. This I generally give to them in white calico (which costs me 
2\d. a yard). I give my men four yards a week each with six yards for the 'capitao.' 
This with occasional extras brings up the cost of their food to 2d. a day with a little 
extra for the head man. Some of the other traders here only give out food allowance 
at the rate of three yards a week per man, but food has become very dear, relatively 



speaking, round Blantyre ; and if our labourers do not receive sufficient food cloth 
or money in lieu thereof they are bound to steal from the native gardens and so get into 
trouble I wonder some of the planters and traders here do not see that it is far and 
away the best policy to treat one's labourers generously in the way of food. There 
is nothing which will attach the negro more to your service than to give him plenty 
to eat. A man who feeds him well may beat him as much as he pleases in moderation 
and the man will still remain attached and return to the same plantation year after year : 
besides you can get a lot more work out of the men if they are well nourished, and 
really I assure you no one ever did such credit to good food as a negro whose eyes 
are bright whose skin is clear and whose temper is sunny, when he is well fed. 

"Talking about beating; of course it goes on to some extent though it is illegal 
in the eyes of the Administration, but a certain amount 
of discipline must be kept up by the head man of a 
gang and trifling corrections are not noticed by the 
authorities provided the men make no complaint ; but 
in old days, I am told, before there was any Government 
here the amount of flogging that went on was a great 
deal too bad, and some cases were downright savage. 
The instrument used is a 'chicote' 1 a long, thin, 
rounded strip of hippopotamus hide about the thickness 
of a finger .... stiff but slightly pliant. If this is 
applied to the bare skin it almost invariably breaks it 
and causes bleeding. For my part I am jolly careful 
not to get into trouble, and when one of my chaps was 
caught stealing the other day I preferred to bring him 
up before the Police Court and have him punished there 
instead of taking the law into my own hands. 

" The first part of the estate we began to clear was 
the possible site for a house. I chose this on a little 
knoll overlooking the Lunzu and about fifty feet above 
the bank of the river which is seventy yards distant. I 
flattened the top of the knoll and had to cut down one 
or two trees. After this I selected the site of my 

nurseries and resolved to thoroughly clear, in addition, \ ' \IITAO" 

about 100 acres for planting. The process of clearing 

is now going on briskly. I get up every morning at six and walk over from McClear's 
house to my own plantation and turn out my Atonga who are living in tnisasa (ram- 
shackle shelters of sticks and thatch which they make to house themselves). Then the 
men turn out with cutlasses and axes and set to work cutting down the terribly rampant 
grass and herbage, and here and there a useless, shadeless tree or shrub. I am carefully 
leaving all the big trees for the shade they will give to the coffee ; they will grow all the 
finer for the clearing of the growth around them. 

"All the bush which is thus cut down will be left to lie in the sun and dry. 
Then the Atonga will pile it into heaps a few yards distant one from the other and 
set fire to it, and when it is burnt to ashes they will spread the ashes over the soil 
and dig it in. I am advised to get native women of the district to do this for me 
with native hoes. The women here work exceedingly hard -much better than the 
men and ask less pay. A little while later on they will be beginning to prepare 
their own plantations before the big rains so it is as well to get them now if 1 can. 
For chance labour like this, for any term less than a month and within their own 
district I shan't have to register them." 

1 A Portuguese word. II II. J. 


"PAZULU, November 2o///. 

" I have been much too busy to write any letters for the last two months awfully busy 
but wonderfully well and not the least bit dull. When I had cleared my ground for the 
plantation I had it lined out in regular rows from six feet to seven feet apart, and at 
intervals of about six feet along these rows we dug pits 18 inches wide and 18 inches 
deep. The pits were left open for some six weeks ' to weather," then we filled them 
up with soil, which was mixed with a manure made of cow-dung and wood ashes. After 
each pit had been filled up we stuck into the middle of it a bamboo stick (bamboos grow 
in abundance along the stream bank and on the hill-sides and are very useful) to mark 
the place where the coffee plant was to be put it. I made arrangements with a neigh- 
bouring planter to buy sufficient coffee seedlings of a year's growth to plant up the 
50 acres I have cleared. Every day we expect the rainy season to begin now in fact 
to-day the soth November is the date on which the big rains ordinarily begin near 
Blantyre (we had occasional showers in July and August and one or two in September, 
but no rain at all in October, only a lot of thunder and lightning and an occasional dry 
tornado). As soon as the rains have really broken I shall put the coffee plants in these 
pits. I am told that whilst the coffee grows the weeds grow even quicker, and that the 
hardest time I shall have with my own men will be during December, January and 
February, keeping the weeds down. If we are not incessantly at work hoeing in 
between the coffee plants they will be smothered by the growth of weeds. 

" It is so very good of old McClear to put me up in his house that I have been 
doing my best to help him in between working on my own plantation. He gathered 
his first coffee crop this year, and is very pleased at the result. The berries were 
picked off the trees (which are three years old) at the end of June and the beginning of 
July, and all this was over before I arrived on the scene ; but I saw the berries when they 
were being pulped by machinery. By this process the sweet fleshy covering of the 
berries is taken off and the bean is disclosed encased in its parchment skin. You know 
of course that this splits into two seeds when you take off the dry skin and it is merely 
these seeds which you see when the coffee reaches you at home. I shall not get a 
pulper till I have owned my plantation for about four years, as it is hardly worth while 
for a poor man to have a maiden crop off a small plantation pulped by machinery. 

"After the beans are pulped they are passed into a brick vat where they are left to 
ferment for between 24 and 36 hours. Then they are removed to a second vat and 
thoroughly washed in water. Then they are taken out and dried on mats. After this 
they are further dried in a drying house and constantly turned over to prevent anything 
like mould. All through the end of September and the beginning of October we were 
busy packing the coffee in stout canvas bags, weighing about 56 Ibs. each. Each bag 
was numbered and marked with McClear's initials by stencil plates, and handed over to 
one of the transport companies here to be shipped direct to London, via Chinde. It 
will of course be carried partly on men's heads and partly in waggons down to Katunga, 
and then they will send it down river to Chinde. It is to be hoped they will be 
careful not to put the bags into a leaky boat or steamer, because if they are wetted 
the coffee will be quite spoiled. The cost of sending this coffee from Blantyre to 
London is about ^"8 a ton. 

" BLANTYRE, January ist. 

" In spite of the rainy season which is well on us, we have spent a very jolly 
Christmas at Blantyre. Most of the planters from Cholo and the other districts round 
Blantyre have congregated here for Christmas week. We had a little mild horse-racing 
and a shooting competition. Like most of the other Europeans here I belong to the 
Shire Highlands Shooting Club, but I did not score over well on this occasion, because 
I was a bit off colour, having had another little touch of fever caused by the beginning 


of the rainy season I expect. We had a smoking concert in the Court House which 
was lent to us for the occasion, and the missionaries got up a big bazaar in aid of their 
school-house, and afterwards a lot of us were entertained at the Manse by the senior 
missionary where we heard some really good music. You have no idea what a pretty 
place the Manse is. It is rather a rambling house with a low thatched roof, but all the 
rooms open on to the verandahs with glass doors and plenty of windows so that they are 
very light inside though shielded from the sun. 

"There is a fairly good club here with lots of newspapers. 1 belong to the club and 
get a bedroom there whenever I come into Blantyre. I cannot say I think much of the 
hotels. Perhaps when more Europeans come to the country it will be worth while 
building a good place to receive them where a check will be set on the unlimited 
consumption of whisky, which at present tends to a good deal of noise and brawling 
of a not very creditable kind. Whisky is the curse of this country as far as Europeans 
are concerned, and is the cause of more than half the sickness. 

" One of the chief drawbacks to this place, after all, is the lack of news. Blantyre 
is a hot-bed of gossip and rumours simply because it has no daily newspaper. There 
are no Reuter's telegrams to read at the club every day because we are not in direct 
telegraph communication with the outer world. The mails arrive with much uncertainty; 
this is partly owing to the irregular way in which the ocean-going steamers call at Chinde. 
There are supposed to be two mails from Europe landed at Chinde in the month, but 
sometimes they both come together and then there is a month's interval before another 
mail arrives ; or when the mail is landed at Chinde there may be no steamer ready to 
start up-river with it. Again, in the dry season the steamers may stick on a sandbank 
before they reach Chiromo, and then the mails have to be sent overland to Blantyre, but 
the mail-carriers may have to ford flooded rivers, or they may be scared by a lion, so the 
time they take varies from two and a half to five days. Usually our letters and papers 
from England are six to seven weeks old when they reach us and I suppose my letters 
take the same time to reach you. Yet it is wonderful how much up to date people are 
here in information. It is astonishing what a lot everybody reads, and what heaps 
of newspapers and magazines are taken in. The Administration has started a lending 
library with a very decent collection of books, and although this is supposed to be 
primarily for Administration officials outsiders may by permission be allowed to join. 
We have a Planters' Association and Chamber of Commerce. 

"The best fun I think is shooting. Game near Blantyre is getting scarce though 
there are heaps of lions and leopards, but it is so difficult to see them in the long grass 
and thick bush. What I enjoy, however, is going from a Saturday to Monday towards 
a mountain called Chiradzulu, and along the river Namasi. \Ve always give our labourers 
on the plantations a Saturday half-holiday, and I can generally trust the capitaos to see 
that the men do a fair amount of work in the Saturday morning, so that I can sometimes 
get away on the Friday night with a companion or two. We take tent, beds, folding 
chairs and table, a few pots and pans and a basket of provisions. One of the chaps who 
generally comes with me brings his cook with him, a native boy trained at the Mission 
and not half a bad cook either. We usually ride out on our ponies as far as the 
Administration station on the Namasi river, as there is a good road there. Here we 
leave the nags under shelter and then strike off into the bush. Of course the rains are 
now on us and this sort of thing is not so pleasant in wet weather, but it was very jolly 
at the end of the dry season when the dense grass and bush were burnt, after the bush 
fires, and one could get about easily and see the game. We generally chose a place by 
the banks of a stream with plenty of shade, for our camp. The next day we would walk 
something like twenty miles in the course of our shooting, and although our luck varied 



we seldom failed to get two or three buck at least. As to the guinea fowl, they were 
there in swarms ! It was awfully jolly sitting smoking round a huge camp fire, so 
perfectly safe and yet in such a wild country with lions roaring at intervals not far away, 
and the queer sounds of owls and tiger-cats and chirping insects coming from the thick 
bush. Our boys used to build rough shelters of branches to sleep in and try to keep up 
fires through the night, more to scare away wild beasts than for any other reason. 
Recently these little jaunts have been more charming on account of the gorgeousness 
of the wild flowers, for this is the spring of the year. I am a bit of a botanist, you 
know, but even if I was not I could not help admiring the gorgeous masses of colour 
which the different flowers produce among the young green grass, on the bushes, and on 
the big trees." 


" PAZULU, February \<\th. 

" We have had an anxious time here with young McClear. He went down the 
Upper Shire to look at some land that his father is thinking of investing in for growing 
sugar (as the sugar cane grows there in tremendous luxuriance and there is a great 
local demand for sugar), but he is a very careless chap, you know, and what with getting 
wet through with rain and exposing himself too much to the sun and drinking whatever 
water he comes across, he has fallen ill with black-water fever since he came back to 
Blantyre. Nobody can quite account for this peculiar disease. Some people say it 
comes from turning up the new soil of a very rank kind ; others and they are generally 
doctors assert that the germ is quite different from that in malarial fever, and enters the 
system from water, either through the pores of the skin in bathing or through the 
stomach, if the infected water is drunk. Therefore there should be one very simple 
preventative by having all one's washing and drinking water boiled. However it may be, 
young McClear went down with it very suddenly only two days after he got back. He 
seemed quite well in the morning, ate his breakfast as usual, and went out to the 


plantation, but at eleven o'clock I met him coming back to breakfast (we have an early 
breakfast at six and a big breakfast at eleven no luncheon) an hour before the usual 
time. I thought he looked awfully queer. There was a grey lock about his face and he 
was very dark about the eyes. He told me he felt a frightful pain in his back and was 
very cold. Instead of coming to breakfast he went to bed. Presently his boy came down 
to tell us that ' Master was very bad.' Old McClear went up and found that his son had 
got the ' black-water ' fever. He vomited steadily all that day, and at night-fall was as 
yellow as a guinea, besides being dreadfully weak. Of course we had the doctor over as 
soon as possible, but in this disease doctors at present can do very little. Quinine is of 
no avail and all that you can aim at is keeping up the patient's strength. Young McClear 
was smartly purged and then given champagne and water to drink, and he went on 
vomiting all night and the greater part of next day. The doctor then injected morphia 
into his arm and this stopped the vomiting and gave him a little sleep. After that he 
managed to keep down some chicken broth, and the third and fourth days he mended. 
In six days he was seemingly all right, though a little weak, and on the seventh day he 
was actually up and about, and his skin had almost regained its normal colour. 

" After a go of black-water fever it is always better to leave the country for a change 
if you can, but you ought not to hurry away too soon lest the fatigues of the journey 
should bring on a relapse, and therefore McClear will wait till April and then run down 
to Natal and back for a trip. Many men who come to this country never get black-water 
fever, either because they take great care of themselves or because the germs which cause 
the disease by attacking the red-blood corpuscles cannot get the mastery over their 
systems, but where a man finds himself to be subject to attacks of this disease I should 
advise him to quit : Central Africa is not for him." 

" PAZULU, May 2nd. 

" Our rainy season came to an end a couple of weeks ago and I want to lose no time 
about building my house as a large quantity of bricks will have to be made during this 
dry season. I have hired some native brickmakers from Blantyre. They will be able 
to make about 1,000 bricks a day. I shall need about 45,000 bricks for my house. I 
have been cutting timber on McClear's land by arrangement, for joists and beams. The 
doors, match-board skirting, &c., I shall buy at one of the stores in Blantyre, where I 
shall also get corrugated iron for the roof and the timber for the inner ceiling, without 
which the bare iron would be a great deal too hot in the summer and too cold in the 
winter. I shall take care that all the rooms have fire-places. I cannot tell you how 
necessary fires are here for health and comfort. Fortunately we have any quantity of 
fire-wood. As I am trying hard to keep within my thousand pounds I shall not build a 
house of more than three rooms with a nice large verandah, and a portion of the 
verandah will be cut off as a bath-room and communicate with the bed-room by a door. 

" The other two rooms will be respectively dining-room and office in one, and private 
sitting-room. I shall also run up a small brick store with a strong roof and a strong 
door (to prevent thieving). My kitchen will be wattle and daub with a thatched roof 
and a brick chimney and will stand at a little distance from the house connected with it 
by a covered way. Another corner of the verandah beside the bath-room will be 
enclosed as a pantry and private store-room for provisions. In building my house I am 
strongly cautioned to avoid "a through draught." The principle on which the oldest 
planters' houses were built was a very unhealthy one. The front door opened into a 
kind of hall which was used as a dining-room, and immediately opposite the front door 
was a back door by which the food was brought in to the table. The result was that 
persons sitting at the table sat in a draught, and to sit in a draught in this country or to 
get a chill in any way is the surest cause of fever. 

" My verandah will be paved with tiles which I can obtain in Blantyre from the men 
who make them. The foundations of the house will be brick, over which I shall put a 
good layer of cement to stop any nonsense on the part of white ants, though on my 



estate \ve are not troubled with these pests so far as I know, but Thomas, of Blantyre, 
who lives near here, after building a very nice house has been awfully troubled with the 
white ants, who in a few nights would build up a huge ant-hill in the middle of the 
drawing-room, if he was away and the house shut up. They also came up under his 
bed and broke out all through the walls. The result was he had to take up his carefully 
laid floors, and dig and dig and dig, until he rooted out at least three separate nests. In 
one case he was obliged to tunnel down something like ten feet before he found the 
queen ; and until you have found and extirpated the queens your work has been for 
nothing, for if you fill up the hole the white ant community soon gets to rights again 
and recommences operations. The worst of it is, you never know whether there may 
not be more than one queen in the nest and whether you have destroyed them all ! 


" In front of my house I intend to have a small terrace, which I shall plant in an 
orderly way with flower beds. Last month I ran over to Zomba for a visit and stayed 
with one of the officials of the Administration, and there I saw old W - who is in 
charge of the Botanical Gardens, who has given me lots of flower seeds, and promised 
me any amount of plants and strawberries, as soon as my garden is ready to receive 
them. W - is giving away strawberry plants to everyone and I wonder that they are 
not more run after as those planted at Zomba produce excellent crops year after year, 
the fruit season lasting about five months. They are not large strawberries like those at 
home, but a small Alpine kind. Yet they are very fragrant and very sweet. 

"Down in the lower country near Lake Chilwa, you see a most extraordinary 
Euphorbia growing, which I am afraid most of the planters call "cactuses." 1 These are 
both quaint and ornamental, and I am going to plant some of them along the bottom of 
my garden. In the centre of my flower beds I shall put wild date palms, which grow 
in the stream-valleys, and at each corner of the terrace there shall be a raphia palm. 

1 There are no cacti in Africa, except the Opuntia (prickly pear) introduced from America into North 
and South Africa. H. H. J. 



There is one attraction in this country for people who like flowers and palms on the 
table and about the house. Here they cost absolutely nothing. You have only to send 
a boy into the bush and he will come back with a young palm which would cost at least a 
guinea at home, or with a handful of flowers such as you might see in a horticultural show. 

"My coffee presents a most thriving appearance. I keep it studiously free from 
weeds. Next October I shall be ready to plant up another fifty acres. 

"You asked me to give you some idea of Blantyre. It seems hardly correct to 
speak ot it as a town as the houses are still very scattered, yet it is now constituted 
as a township, and rather well laid out with roads. When all the blanks between the 
present dwellings are filled up, it will be a very large and important city. At present its 
future greatness is, as the French would say, only ebauche. The most striking feature is 
the church, which is a very handsome red brick building, apparently a mixture of Norman 
and Byzantine styles with white domes. It is really an extraordinarily fine church for the 
centre of Africa, and is appropriately placed in the middle of a large open space or 
square, without any other buildings near at hand to dwarf its proportions. When we had 
the Kawinga scare two or three months ago (I forgot to tell you that Kawinga the old slave- 
raiding chief to the north of Zomba 
attempted to try conclusions with 
the British two months ago), it 
was reported by the natives that 
Kawinga's object in invading Blan- 
tyre would be to secure the church 
to himself as a residence ! It is 
at present the mean by which all 
natives measure their ideas of a 
really fine building. On one side 
of the square there are gardens be- 
longing to the mission ; on the 
other side a very handsome school 
designed somewhat in the Moorish 
style of architecture. Along the 
Zomba road to the north of the 
church are the residences of the 
European missionaries. This church 
square is connected with the rest of 
Blantyre by a handsome avenue of 
cypresses and eucalyptus. The 
growth of the cypresses is astonish- 
ing, as well as their lateral bulk, and 
the road is completely shaded and 
delightful for a stroll, because of a 
strong wholesome perfume from 
these conifers. The soil about here 
is very red, and the neatly -made 
roads branching off in all directions 
passing through very green vegeta- 
tion give a pretty effect to the eye. 
There are no buildings along this road until you reach the vicinity of the Administration 
headquarters which are locally known as the 'Boma.' 1 Here we come to a good many 
buildings, and all of them red brick with corrugated iron roofs and of one storey. 
The corrugated iron is not as ugly as you might think as it is mostly painted red, which 
gives it more the appearance of tiles. 

" Boma" is a Swahili word for "stockade." The first settlement of the Government here was on n 
)f property belonging to a native which had a stockade of thorn around it. Soon after this wtis 
purchased, however, the thorn hedge was done away with. H. H. J. 




" Continuing along the straight road, and leaving the Government buildings to the 
right, you cross the Mudi stream by a fine bridge, 1 built by the African Lakes Company. 
On the other side of the Mudi one is on the property of the African Lakes Company 
which is a large suburb, called Mandala, on rising ground, from which a fine view can be 
obtained of the Mission settlement. At Mandala there are many houses and stores and 

workshops and stables all very 
neatly made of brick, with iron roofs. 
There are handsome roads and 
gardens and a perfect forest of 
eucalyptus. The company has ex- 
tensive nurseries there which extend 
down to the banks of the Mudi, and 
has had the good taste to preserve 
a bit of the old forest which covered 
the site of Blantyre when the 
missionaries first arrived. This 
forest chiefly consisted of a species 
of acacia tree which has dense dark 
green foliage in flat layers giving to 
it at a distance almost the appear- 
ance of a cedar. Beyond Mandala 
one joins the main road to Katunga, 
and the scenery becomes absolutely 
beautiful as you mount up towards 
the shoulder of Soche mountain. 
Here in all directions there is a 
beautiful forest, and the views in 
the direction of the Shire river 
might vie with the average pretty 
scenery of any country. There are 
still numbers of coffee plantations 
on the outskirts of Blantyre, though 
the tendency of the planters would 
naturally be to keep their future 
plantations farther away from the 
vicinity of the town. The natives of 
Blantyre are a rather heterogeneous 
lot. The foundation of the stock 
is of Mang'anja race, crossed with 

Yao, who invaded the country some years ago ; but for many years refugees from other 
parts of the Protectorate have been gathering round the Mission station, the Lakes 
Company, Sharrer's Traffic Company, and other large employers of labour, all of whom 
have brought men down from the lakes and up from the Zambezi, who have gradually 
made their permanent homes at Blantyre. Morality is very low, and although they are 
not strikingly dishonest still they are not above petty pilfering, and the coffee plantations 
which are too near the town are apt to have their berries picked by the black Blantyre 
citizens at night, and the coffee thus acquired is sent out and sold to native planters 
for some of the educated natives and small chiefs have started coffee plantations. 

" Unfortunately, the water supply here is very bad, though a little energy would set 
it all right. There is the Mudi stream, for instance, which flows perennially without much 
diminution, even in the dry season ; but the upper waters of the Mudi flow through 
native villages and the settlements of the missionary scholars, and all these people wash 
their clothes and persons in the river, besides emptying into it all kinds of filth. The 

1 The Mudi is crossed higher up by another bridge which the Administration has just made. II. II. J. 




result is that its waters are quite unfit for drinking purposes. A few of the settlers have 
wells, but all of these except two seem to produce slightly brackish unwholesome water. 
Away to the north of Blantyre arises another very fine stream, the Likubula. This is 
rather too much below the level of Blantyre to make it easy to convey the water to the 
township. The simplest expedient would seem to be the purification of the Mudi. 

" But if the Mudi be at present unwholesome its banks are charming for the foliage 
of the trees and the loveliness of the wild flowers. I would notice specially one crimson 
lily which gives a succession of flowers for many months of the year. 

" And yet how extraordinary people are in regard to wild flowers ! I remember when 
I had just been admiring these red lilies on the Mudi's banks I went to dinner with one 
of the married couples in Blantyre, and the lady of the house apologised to me for the 
bareness of the table, complaining that her garden as yet produced no flowers. Yet she 
had only got to send one of the servants out to the banks of the stream and to the 
adjoining fields and she could have decked her table with red lilies, mauve, orange, and 
white ground-orchids, and blue bean flowers in a way which would excite anyone's envy 
at home. 

"My reference to 'married couples ' reminds me to tell you that a good many of 
the men settled here are married and their wives seem to stand the climate as well 
as if not even better than their husbands, because, I imagine, they are exposed less to the 
sun and do not have so much outdoor work. Although it is not consistent with the 
duties of the planter still it is borne in on my mind that the healthiest life in Central 
Africa is an indoor life. People who keep very much to the house and do not go out 
or go far afield between 9 a.m. and 4 p.m. never seem to get fever. At the same time 
you should not remain out after sunset as you are apt to get a chill. 


I do not know whether in the foregoing extracts from supposititious 
letters I have succeeded in giving a fairly correct idea of the life that Europeans 
lead under present conditions in British Central Africa. More will be said 
on this subject in dealing with the Missionaries. 

For the trader and the planter I think it may 
be said that the country offers sufficiently sure and 
rapid profits for their enterprise to compensate the 
risk run in the matter of health. The various 
trading companies in the country appear to be 
doing well with an ever-extending business and 
to be constantly increasing the number of their 
establishments. Even traders in a small way, if 
they have energy and astuteness, may reap con- 
siderable earnings with relatively small outlay. 
One man, for instance, went up to Kotakota on 
Lake Nyasa with a few hundreds of pounds at his 
disposal, bought a large number of cattle at a 
very low price in the Marimba district and pur- 
chased all the ivory the Arabs at Kotakota had 
to dispose of, and on his total transaction made a 
clear profit of 2000 by selling the cattle and 
ivory at Blantyre; but it appears to me that as 
time goes on the European trading community 
will be limited to the employes of two or three 
gj 6 !* .trading companies commanding considerable capital, and to a number 
of British Indians who will not in any way conflict with the commerce of the 
Europeans because they will often act as the middlemen buying up small 


i 7 8 


quantities of produce here and there from the natives which they will re-sell 
in large amounts to the European firms and agencies. 

The remainder of the European settlers will be rather planters than traders, 
disposing likewise of their produce to the commercial companies in British 
Central Africa. Originally when there was very little or no cash in the country 
every planter had likewise to be a trader on a small scale as all labourers 
were paid in trade goods, and all the food that he bought from the natives was 
purchased in the same manner. Now the country is full of cash, and in many 
districts the natives refuse to accept any payment except in money, preferring to 
go to the principal stores and make their purchases there. To a certain extent, 
moreover, money payments are now compulsory between European employers 
and their native employes ; moreover a planter often objects to taking out a 
trading licence and prefers instead to relinquish his small commerce in this respect. 

Briefly stated, the only serious drawback to British Central Africa as a 
field of enterprise for trader or planter is malarial fever, either in its 
ordinary form, or in its severest type which is commonly known as black- 
water fever. I shall have a few words to say about this malady further on. 


The advantages are, at the present time, that land is cheap ; the country 
is almost everywhere well watered by perennial streams, and by a reasonable 
rainfall ; the scenery is beautiful in many of the upland districts ; the climate 
is delicious seldom too hot and often cold and pleasant ; there is an abundance 
of cheap native labour ; transport, though offering certain difficulties inherent 
in all undeveloped parts of Africa, is growing far easier and cheaper than in 
Central South Africa, as the Shire river is navigable at all times of the year, 
except for about 80 miles of its course, and Lake Nyasa is an inland sea with 
a shore line of something like 800 miles. Moreover, the cost of simple articles 
of food such as oxen, goats or sheep, or of antelopes and other big game, 
poultry, eggs, and milk is cheap, together with the prices of a few vegetables 
like potatoes or grain like Indian corn ; and all the European goods are not so 
expensive as they would be in the interior of Australia, in Central South Africa, 
or in the interior of South America because of the relative cheapness of 
transport from the coast and of the very low Customs duties. 

To sum up the question, I might state with truth that but for malarial fever 
this country would be an earthly paradise ; the " but " however is a very big one. 
Whether the development of medical science will enable us to find the same 
antidote to malarial fever as we have found for small-pox in vaccination, 
or whether drugs will be discovered which will make the treatment of the 
disease and recovery therefrom almost certain, remains to be seen. If however 


here, as in other parts of tropical Africa, this demon could be conjured, beyond 
all question the prosperity of Western Africa, of the Congo Basin and of British 
Central Africa would be almost unbounded. 

Ordinary malarial fever is serious but not so dangerous as that special form 
of it which is styled " black-water " or haematuric. The difference between the 
effects of the two diseases is this. Ordinary malarial fever is seldom immediately 
fatal but after continued attacks the patient is often left with some permanent 
weakness. Black-water fever is either fatal in a very few days or has such 
a weakening effect on the heart that the patient dies during convalescence from 
sudden syncope; but where black-water fever does not kill it never leaves 
(as far as I am aware) permanent effects on the system of the sufferer. One 
attack, however, predisposes to another and as a rule each succeeding attack is 
more severe than its predecessor. Consequently a man who has had, say, two 
attacks of black-water fever should not return to any part of Africa where that 
disease is endemic. 1 

The origin and history of bilious haemoglobinuric or " black-water " fever are 
still obscure. No mention of this disease would appear to have been made 
until the middle of this century when it was described by the French naval 
surgeons at Nossibe in Madagascar. According to Dr. Wordsworth Poole, the 
principal medical officer of the British Central Africa Protectorate, true black- 
water fever has occurred in parts of America and in the West Indies besides 
those portions of Africa and Madagascar to which I have made allusion in 
the footnote. Dr. Poole states that he has seen a case of it in Rome and that 
it is said to occur in Greece. The cases occurring in tropical America which 
Dr. Poole cites I should be inclined to ascribe to a variation of the ordinary 
type of yellow fever. Now yellow fever, in my opinion, is a very near 
connection of black-water fever, and some writers on Africa have stated that 
yellow fever was actually engendered on the slave ships which proceeded 
from West Africa to South America, and have suggested it was simply an 
acute development of the ordinary African haemoglobinuric fever. 

One remarkable feature in this disease appears to be that assuming it is 
only endemic in certain parts of Africa, its germs would seem to be capable 
of lying dormant for some time in the human system and then to suddenly 
multiply into prodigious activity and produce an attack of black-water fever 
some time after the individual has left the infected district. For instance, 
in 1893 after having been absent nearly two months from British Central 
Africa in Cape Colony and in Natal, I had a most severe attack of black-water 
fever, which commenced at Durban on board a gunboat and finished at Delagoa 
Bay. Again, when travelling through the Tyrol in the autumn of 1894, I 
was suddenly seized with a slight but obvious attack of this fever after 
returning from a mountain ascent. Although only ill for about twenty-four 

1 At the present time black-water fever is endemic on the West Coast of Africa from the Gambia 
on the north to Benguela on the south, and inland as far as the limits of the forest country of West Africa. 
It extends over the whole of the Congo basin. I believe a few cases were noted on the White Nile and 
the western tributaries of the Nile before the Mahdi's revolt expelled the Europeans from these parts. 
It is endemic in the regions round the Victoria Nyanza and Tanganyika ; in the eastern half of British 
Central Africa ; along the whole course of the Zambezi between Zumbo and its mouth ; in the Portuguese 
province of Mocambique ; in German East Africa ; and in British East Africa. It is said not to be 
endemic in the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba and that those persons who have suffered from it there brought 
the germs of it from some other part of Africa. I have not heard that it exists at Beira or south of the 
Zambezi, but should not be surprised to learn that cases of it occasionally occur there. Roughly speaking, 
it may be said that as far as we know the Upper Niger regions, the North Central and Eastern Sudan, 
Abyssinia, Somaliland, Galaland, Egypt, Northern Africa and Africa South of the Zambezi are free from 
it. It is said to occur in Madagascar. 


hours I had every symptom of black-water fever in a marked form. A case 
occurred with one of the ladies of the Universities Mission at Zanzibar who 
had an attack of black-water fever which came on after her return to England. 
The mortality in black-water fever is about 40 per cent, among those who 
have the disease for the first time ; 50 per cent, among those who have it for 
the second time ; 75 per cent, among those who have it for the third time ; and 
it is very rare that anyone survives more than three attacks. Not counting the 
trifling little touch in the Tyrol, I have had four attacks of this disease at 
different periods from 1886 to 1896. I know one of the German officials in 
East Africa who has survived five attacks and is apparently in robust health, 
and Dr. Kerr Cross mentions an European in North Nyasa (in good health at 
the present time) who has had this fever ten times ! 

On the last occasion when I had black-water fever I derived very great 
benefit from a single injection of morphia, which checked the vomiting and 
gave the body time for repose and recuperation. Otherwise I know of 
absolutely no drug which has been proved really efficacious in treating this 
dangerous disease. All we can say at the present time is that good nursing 
and a good constitution will generally pull patients through an attack. Quinine 
appears to be of little use, unless during convalescence. 
The symptoms of the disease are the following : 

The patient ordinarily complains of a severe pain in his back and a general 
sense of malaise. This is often succeeded by a violent shivering fit. Upon 
passing urine the latter is found to be a dark sepia colour, and subsequently 
becomes a deep black with reddish reflexions, which accounts for the popular 
name given to the fever. Sometimes the colour is almost the tint of burgundy 
or claret. Not many hours after the attack has begun the colour of the 
patient's skin becomes increasingly yellow. The temperature may sometimes 
be as high as 105 degrees following on the shivering fit, but high temperatures 
are not necessarily a very marked or serious symptom in black-water fever. A 
most distressing vomiting is perhaps the most customary symptom next to the 
black water. 

The best way to treat this fever is to put the patient immediately to bed, 
placing hot-water bottles at his feet, and to give him a strong purge. At first 
the vomiting should not be checked, but as soon as it tends to weaken the 
patient it ought to be stopped, if not by some opiate drug administered through 
the stomach, then by an injection of morphia. When it is deemed that the 
patient has vomited sufficiently to get rid of the poison in the system, and the 
further vomiting has been to some extent checked, nourishment should then 
be administered at frequent intervals strong beef-tea, milk and brandy, eggs 
beaten up with port wine, &c. Champagne and water, especially if this drink 
can be iced and made into a champagne-cup, is excellent. Champagne is often 
of great use in this disease in restoring the patient's strength. Once the 
dangerous crisis of the disease is passed and any relapse is guarded against 
by the most careful nursing, the patient is pretty sure to recover, unless he has 
naturally a very weak heart. The recovery is often pleasantly quick. In all 
my attacks of black-water fever there has rarely elapsed more than a week 
between the commencement of the disease and the power to get up and walk 
about, and convalescence in other ways has come rapidly. 

Undoubtedly much ill-health might be avoided in tropical Africa by the 
adoption of very temperate habits. I have written strongly on the drink 
question in such Reports to the Government as have been published ; I do not 



therefore propose to repeat my diatribes in this book. But it should be added 
that what I object to is not the drinking of good wine or beer, but the con- 
sumption of spirits. Whisky is the bane of Central Africa as it is of West 
Africa, South Africa and Australia. I dare say brandy is as bad as whisky 
but it has passed out of fashion as a drink, and therefore it has not incurred 
my animosity to the same extent as the national product of Scotland and 
Ireland. 1 Moreover, brandy is invaluable in sickness. If any spirits are drunk 
it seems to me that gin is the least harmful, as it has a good effect on the 
kidneys. In hot climates like that of Central Africa whisky seems to have 
a bad effect on the liver and on the kidneys. 

I do not suppose these words will have much effect on my readers. 


Alcoholic excess is our national vice, and while we are ready enough to 
deplore the opium-eating-or-smoking on the part of the Indians or Chinese, 
a vice which is not comparable in its ill effects to the awful abuse of alcohol 
which is so characteristic of the northern peoples of Europe, we still remain 
indifferent to the effects of spirit-drinking which has been the principal vice of 
the nineteenth century. The abuse of wine or beer, though bad like all abuses, 
is a relatively wholesome excess compared to even a moderate consumption of 
spirits. Though I think of the two extremes total abstinence is the better course 
to follow in Central Africa, I do not recommend total abstinence from all forms 
of alcohol. I think, on the contrary, the moderate use of wine is distinctly 
beneficial, especially for anaemic people. 

Trading with the natives on a large scale is, as I have said, chiefly confined 
to two or three large companies the African Lakes, Sharrer's, the Oceana 
Company and Kahn & Co. But a small amount of barter chiefly for provisions 

1 Which alone, I believe, among strong waters develops the poisonous Fusel Oil. 


is still carried on by all Europeans residing in the less settled parts of British 
Central Africa. The imported trade goods consisted chiefly of cotton stuffs 
from Manchester and Bombay, beads from Birmingham and Venice, blankets 
from England, India and Austria, fezzes from Algeria and from Newcastle- 
under-Lyne, boots from Northampton, felt hats from various parts of England, 
hardware and brass wire and hoes from Birmingham, cutlery from Sheffield, 
and various fancy goods from India. 

The trade products which British Central Africa gives us in exchange for 
these goods and for much English money in addition are : Ivory, coffee, hippo, 
teeth, rhinoceros horns, cattle, hides, wax, rubber, oil seeds, sanseviera fibre, 
tobacco, sugar (locally consumed), wheat (ditto), maize (ditto), sheep, goats and 
poultry (ditto), timber (ditto), and the Strophanthus drug. 


It only remains to say a few words about the relations between the 
Europeans and the natives. I am convinced that this eastern portion of 
British Central Africa will never be a white man's country in the sense that 
all Africa south of the Zambezi, and all Africa north of the Sahara will 
eventually become countries where the white race is dominant and native to the 
soil. Between the latitudes of the Zambezi and the Blue Nile, Africa must in 
the first instance be governed in the interests of the black man, and the black- 
man \vill there be the race predominant in numbers, if not in influence. The 
future of Tropical Africa is to be another India ; not another Australia. The 
white man cannot permanently colonise Central Africa ; he can only settle on a 
few favoured tracts, as he would do in the North of India. Yet Central Africa 
possesses boundless resources in the way of commerce, as it is extremely rich 
in natural products, animal, vegetable and mineral. These it w r ill pay the 
European to develop and should equally profit the black man to produce. 
Untaught by the European he was living like an animal, miserably poor in the 
midst of boundless wealth. Taught by the European he will be able to develop 


this wealth and bring it to the market, and the European on the other hand 
will be enriched by this enterprise. But Central Africa is probably as remote 
from self government or representative institutions as is the case with India. 
It can only be administered under the benevolent despotism of the Imperial 
Government, though in the future and developed administration there is no 
reason to suppose that black men may not serve as officials in common with 
white men and with yellow men, just as there are Negro officials in the adminis- 
tration of the West African colonies, and Malay officials in the Government of 
the Straits Settlements. 

It must not be supposed that the Administration of British Central Africa 
has always had, or will always command the unhesitating support of the white 
settlers now in the country. It sometimes seems to me that the bulk of these 
sturdy pioneers (excellent though the results of their work have been in develop- 
ing the resources of the country) would, if allowed to govern this land in their 
own way, use their power too selfishly in the interests of the white man. This 
I find to be the tendency everywhere where the governing white men are not 
wholly disinterested, are not, that is to say, paid to see fair play. From time to 
time a planter rises up to object to the natives being allowed to plant coffee, in 
case they should come into competition with him, or urges the Administration 
to use its power despotically to compel a black man to work for wages whether 
he will or not. 

The ideal of the average European trader and planter in Tropical Africa 
would be a country where the black millions toil unremittingly for the benefit of 
the white man. They would see that the negroes were well fed and not treated 
with harshness, but anything like free will as to whether they went to work 
or not, or any attempt at competing with the white man as regards education or 
skilled labour would not be tolerated. 

As a set off against this extreme is the almost equally unreasonable opinion 
entertained by the missionaries of a now fast-disappearing type, that Tropical 
Africa was to be developed with English money and at the cost of English 
lives, solely and only for the benefit of the black man, who, as in many mission 
stations, was to lead an agreeably idle life, receiving food and clothes gratis, and 
not being required to do much in exchange but make a more or less hypocritical 
profession of Christianity. This mawkish sentiment, however, no longer holds 
the field, and there is scarcely a mission in Nyasaland which does not inculcate 
among its pupils the stern necessity of work in all sections of humanity. The 
great service that Christian missions have rendered to Africa has been to act as 
the counterpoise to the possibly selfish policy of the irresponsible white pioneer, 
in whose eyes the native was merely a chattel, a more or less useful animal, 
but with no rights and very little feeling. 

It is the mission of an impartial administration to adopt a mean course 
between the extreme of sentiment and the extreme of selfishness. It must 
realise that but for the enterprise and capital of these much-criticised, rough 
and ready pioneers Central Africa would be of no value and the natives 
would receive no payment for the products of their land, would, in fact, 
relapse into their almost ape-like existence of fighting, feeding and breeding. 
Therefore due encouragement must be shown to European planters, traders 
and miners, whose presence in the country is the figure before the ciphers. 
Yet, it must be borne in mind that the negro is a man, with a man's rights ; 
above all, that he was the owner of the country before we came, and deserves, 
nay, is entitled to, a share in the land, commensurate with his needs and 


numbers ; that in numbers he will always exceed the white man, while 
he may some day come to rival him in intelligence ; and that finally if we 
do not use our power to govern him with absolute justice the time will 
come sooner or later when he will rise against us and expel us as the 
Egyptian officials were expelled from the Sudan. 



THIS form of fever has been met with in the Mauritius, Senegal, Madagascar, the 
Gold Coast, French Guiana, Venezuela, in some parts of Central America, and the ^ r est 
India Islands. It is even said to have been seen in some parts of Italy and Spain. It 
has been carefully studied in Nosi-be, on the north-west of Madagascar, where it is 
estimated that one in fourteen of the Malarial Fevers treated there were Hoemoglobinuric. 
Some cases observed in Rome have been carefully studied, with the result that some are 
associated with the Plasmodium Malaria the Bacterium in Malarial Fever while others 
are not. The same has been the case on the Gold Coast. The generally accepted 
opinion is that Hsemoglobinuric fever may arise apart from any malarial affection. 
Any bacterium which destroys the Red Blood Corpuscles and sets free the red colouring 
matter Haemoglobin will bring about this form of fever. Haemoglobin is an irritant 
to the kidneys, and brings on a congested state of that organ. In this form of fever we 
always find the kidneys abnormal both in size and in weight, while there is a bleeding into 
the tissue under the capsule and in the interstitial cortical substance, or with the discolora- 
tion which we know to result from these conditions. The Epithelia lining the convo- 
luted tubes of the kidney are larger than normal and are cloudy, while the tubes 
themselves contain casts that are stained yellow ; this yellow staining being in a very 
fine state of division or, in some cases, in large granules. There is a marked obstruction 
of the tubules of the kidney, both in the cortical and pyramidal portion. The blood 
vessels and capillaries are often found to contain corpuscles that are deeply stained. This 
is also the case with the glomeruli of the organ. The serum of the blood contains great 
quantities of free haemoglobin which gives it a yellow colour. This yellow colour is 
seen in the serum obtained from the application of a blister to the surface and in blood 
drawn for microscopic purposes. 

This form of fever begins as a regular remittent. There is usually severe vomiting of 
bilious matter indeed, my experience is that in a severe case there is vomiting every 
half-hour night and day. There are bilious stools of a frothy yellow substance. There 
is very marked jaundice over the whole body. There is delirium of a violent form. 
Sometimes there is a free discharge of black urine or, it may be. of actual blood. 
Towards the close of a fatal case there is suppression of the urine resulting in coma and 
convulsions. Everything in this affection points to the wholesale destruction of the 
Red Blood Corpuscles, and to a desperate effort on the part of the system to throw 
something off. From the suddenness with which the tissues of the whole body become 
yellow, we might say that every tissue takes on itself the power of secreting bile. Bile is 
eliminated by the bowels, by the skin, by the kidneys, and by the liver. The patient 
vomits, purges, sweats, and in some cases bleeds. The gums, it may be, become spongy 
and sore, and may even shed blood. There may be bleeding from the mouth and nose 
and over purple spots on the skin. As in the case of yellow fever, there may be a 


bleeding from the mucous membrane of the stomach and bowels, which, acted on by 
the digestive fluids, may lead to a Black Vomit. A marked feature, too, in some cases 
is that the attacks are paroxysmal. They come on with a shivering fit, with pains in the 
back,, retention of the testes, vomiting, and lowered temperature. Two hours afterwards, 
when the urine is passed, it is bloody, contains albumin, and deposits a thick sediment. 
The dark urine may continue to be passed for three or four days, but in other cases after 
a few hours there is a return to the normal state. I have known of seizures to come on 
every morning about eight o'clock for ten or twelve days in succession. Gradually, how- 
ever, they seemed to diminish in severity, and then to pass off. Between the attacks the 
urine seemed perfectly normal. 

There is another form where we get actual blood in the urine. The blood is 
intimately mixed with the urine, and is like "porter." 

Then we may get actual suppression of urine. The malarial poison acts on the 
kidneys like a poison. The result of this suppression is uraemic poisoning. 

It seems to be the case that certain constitutions have a predisposition to this form of 
fever. There are many who have resided in British Central Africa for ten or more years 
who have not once suffered from its effects, while others have not been resident as many 
months, and have suffered from several attacks. It is not the case that quinine taken in 
prophylactic doses every day arms the constitution against it. For myself personally I take 
this drug only when I think I need it, and not as a preventative medicine ; and while I 
have suffered from ordinary fever I have not once in eleven years had the more serious 
affection. This also seems to be an accepted fact : one attack of black-water fever 
predisposes to another, so that eventually every attack of malarial fever will take this 
form. I think this explains the fact of one European at the north of Lake Nyasa having 
had ten consecutive attacks in a period of three years. 

From the suddenness of its onset and the equal suddenness of its disappearance, 
together with its remarkable tendency in some cases to come on in paroxysms, I think 
that the explanation is to be found in the study of the neurotic supply of the kidney. 

It is remarkable, too, that women and weakly persons are seldom affected. It seems 
to be confined to young, healthy individuals, in whom there is great muscular waste. It 
comes on, too, after a long spell of the most robust health, and that with great sudden- 
ness. I think, too, that it is a disease of mountainous regions. It does occur in the 
lower parts, but my observation leads me to affirm that it is more prevalent in hilly 
districts in the centre of malarious regions. 



i. FLANNEL is a great mistake unless it is mixed with a large proportion of silk. Pure 
flannel is an abomination in the tropics. Either on account of some inherent property of 
the wool, or probably of some chemical compound with which it is prepared, the action 
of perspiration on the flannel in a tropical country is to at once create a most offensive 
smell, even in persons who are constantly changing their clothes, and who attend to 
personal cleanliness. Moreover, no flannel yet invented (all advertisements on the 
subject are to be absolutely disbelieved) ever failed to shrink into unwearableness after, 
at most, the third washing. Again, the feel of the flannel on the skin in a warm climate 
is singularly irritating and hurtful. Persons going to Africa are strongly advised to 
wear not flannel, but either silk and wool underclothing, or merino. Merino is excellent. 
It is cleanly, absolutely odourless, stands any amount of washing, and is pleasant in 
contact with the skin. Under almost all circumstances save those where the temperature 
rises above 100 degrees in the shade, a merino under-garment should always be worn 


next the skin, night and day, over the chest and stomach, though for the sake of clean- 
liness the garment should be constantly changed. Especially is this necessary at night 
time, when very dangerous chills often occur by the sudden lowering of the temperature 
after midnight and the exposure of the naked body to this lowered temperature when 
covered with perspiration. The best form of underclothing of this kind is merino vests 
and merino drawers. Pantaloons are preferable to the short drawers which are sometimes 
worn, which reach no further down than the knee. The reason of this is that it is as 
well to protect the calf of the leg as much as possible from the attacks of insects which 
may succeed in piercing the trousers with their probosces, but find it difficult to get 
through the merino as well. Many of the ulcers from which people suffer in Central 
Africa have their origin in mosquito bites, or in the attacks of certain flies which deposit 
their eggs under the skin. While a merino vest should be worn next the skin at night, 
the drawers, of course, are removed, and it is only the upper part of the body (especially 
the stomach) which requires careful protection from chill. Night-gowns are quite obsolete. 
I believe these indecent inadequacies still survive in remote parts of the United Kingdom 
and on the benighted " Continent," but they have long since been banished from the 
life of Europeans in the tropics. Sleeping suits or paijamas are worn. These consist of 
a jacket and trousers. They can be obtained at any shop in London. The most suitable 
material is of silk and wool, but cotton paijamas are quite sufficient for ordinary purposes, 
provided a merino vest is worn. Clad in paijamas the wearer can with perfect propriety 
walk about on the deck of a steamer or on the verandah of his house in the early 

Another much praised invention which is almost useless in Central Africa is the pith 
helmet. Such a thing, I suppose, is scarcely ever seen there now. By far the most 
suitable hat is a light canvas helmet or a large thick felt hat with a huge brim, which is 
sufficiently stiff to turn up or down to shade the wearer's face or to allow the cool air to 
have free access as the case may be The Terai hat is, on the whole, the best kind, but 
it does not appear to me to have a sufficiently wide brim. I believe suitable felt hats, 
cheap and of the kind I am inclined tc recommend, can be purchased at the Army and 
Navy Stores. No hat should be heavy. All hats should, if possible, be ventilated by 
small holes at the top. Another kind of hat, which is very useful and protects the head 
a good deal from the sun, is the straw hat with a wide brim supplied to the blue-jackets 
in the Navy in tropical countries. These are called, I believe, " Sennet " hats. Besides 
other places, they can be obtained from Messrs. S. W. Silver and Co., of Cornhill. 

A small round polo cap is very useful for wearing on the head when sitting on 
verandahs, or under the awning of a steamer. To go about with a bare head outside a 
house is often bad, as one is exposed to catching cold from the breeze, or may even feel 
the effect of the sun through the awning of a steamer, or by refraction from a wall 
or a piece of bare ground. 

2. Clothes. It is a good thing for a traveller to take out with him all his old English 
clothes, which prove to be very useful in the cool uplands of British Central Africa. A 
warm great-coat is absolutely essential. It should be remembered that people suffer much 
more from cold in British ^Central Africa than they do from heat. 1 A macintosh which 
will not come to pieces in warm weather is also useful for going about in the rain. A man 
should never be without his great coat in Central Africa. He may need it at any moment, 
especially if he has been perspiring freely and evening is drawing near. The evening 
dress, which is usually worn by employes of the British Central Africa Administration, 
consists of an ordinary dress coat, white shirt, white tie, dress waistcoat of yellow cloth 
with brass buttons, and black trousers. A short evening coat without tails is often worn. 
Lounge coats and smoking jackets come in very handy. 

Amongst other exposed absurdities are knee-boots, that is to say, boots which are 

i N.B. The great coat should not fit tightly to the figure; it should be comfortably loose and provided 
with a very deep collar which can, if necessary, be turned up to shield the neck and throat, and reach 
almost to the back of the head. 


continued up to the knee. They are soon discarded in Central Africa as uncomfortable 
and umvearable. Field boots should be of tanned leather, laced up and only coming 
to the ankle. The soles should be thick, but the boots must be light and not cumber- 
some. When walking or riding, cloth gaiters from the ankle to the knee, or spats 
from the instep to half way up the calf of the leg, are comfortable, suitable, and usually 
worn. Cloth or canvas gaiters are better than leather, as leather becomes so hard in 
this climate. Some people wear knickerbockers. This involves stockings however, 
and stockings are very hot for the legs, and the attempt to keep them up with garters 
causes a disagreeable constriction about the knee. It is much better to have trousers 
that can be pulled up slightly and the gaiters buttoned over them. The trousers 
can then be slightly folded over the top of the gaiter or the spat. A thick cloth 
cape to cover the shoulders and button round the throat is very convenient when riding 
or bicycling (and already a good deal of bicycling is done in Central Africa) or driving, 
when it is not convenient to take an umbrella. 

3. Umbrellas. One black silk umbrella for the rain should be taken, but several 
good strong light sun umbrellas must be taken. These should be double-lined, with a 
space between the linings white outside and green within. They must be very light 
to hold. The reason why a helmet is such a mistake as a protection from the sun 
is that besides being cumbersome and ugly, it at most shields the top of the head, or 
the head and neck. Where the sun is felt even more than on the head is on the 
shoulders and along the spine. To shield the body from the sun in fact, the only way 
is to carry a white umbrella, and this should be done on almost all occasions except 
when to do such a thing would be positively ridiculous, as, for instance, in the middle 
of a battle. There is no more effectual aid to the maintenance of health than to 
constantly carry a white umbrella when compelled to face the strong sunshine. 

4. Socks, &c. Stockings I have already alluded to as inconvenient for various 
reasons. Socks should be of merino. Cotton socks though cool wear out very rapidly. 
The merino socks should be not too thick and must be well-fitting to the foot, as if 
they are the least bit too large the redundancy of sock makes walking uncomfortable, 
and often causes blisters. Plenty of handkerchiefs should be taken, cotton and silk. 
One or two mufflers for the neck are good when the traveller is on the cold uplands. 

5. Boots. In addition to ankle boots several pairs of light shoes should be taken, 
both shoes that can be blacked and that look smart, and tennis shoes. There should of 
course be one pair of slippers. Anyone who intends to stay any length of time at the 
European settlements will require at least one pair of nice-looking patent leather boots 
and a pair of pumps for evening wear. 

Generally, I may say this about clothing, that a man should always strive to dress 
neatly and becomingly in Central Africa, or he will quickly lapse into a slovenly state of 
existence. At Blantyre and at Zomba people are almost always expected to dress for 
dinner at the various dinner parties, and to appear nicely dressed at church on Sundays, 
and if anyone imagines he is going out amongst a lot of rough pioneers who chiefly dress 
in red flannel shirts and buckskin breeches, he will be vastly surprised when he finds out 
how very carefully and becomingly as a rule the men do dress in Central Africa, whether 
they be officials, missionaries, planters or traders. 

6. Guns. As a rule guns, rifles and revolvers can be purchased in British Central 
Africa at the sales which take place from time to time of the effects of sportsmen who 
are returning home. Nearly every dry season a number of people come out to shoot big 
game, and to avoid the expense of the carriage often sell some of their guns before leaving 
the country. It is not as a rule wise for anyone who is not going to Central Africa 
specially for sport, to furnish himself with a large armament, before he gets to understand 
pretty clearly what kind of gun suits him best for that country. A double-barrelled 
i2-bore shot gun is always very useful. The right barrel should be choke bore and the 


other not, so that in the left barrel bullet cartridges can, if necessary, be used, as 
sometimes when one is out after guinea-fowl, one might meet a lion or an antelope. 
The best kinds of shot are Swan shot; "A. A. A. "; No. i ; No. 2 ; and No. 5. No. 5 is 
useful for pigeons and similar birds; as a rule however most African birds that the 
average man wants to shoot will succumb to little less in size than the No. 2 shot. It will 
be found that duck require either No. 2 or A.A.A., and Swan shot is useful for very big 
water birds or small mammals. For the average individual the best rifle is the '450 single 
barrelled. Some people speak highly of the Lee-Metford, but though very deadly if 
the bullet comes in contact with the bone, its cartridge does not seem to have the same 
stopping effect where it merely pierces through the fleshy parts. A Martini-Henry is a 
very useful weapon. Elephant rifles are quite a special subject in themselves and the 
enquirer is referred to the various articles which have appeared on the subject in the Field, 
or have been written by Mr. Selous and other authorities. The revolver is not, as a rule, 
a very useful weapon, except for accidentally shooting oneself. 

7. Plenty of books should be taken for reading. The traveller will miss books 
terribly if he is much alone in the evenings. Messrs. Mudie sell at a very cheap rate 
library books that have been some three months in circulation and all the great pub- 
lishers nowadays issue cheap " Colonial " editions of all new and striking books. Maps 
of B. C. A. can be obtained from Mr. J. G. Bartholomew, Edinburgh, and Messrs. 
Stanford, Cockspur Street, Charing Cross. 

8. Boxes. No leather portmanteaus or wooden boxes should be taken, as they are 
liable to the attacks of white ants, and also suffer from the damp climate. All boxes 
should be of tin. The Army and Navy Stores and Messrs. Silver thoroughly understand 
the kind wanted. No boxes should be large and no packages should weigh more than 
55 Ibs. on account of the porterage on men's heads. The leather valise or dressing bag 
is useful and permissible. One or more rugs should certainly be taken, and a thoroughly 
waterproof " hold-all " is a very useful thing. Beds and tents are best obtained locally, 
as the right kinds are for sale at the various stores ; but if it is desired to take one's own 
tent out then Messrs. Benjamin Edgington, of London Bridge, know exactly what is 
required for Central Africa, and can be thoroughly depended upon. The same firm 
supplies excellent camp furniture. I especially recommend their folding camp tables. 
A good dispatch-box is very useful, and Messrs. Silver, of Cornhill, supply very good 
articles of this description. 

8. Sketching materials. If the traveller intends to sketch or to photograph he should 
get his materials in London, as they are amongst the few things that cannot be purchased 
in British Central Africa. As regards sketching materials, Messrs. Kemp and Co., near 
Victoria Station, S.W., have for a long time past been in the habit of supplying me with 
what is required for Africa, and thoroughly understand the subject ; and their materials 
have always proved to be suited to the exigencies of the climate. 

9. Provisions of all kinds are much better purchased at the stores in British Central 
Africa ; almost the same may be said for drugs, but a small private medicine chest is not 
a bad thing, and can be procured from Messrs. Burroughs and Wellcome, of Holborn. 

I think this constitutes almost all the things which the average traveller should 
burden himself with before leaving England for British Central Africa. It must be 
remembered that the better extreme to go to of the two is to buy too little rather than 
too much, as many more things can be procured locally than one would generally 
suppose, and the prices at the stores in British Central Africa, compared to Matabeleland 
and the inner parts of South Africa, are very reasonable, on account of the cheapness 
of transport and the low Customs duties. Moreover it is not until a man is already 
established in Central Africa that he realises his own wants. He is then able to write 
home and order such things as he specially requires. 



THERE are at present eight Missionary Societies at work in the eastern 
half of British Central Africa 1 : 

I. The Universities Mission, which is Anglican, occupies the eastern 
shore of Lake Nyasa, the islands of Likoma and Chisumula, and has a station 
at Fort Johnston at the south end of the lake. The same mission is also 
strongly established at Kotakota in the Marimba district on the south-west 
coast of Lake Nyasa. They are probably about to build a large station at or 
near Fort Mangoche in Zarafi's country. Outside British territory they have 
(besides their stations in Eastern Africa) an establishment on the plateau of 
Unango in Portuguese Nyasaland. This mission is presided over by Dr. Hine, 
Bishop of Likoma. 

2. The Livingstonia Mission of the Free Church of Scotland occupies the 
western and north-western parts of the Protectorate. 

3. The Church of Scotland East African Mission, better known perhaps as 
the " Blantyre Mission," has stations in the Shire Highlands. 

4. The London Missionary Society (Independents or Wesleyans) has been 
long established on Lake Tanganyika. Its settlements are now confined to the 
British coast of that lake and to the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau southwards, but 
I believe they will be opening shortly a station on Lake Mweru. 

5. The Algerian Mission of the White Fathers (Roman Catholic), besides 
being represented by many stations on German or Belgian territory in the 
Tanganyika district, has recently established itself on the Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau and at one or two places in the Luemba country in the valley of the 

6. The Dutch Reformed Church Mission (Dutch Calvinists), originally a 
branch of the Livingstonia Mission, has been established for some years in 
Central and Southern Angoniland. 

7. The Zambezi Industrial Mission (Undenominational) works in Southern 
Angoniland in the Shire province. 

8. The Nyasa Baptist Industrial Mission (Baptist) has stations in the 
Blantyre district. 

In addition to this might almost be included the Jesuit Mission on the 
Zambezi, which was until recently established in the eastern part of the Mlanje 
district. Their stations were attacked and destroyed by the Yao chief, 
Matipwiri, who was subsequently punished for this action by the Administration, 
and is now exiled to Port Herald on the Lower Shire. It is therefore expected 
that the Jesuit Missionaries on the Zambezi will recommence their work in the 
south-eastern portion of the British Central Africa Protectorate. 

1 For Map showing Mission Stations see page 392. 


The enumeration of the Missionary Societies at work in the whole of British 
Central Africa might be completed by citing the Jesuits on the Central Zambezi, 
and the French Evangelical Mission which has been so long and successfully at 
work in the Barutse country on the Upper Zambezi. 

A Missionary Society originally founded by F. S. Arnot (Plymouth Brethren) 
has been for some years past established in Katanga, in the south part of the 
Congo Free State. This mission, I believe, contemplates founding stations on 
Lake Mweru within British territory, and I believe it has three stations on or 
near the River Kafue in Eastern Barutseland. 

The past history of the more important and longest established Missions has 
been touched on in the general review of the history of British Central Africa. 
Further details concerning the number of their stations, the attendances at their 
schools and churches and other technical information is given in my report to 
the Foreign Office, "Africa No. 5, 1896," and it would be tedious to repeat the 
statistics here. I will confine myself in the present chapter to treating all 
missionary work in. this part of Central Africa in a more generalised manner, 
giving my impressions as the opinions of any ordinary, fair-minded individual 
who wishes to arrive at true conclusions uninfluenced by sentiment or 

No person who desires to make a truthful statement would deny the great 
good effected by missionary enterprise in Central Africa. Yet why is it that in 
some quarters missionaries are heartily disliked, and the benefit of their work 
is denied or depreciated, even occasionally by clerics who, from a religious point 
of view, should be their natural supporters? If, on the one hand, the impartial 
observer must pronounce a verdict regarding the value of missionary work in 
Central Africa which is almost wholly in its favour, on the other hand he is 
compelled to ackowledge the existence of the prejudice and dislike with which 
missionaries are regarded by other white men not following the same career. 

The causes of this feeling in my opinion are two (i) The Cant which by 
some unaccountable fatality seems to be inseparably connected with missionary 
work, and (2) the arrogant demeanour often assumed by missionaries towards 
men who are not of their manner of thought and practice, though not necessarily 
men of evil life. 

I think these two causes exist still, and were so prominent in past times that 
they are quite sufficient to account for what is really a long continued and 
unreasonable aspersion of the value of missionary work. It will be seen from 
the tenour of my remarks that I am striving to write on this difficult question 
from the point of view of an absolutely impartial outsider let us say, for 
a moment, from the point of view of one who might be of any religion, or none 
at all. I take up this position because I honestly believe that much of the work 
done by European missionaries in Africa is of a kind which can be appreciated 
and praised without reserve by any fair-minded Muslim, Hindu, or Agnostic. 
Any thoughtful cultured man of no matter what religion, who is alive to 
the interests of humanity in general, must after careful examination of their 
work accord this meed of praise to the results which have followed the attempts 
to evangelise Central Africa. 

Let us take into consideration the first count of the indictment against 
missionaries : Cant. Although matters have much improved under this heading 
since the " forties," when Cant reached an appalling pitch, and accounts weie 
written of missionary work which are almost too repulsive for modern 
taste on that account (driving even sincere Christians into ribaldry and 



parody, as a natural relief), cant still exists, as can be seen by anyone 
who reads most missionary journals and hears many missionaries discourse. 
It exists ordinarily amongst the rawest and newest of missionaries and in 
the youngest of the missionary societies. In such missions as those of 
the Universities, the Church of Scotland and the Livingstonia Free Church, 
cant is extinct to a great extent locally, though it still lingers in the home 
compilations, in the journals which professedly give an account of the work of 
these establishments and which are published for home consumption. Sincere 
friends of mission work, such 
as Robert Needham Cust and 
Canon Isaac Taylor, have at 
times expressed their wonder- 
ment that missionaries should 
think it right or necessary to 
attach to descriptions of their 
work given verbally or in writing 
such expressions of mawkish 
piety, and so many statements 
which are an insidious perversion 
of the truth. In the latter case 
I can only imagine it is done on 
the assumption once attributed 
to the Jesuits, that it is right to 
do evil that good may come : 
that the missionaries are as con- 
vinced as I am of the ultimate 
good they effect, and that to 
encourage the British public to 
find funds for the carrying on of 
such work they think it excus- 
able or even lawful to "gammon" 
them, if I may put it vulgarly, 
to repeat speeches of high-flown 
piety, on the part of savage and 
uncultured converts, which could 
not have been uttered with 
serious consciousness of their 
meaning, and, indeed, could 
never have been formulated 
from such poor arrested brains. 

Then again especially in the case of newly-formed missionary societies 
who, in the rush of unreasoning enthusiasm have embarked on African 
evangelisation without counting the cost or making the necessary preparations 
articles too profane to be quoted are written of how God has taken to Himself 
" dear Sister So-and-so " or " Brother Somebody-else," to " cherish them on 
high " and give them a reward for their labours, as if there had been a 
special intervention of providence, when to the outside observer it is obvious 
that the sister or brother would never have died or even been ill if he or 
she had been properly housed or properly fed. My indictment on this score 
is not half strong enough. I kept by me at one time the journals and records 
of certain missionary societies, intending to quote them in some such 




book as this: a few months ago, however, I tore them up, as they were not 
wholesome literature, and perhaps I should have been flogging a dead horse 
in laying bare to the public this awful accumulation of Cant, when I knew such 
cant to be as strongly condemned as I can condemn it by missionaries of old 
standing, and when I began to see so many signs of its rapid disappearance. 
Missionary work in British Central Africa, believe me, has only to tell the plain 
truth and nothing but the truth to secure sympathy and support. Let the 
societies cease to humbug the people, let them tell frankly of their trials, their 
sorrows, their disappointments, as well as of their successes, and the sympathy 
created by the truthful picture which will then be rendered of the great struggle 
against spiritual darkness and savagery will be far stronger than the limited 
support which is accorded in sectarian circles, when the vulgarest and coarsest 
instincts of the unlettered Christian are appealed to by the aid of stupid 
falsehoods, lies of that worst kind which are usually founded on a substratum 
of truth. 

The second complaint against missionaries is on the score of their arrogant 
demeanour. Some of the average European pioneers are not, I am sorry to 
say, very creditable specimens of mankind. They are aggressively ungodly, 
they put no check on their lusts ; released from the restraints of civilisation and 
the terror of " what people may say," they are capable of almost any degree of 
wickedness ; but the missionary is too apt to assume that all new Europeans 
with whom he comes in contact are of this class, and that because they do not 
belong to a mission they are necessarily wicked men ; and he shows this so 
plainly in his manner that the result is naturally a reciprocal suspicion and 
dislike on the part of the stranger layman. There is an undoubted tendency 
on the part of missionaries to hold and set forth the opinion that no one ever 
did any good in Africa but themselves. That they have done more good than 
armies, navies, conferences and treaties have yet done, I am prepared to admit ; 
that they have prepared the way for the direct and just rule of European 
Powers and for the extension of sound and honest commerce I have frequently 
asserted ; but they are themselves to some extent only a passing phase, only 
the John-the-Baptists, the forerunners of organized churches and settled social 
politics. It is their belief that they hold an always privileged position, that 
they are never to fit into their proper places in an organized European com- 
munity, which causes so much friction between them and the other European 
settlers or lay officials by whom they are gradually being far outnumbered ; nor 
are they always ready to recognise that there is some credit due to the 
missionaries of commerce as well as to the missionaries of religion ; that the 
savage man cannot live decently by faith alone ; that he must have something 
to occupy his mind besides religion, and that unless his attention is drawn to 
hard work and to gaining money in an honest manner, " Satan will find some 
mischief still for his idle hands to do." 

Now let me leave off preaching and try to give my readers some idea of 
what missionary life is like in Central Africa, always from the point of view 
of the lay traveller and dispassionate investigator. 1 

Try, reader, to imagine yourself in the position of some weary man travelling 
in Central Africa on Government business, or as a pioneer trader, or engaged in 

1 To do this I find myself obliged to quote to some extent from an article on Missionaries which I 
wrote for the Nineteenth Century Review of November, 1887, but which, though ten years old, still gives 
what I believe to be such a faithful general picture of the average missionary home in Central Africa that 
in some passages I find it difficult to describe the same in other language. 


natural history research, or merely for the sake of exploration or sport. You 
have just quitted the slightly civilised coast-belt for the little known and 
savage interior, and you may have sickened with the first touch of fever. With 
all the enthusiasm for exploration which leads most white men into this un- 
healthy but fascinating continent, you feel temporarily depressed and saddened 
at the snapping of all ties which bind you to the world of culture and comfort : 
your new tent is leaky and lets in the rain, or it fails to mitigate the blazing 
heat of noontide ; your untried cook cannot at once acquire the art of pro- 
ducing a decent meal amid the many difficulties of camp life ; you have long 
ceased to eat bread, or the fragments of mouldy toast that may be served up 
to you are piteous relics of the pleasant sojourn at some relatively civilised 
town on the coast whence you started. 

Or, it may be, the circumstances under which you are travelling are 
somewhat different. You are at the end of some great journey, some expedi- 
tion which has had its moments of exhilarating success, of wonderful discovery, 
but now the excitement is over and is succeeded by a dull apathy that is almost 
despair : you no longer anticipate with a joy that can scarcely be outwardly 
repressed the pleasures which are about to reward your months of toil, privation 
and danger the first night's sleep -in a comfortable and spacious bed, the 
first well-cooked meal into which you will crowd all your favourite delicacies, 
the first good concert or theatre you will attend ; you are weary of running 
over in your mind the public dinners that may be given to you or the praises 
of scientific societies which will reward your discoveries ; you merely confine 
yourself to reflecting dully on the probabilities of reaching your destination 
alive and of doubting whether under any circumstances, and especially the 
present ones, life is worth living. In either case, whether your work lies 
behind you, finished, or before you, to be accomplished, you jog along the 
narrow winding path, tired, alone, heart-sick, home-sick, your sore and weary 
feet tripping over stocks and stones, your aching eyes fixed on the ground, 
seeing nothing, your face scorched with the hot wind, your hands scratched 
with the grass blades that have to be continually pushed aside in your dogged 
progress. Perhaps even you may be enduring worse discomfort, you may be 
drenched to the skin macintosh notwithstanding in some torrential downpour; 
and overweighted with your heavy, streaming rain-coat, you stagger along half 
blindly through slushy mud and soaked vegetation. Then you hear your guide 
saying to someone that he recognises the district, that the white man's house is 
near at hand. "What white man?" you ask apathetically, too weary to show 
an interest in anything. " People of the Mission," the guide replies, and then 
if you only know of this modern type of evangelist by tradition you will smile 
bitterly and say to yourself, " Oh, a missionary ! H'm, I don't feel much in 
a mood to pray or sing hymns just now ! " Then you continue plodding on 
in stupid resignation to whatever fate awaits you. 

I will suppose, to make this picture more effective, that it is now late 
afternoon. The sun if it is the sun that has chiefly troubled you during 
the day's march is at last sinking behind an imposing clump of forest trees, 
and the fierce heat of noon is beginning to be tempered by the rising breeze. 
Or the murky rain clouds are drifting away in ragged, piled up masses to 
the east, leaving a large space of the western heavens clear ; and this expanse 
of open sky has become a pale lemon-yellow through the diffused misty glory 
of the declining sun. The surrounding country has a more pleasing appear- 
ance. Here and there in the distance are bright green and yellow patches 


diversifying the grey scrub and sombre forest, and these clearly indicate the 
existence of plantations, while the vicinity of man is proved by occasional 
puffs and spirals of blue smoke where the natives are burning weeds. The 
path, too, is clearer, wider, and better made ; the obtrusive wayside vegetation 
has been checked and no longer impedes your progress. Then you begin to 
meet occasional inhabitants of the distant unseen settlements women with 
babies slung on their backs and earthen pitchers poised on their heads on 
their way to the spring to obtain their evening supply of water ; or men 
returning from the chase armed with long-barrelled ancient- looking guns, 
spears, assegais, or clubs, and accompanied by several snarling curs, whose 
collars are hung with little bells. To your surprise, instead of plunging 
terror stricken into the bush or assuming a defiant and hostile attitude, each 

native greets you politely with 
" Morning ! Goo' morning ! " for 
they have learned from the mis- 
sionaries our matutinal salutation, 
which they indifferently make use 
of at all hours of the day and 
night. On each side of the widened 
road a straggling row of young 
plantain trees begins to make its 
appearance, evidently planted with 
the view of its forming ultimately 
a shady avenue : then behind a 
wooden fence appear thriving 
plantations of vegetables and 
hedges of pine-apples, and at last, 
a turn in the road brings into 
view a garden of flowers and 
flowering shrubs blazing with 
brilliant masses of colour and a long, low-built dwelling house of one storey, 
with white-washed walls, green window shutters, and a wide overhanging roof 
of thatch forming a verandah round the building. Behind the house are other 
dwellings of a humbler architecture, more or less hidden with green shrubs 
and trees ; and further in the background is a huge barn-like building, also 
white-washed and with a thatched roof, but having about it an indefinably 
ecclesiastical air, and this is certain to be a church, possibly used as a school 
also during the week. 

As you are toiling up the red path towards the house, taking in all these 
details with slow and tired comprehension, there comes towards you, half 
striding, half running, a white man whose outward presentment is something 
like the building you have taken for a chapel a sort of compromise between 
homely rusticity and ecclesiastical primness. Probably he wears a large 
soft, grey felt hat with a broad brim, a crumpled white tie, a long grey 
clerical coat, cut close up to the neck, grey breeches and gaiters, and heavy 
boots. His face has homely features, but it is pleasantly lit up with an 
expression of hearty kindliness. 

Behind your new acquaintance who has introduced himself to you as 
the agent of some well-known British Protestant mission follow half-a-dozen 
loutish boys, mostly clad in gay coloured jerseys or shirts, with Manchester 
cottons round their lower limbs, one or two more favoured ones being 



hideously clothed in coats and trousers. These lads have lost the easy 
carriage and independent bearing of the unsophisticated native, and shuffle 
and slouch along in a lazy, loose-jointed manner that is a distinct irritation 
to a person of energetic, active temperament, and their semi-circular grin as 
they lounge up to you with a loud greeting produces on your part an 
involuntary frown rather than an answering smile. In a half-hearted manner 
they relieve your foremost porters of their burdens, and the straggling 
procession proceeds on its way up the red clay path and through the flower 
garden towards the house. It is probable that at the head of the steps 
leading to the raised verandah, the missionary's wife awaits you, clasping and 
unclasping her hands, and letting her smile wax and wane as your slow 
approach through the garden gives her a slightly nervous feeling of conscious 
expectancy. Involuntarily her hand goes to her throat yes ! the gold locket 
is there ; she has not forgotten it. She glances at the little bouquet of 
flowers in her bosom how quickly they are fading in the hot air! She 
smoothes the crumpled pale blue ribbons that give her homely dress an 
almost pathetic remembrance of former smartness, and pulls out the sleeve 
puffs ; touches her hair to ascertain its smoothness ; shakes out the limp 
folds of her skirt ; clears her throat ; calls up the smile again, now that you 
are close, and finally loses all affectation when she takes your hand and 
gazes into your pale, tired, spiritless face, and in a burst of womanly pity 
bids you welcome, and hurries away to make arrangements for your comfort. 

When you have bathed and changed your clothes, a pleasant languor 
succeeds your crushing fatigue. The missionary's wife is busy in her 
household, devising additions to the evening meal ; the missionary has 
excused himself, and is gone to wind up the school affairs, and dismiss the 
scholars from the chapel. You are left for a short, time in not unwelcome 
solitude. As you sit in the porch, gazing dreamily on the glowing sunset, 
and inhaling the strong, sweet, mingled perfume of the nicotianas, frangipanis, 
mignonette, and lilies in the garden, your ears catch the shrill, clear voices 
of children singing five verses of an evening hymn. Were you with them 
in the building, the glib utterance, thin melody, and nasal twang of the 
performance would jar upon you ; as it is, here, softened by distance, it 
strikes a sweet note in the unruffled harmony of your surroundings. From 
the native village, half hidden among the tall umbrageous trees, which stand 
out in velvet blackness against the western sky, comes the faint murmur of 
voices ; and an occasional laugh of the women and girls, returning with their 
pitchers from the water-course, echoes pleasantly through the air. In the 
yellow-flowered thorn hedge at the bottom of the garden a bulbul l is piping 
and warbling his mellow notes. You feel enveloped in an atmosphere of 
peace, which is doubly refreshing because of its contrast to the weary tenour 
of your past life. 

The loud clanging of the school bell disturbs your reverie. The 
missionary is once more at your side with many excuses for having for a 
brief while left you to your own devices. The evening meal is announced, 
and you follow your host to the dining - room, or, rather, the one large 
sitting-room of his house. Here his wife, seated at the table before an ample 
tea-tray, welcomes you to the repast, and perhaps adds a quite unnecessary 
apology for its character. As you unfold your clean napkin, you glance 

1 Pycnonotus. In parts of the Shire Highlands and other mountainous districts there are thrushes 
that sing sweetly. 


over the table and are quite satisfied with your present lot. There is, for 
instance, to open the repast, a tureen of good chicken soup ; and a cold pigeon 
pie, a rolled tongue, sardines, and boiled eggs are other items. There 
are dishes of home-grown potatoes baked in their skins, and golden slices of 
fried plantain. A superb pineapple imparts its fragrance to the mingled 
odours of the steaming tea and the savoury broth. Little glass dishes of 
luscious jams and sweet biscuits fill up spare gaps in between the pieces dc 
resistance, and it is probable that a few bright flowers in a slender vase give 
a grace to the outspread meal which clearly indicates feminine supervision. 
When your thoughts and your gaze are wandering thus, you see your hostess 
suddenly pause in the tea-outpouring, and lower her head and clasp her hands, 
while your host, who has once or twice endeavoured to arrest your attention, 
rises somewhat bashfully and pronounces a brief benediction on the repast. 
Then, this duty over, he serves and carves and cuts with a will. If you are 
a man of any tact, and desire to administer a little harmless flattery to your 
kind hosts, you will compliment your hostess on her delicious tea. Then 
she will tell you of the difficulties which attend the procuring of fresh milk 
in Africa, and of how, in her case, these difficulties have been met and 
conquered. She will enumerate her nanny-goats, and describe the vagaries 
of her half-wild cow. And you must especially dwell on the excellence 
of the cold pigeon-pie. This will no doubt elicit from your hostess the 
avowal with a little blushing that she herself made it. Her husband shot 
the pretty green fruit-pigeons " poor little things ! it seems a shame, doesn't 
it?" and she made the pie-crust. "You know the native girls can learn to 
cook most things, but they never can be taught to make pastry, so I always 
go into the kitchen and do that myself." 

When the meal is over, you are doubtless made to take the easiest chair, 
which is drawn up to the open brick fire-place, where fragrant logs are 
burning. You really feel permeated with comfort, while gratitude for the 
kindness shown you lends, or ought to lend, a brighter look to your eyes 
and a more sympathetic tone to your voice. The missionary's wife has 
taken up some needlework to occupy her fingers. Her husband, out of 
politeness, is sitting idle with his hands before him, trying to make con- 
versation ; but if you question him adroitly, you will soon find out that he 
has some hobby that he rides, some favourite pursuit that he follows in his 
leisure time. Perhaps it is the study of the native language ; and on your 
expressing an encouraging interest, he will bring out delightedly his bulky 
manuscript vocabularies and chatter to you of prefixes and suffixes and 
infixes, of clicks and nasals, guttural - labials, aspirated sibilants, and faucal 
sounds all the cacophony of barbarous tongues. Or you will discover that 
his passion is entomology, and a very little persuasion will induce him to 
open his boxes and tins, redolent of camphor, and to fetch down from his 
study -shelves his spirit -jars, and to display before your somewhat wearied 
gaze a bewildering collection of insect forms beetles big as mice, and 
gorgeously clad in golden-green and chestnut-brown, tiny jewel-like beetles 
caught in the calyces of orchids, fantastic longicorns, clumsy scarabs, lovely 
chafers, brilliant cantharides, all the coleopterous forms of the surrounding 
district. He will recall your wandering attention to a marvellous mantis, 
mimicking a large green leaf to perfection, or assuming the form and 
appearance of a dry "branching twig. He will show you butterflies from the 
forest which, when their wings are folded, can scarcely be distinguished 


from a dead leaf, or other splendid Papilionidce of the tropics not afraid to 
exhibit their beauties openly, and revelling in the display of brilliant colours, 
attractive markings, and eccentric shapes. Then will follow for your 
inspection rows of bugs, scarlet and green, yellow and black ; repulsive 
cicadas with huge stupid heads and disgusting fat bodies, giving a nasty 
oily odour which even the camphor cannot suppress ; dapper-looking grass- 
hoppers, neatly and prettily coloured; and dragon - flies with gauzy wings, 
some purple-blue, some orange, others umber-brown or crimson. 

If you are not reviewing insects or discussing languages, you may be turning 
over portfolios of dried plants; or it is birds that the missionary shoots and 
skins, or geological specimens that he collects, or he may even concentrate his 
interest exclusively within the narrow domain of spiders or land shells. What- 
ever his hobby may be, having once started him off, it is hard to arrest him, 
and with the best intentions you find yourself after a little while arduously 
acting an interest you cease to feel, and paralysing the muscles of your jaws 
with suppressed yawns. The missionary's wife detects your fatigue. Long use 
has accustomed her to regard her husband's favourite pursuit with indulgent 
unconcern; so rising, and gathering her needlework together, she says, "John, 
it is time for prayers; I am sure Mr. So-and-so must be tired." The obedient 
husband assents, puts away with a sigh his manuscripts, or his collections, and 
goes outside into the verandah, to ring the bell. Then he returns with //;/ visage 
de circonstance, gets down his big Bible and seats himself in the armchair at the 
head of the table. Presently there is a whispering, giggling, and shuffling in 
the passage, and in come the loutish boys you have seen before. They are 
lugging along some wooden forms, which they place in the room near the door. 
Then they retreat and return again, this time bearing piles of Bibles and paper- 
covered hymn-books. They are followed by a small number of lollopy girls, 
some clad in loose garments like short nightgowns, a few bearing still an 
appearance of being but half reclaimed and in their savage innocence scorning 
to hide their virginal breasts in a frowsy gown, while the draping of the light 
cottons round their limbs and heads retains an element of innate good taste 
which the older, more civilised girls have lost. These latter, too, are oppressed 
with a sense of self-consciousness at the sight of a stranger, and alternately 
glance at you with sidelong languishing looks, and then make you the subject 
<>f sniggering whispers among themselves, until they are checked by a stern 
look from their mistress, which makes their eyes drop with one accord on their 
open Bibles. After prayers are over the youths drag out the forms again, the 
maidens bob and curtsey, and each with shrill monotony yelps out, "' Good night, 
ma'am; good night, sah," to which your host and hostess reply, with wearisome 
punctiliousness, "Good night, Amelia, good night, Florence, good night, 
Susannah, good night, Rebecca," and so on to the end of the list. Then 
you stand for a few minutes purposeless, gazing at the prints of Bible subjects 
hung round the walls, staring vacantly at your hostess's sewing machine, opening 
the gift books on the table or softly trying the harmonium with one finger and 
an intermittent pressure on the pedals. The missionary's wife, who has just 
been with her servants to ascertain that all your requirements in your bedroom 
have been anticipated, returns and bids you good night with a kindly-worded 
wish that you may benefit by your night's rest. You chat a few minutes longer 
with your host, and then repair to your bedroom, where you will be sure to find 
a comfortable bed and a shelf of books, with one of which you beguile the 
moments till sleep comes to close your tired eyelids. 


Perhaps in the morning you awake ill with threatened fever. Sick, dazed, 
and trembling, you attempt to dress, but your host, who is learned in the 
treatment of such maladies, insists on your returning to bed where for days 
to come you toss and rave, while the vulture Death approaches in ever-narrowing 
circles, until by patient nursing, thoughtful care, unwearying attention the 
missionary and his wife have conquered the disease and restored you to health. 
Or, more probably, the first night's quiet rest under a rain-tight roof, the good 
food and cheering kindness of your evening's entertainment at the mission, have 
successfully dispelled the incipient malady, and at the clanging of the school- 
bell you awake from slumber, to find yourself light-hearted and full of energy, 
braced by this little interlude of comfort to face with stout determination the 
solitude of the wilderness. 

Your host and hostess are loth to part with you, and before you go, you 
must in very grace inspect the church or chapel and the schools ; listen while 
the school children sing a simple English glee, and " God Save the Queen "; look 
over their specimens of hand-writing ; and give them easy problems to solve 
in mental arithmetic. You may find it hard to take an interest in or suppress a 
repugnance for the hulking youths or plump girls, who instead of being as they 
ought to be engaged in hard wholesome manual labour, are dawdling and 
yawning over slate and primer, and in whose faces sensual desires struggle 
for expression with hypocritical sanctimoniousness ; but the little children, 
the little, naked, bright-eyed children just captured from the village, and 
now demurely ranged in rows, solemnly picking out and wrongly naming 
cardboard A's and B's and C's you surely can find no difficulty in loving 
them, and saying something to encourage the missionary's wife, whose pets 
they are? The school inspection over, you yield to very pressing invitations 
and stay to an early luncheon, after which your host starts you on the right 
road to your next destination, and your hostess slips some dainty package 
of eatables into your satchel. 

The foregoing sketch illustrates perhaps the commonest type of missionary 
household in Central Africa, for the bulk of our missionaries are Protestants and 
married. Most missionary societies distinctly encourage their agents to marry and 
take their wives out to live with them in Africa. I only know of one Protestant 
mission where celibacy is approved. That is the Universities Mission which 
is mainly supported by the High Church party in England, and the way 
in which its work is carried on is very similar to that of the Roman Catholic 
missions. In some respect the system of the Anglicans and Roman Catholics 
has much to recommend it. In their establishments there are separate com- 
munities of men and women who lead a life which is monastic only in its 
best features, and who not being troubled by any family affairs, can devote 
themselves to the work of the mission as long as health permits. But then 
it must be remembered that these celibate missions are to some extent served 
by picked men and women, who are mostly volunteers and receive no salary 
for their services, and are merely lodged and boarded at the expense of the 
mission. This system of celibacy undoubtedly does not suit the British 
missionary as a rule. Given an average man, young and in the prime of 
manhood, who is sent to work in Africa unmarried, unsolaced by the company 
of a wife, you will find him prone to be restless and discontented, or to find 
a consolation which arouses scandal. Married to a wife of his own nation 
and rank his whole career may be different. He is happy, contented, pure- 



minded, and disposed from the fact of his having made his home there to 
devote himself to a life-long work in Africa : in fact, a married missionary 
becomes more or less a missionary colonist, a result which the parent society 
is desirous to attain. Moreover, it is certain that a married man has far more 
influence among the natives, for to the African mind celibacy is either an 
unnatural or dishonourable condition provoking suspicion or contempt. A 
man-missionary, moreover, if he is to avoid the breath of scandal must have 
as little to do with the native women-folk as possible. Yet in the interest of 
his work it is quite as perhaps more important that the women should be 



instructed as the men. As mothers and wives they wield an influence for 
good and bad which it is hard to overrate. From an evangelistic point of 
view women are needed for missionaries as well as men. This need is met 
in the Roman Catholic Church and in some Anglican missions by the employ- 
ment of good women as nuns or teaching sisters, and many of the Protestant 
missions often have attached to them unmarried women whose usefulness in 
teaching is quite equal to that of the men. But somehow I have noticed 
that few of these unmarried women helpers, if they were of British nationality, 
were rigid advocates of celibacy. Sooner or later most of them have found 
missionary husbands, or have married Europeans outside the mission. It is 
a subject on which I cannot dogmatise, having before my mind's eye many 
examples of beautiful, pure, and most useful lives led in Eastern and Central 
Africa by devoted women who lived a nun's life and were never married ; 
and yet I must own these were the exceptions rather than the rule, and that 


personally I shrink from advocating the sending out to Africa of young 
unmarried women. It is far better they should go there, or live there, as 
wives. Even in marriage, however, it is not right to conceal the fact that 
there are drawbacks to the healthy happy life of the married white woman 
in a barbarous country, with a sickly and , tropical climate. A blithe pretty 
girl from one of the three countries which form the United Kingdom, with 
the wild rose bloom on her cheek, arrives in Africa and espouses her missionary 
husband ; or, it may be, that they are married in England, and make the 
voyage out their honeymoon. Everything in her new life is a shock to her 
mental and physical system. The unvarying, enervating heat and the enforced 
changes in her mode of dress ; the strange tropical nature, overpowering at 
first sight with its luxuriance and its amazing growths ; the different kind of 
food, and even the altered manner of passing the hours of daylight ; sometimes, 
too, the total absence of any kindred society of her own sex all these new 
experiences, united, form a complete reversal of her previous life, and must at 
first react on her physical organisation. Then, too, think of a modest girl 
who has been hitherto shielded with such jealous care from contact with 
anything coarse or impure, so that she has, in fact, grown up stupidly innocent: 
thi'nk of her suddenly thrust into a barbarous country where the natives are 
naked and not ashamed, and where the conventions of decency are often 
unknowingly transgressed by them in a way which to her English prudery 
must appear very indecent ; where, too, the women among whom she has come 
to minister, will, when she understands their language, talk glibly to her of 
matters that the most depraved of her sex at home would hesitate to mention 
to a young and inexperienced woman. The effect of this ordeal even on a 
young wife is not without its risks of moral deterioration, and is sometimes 
only acquired at the cost of a certain loss of delicacy. 1 This rude contact 
with coarse animal natures and their unrestrained display of animal instincts 
tends imperceptibly to blunt a modest woman's susceptibilities, and even, in 
time, to tinge her own thoughts and language with an unintentional coarseness. 

Every year, however, makes it easier for married women to share the lot of 
their husbands in countries like British Central Africa, where civilisation is 
rapidly increasing and numbers are multiplying. The missionary societies 
working here early recognised that it was their bounden duty to supply medical 
missionaries to attend to the health of their European agents as well as to the 
medical wants of the natives. In consequence of this the missionaries' wives 
who have children have not suffered as has been the case in earlier days in 
other parts of Africa. Children are frequently born to the married missionaries, 
and are reared in the African climate with fair success, and eventually grow up 
healthy boys and girls in England. Every year makes it easier for the 
missionary to support his wife in Africa with reasonable comfort and chance 
of good health. Women, indeed, seem to stand the climate better than men. 
Moreover, nowadays, our ideas on the subject of women are widening; we are 
coming to see that many burdens hitherto borne by the male can be equally 
supported by the female. On the whole, I think women make better mission- 
aries than men, and are always much more lovable in that aspect. Let them, 
therefore, continue to go out to Africa as celibates if they are over thirty-five, 
but otherwise as married women. 

If the supposititious traveller, whose hypothetical experiences in one type of 

1 I am writing of course of the average woman, not of exceptional characters who can walk 
through any amount of mire and come out unsoilcd. 


missionary household I have already described, should stay at a station of the 
Universities Mission in Central Africa or with any of the Roman Catholic 
Fathers, he will have very pleasant experiences, though they may be of a 
different nature. The good Fathers of the Roman Catholic Church, and 
the Anglican priests from our two great Universities, will entertain him with a 
whole-hearted hospitality, though he will not perhaps enter so much into their 
private lives as with the married Protestant missionary. In the case of the 
Anglican missionaries he will derive more the impression that he is staying at a 
college, a college where there is very plain living and high thinking. With the 
Roman Catholics the food is thoroughly good, well cooked and appetising, and 
all reproach of luxury removed from it when it is understood that it is almost 
all of local production and due to the energy and husbandry of the Fathers 
and their pupils. I repeat, there is something very suggestive of the English 
public-school about the Anglican missionaries. Athletics bulk largely and 
wholesomely in their curriculum. Their boy pupils are soon taught to play 
football and cricket, and to use the oar rather than the paddle ; but it cannot 
be truthfully said that these missionaries keep a good table or care sufficiently 
for their creature comforts. Their houses are often of poor construction, untidy 
and unattractive : it is obvious that they are under no care of womankind. 
The missionary snatches his meals hastily, scarcely tasting what goes down his 
throat. On his untidy bureau there will be at one and the same time the newest 
philosophical treatise from England and an ugly tin teapot of over-stewed tea. 
But I shall not continue my criticisms in this respect, as these missionaries are 
now much of the same opinion as myself on the subject of the sheer necessity 
of comfort, if one intends to lead a healthy life in Africa, and I believe 
steps are now being taken to supply each University Mission Station with one 
or more lay brothers who will attend to household cares. 

I have made many allusions to missionary hospitality. Missionaries and the 
Portuguese are alike in this respect. As a people the Portuguese are the most 
hospitable I know in any part of the globe's surface, showing their hospitality as 
a kind of instinct alike to friend and enemy. The missionary, in the same way. 
regards hospitality as a sacred duty. No matter whether his guest is disposed 
to cavil at his work or to sympathise with it he gives him the best he has, and 
often more than he himself can afford ; and too frequently the return both to 
the Portuguese settler or official and to the missionary is thankless abuse, or 
ridicule, on the part of the passing traveller. I have known explorers who owed 
their lives and the success of their journeys and the saving of a vast amount 
of expenditure to Portuguese officials, planters or traders, who helped them by 
the way. When they returned to Europe, however, it was only to dilate on all 
that was defective in the Portuguese system of government, or faulty in the 
characteristics of the race. Likewise how many travellers and sportsmen have 
lived for weeks light-heartedly at the expense of a missionary or of a series 
of missionaries, and then have taken the earliest opportunity of sneering at 
them and spreading calumnious reports as to their mode of life. I remember 
an instance of this in one who is now dead and therefore shall be nameless. 
He had visited the French priests at Bagamoyo, on the East Coast of Africa. 
Wishing to do him honour as an explorer and an Englishman, the good Fathers 
concerted together, and agreed to sacrifice their last bottle of champagne (kept 
as an occasional medicine) in his honour. What was the result ? He returned 
to Europe and said, "Those missionaries live like fighting-cocks, they drink- 
champagne every clay." 


How few of the many hundreds who have enjoyed missionary hospitality, 
nursing and assistance have remembered that their entertainers were men 
receiving salaries from ,80 to .300 a year, often with a wife and family to 
maintain. How many have attempted to make any subsequent return for the 
help afforded, not perhaps in monetary or other gifts, but in fair words. 

It has been so fine a thing at first to encounter in the wilderness such 
disinterested goodness, such heroic attempts in the face of the greatest 
difficulties and dreariest discouragements to lead oneself and to teach others 
to adopt the higher life, that your first impressions are of unbounded admiration 
for the missionaries and their work. If you stay in the country, say three years, 
your final verdict is likely to be that of your first impression ; but if you 
frequent the mission for merely three weeks you will find yourself beginning 
to criticise ; the demeanour of the mission girls has lost all shyness and may 
even perhaps be lacking in modesty, for these young women when they get 
beyond childhood have lost all fear of the white man and have not been 
subjected to the excellent native discipline which enforces amongst the women 
a modest bearing and a certain amount of deference towards people of the 
opposite sex. You will, at first, be disagreeably impressed with the native 
catechists, or readers, or deacons, or whatever title the trained native adherents 
of the mission may bear : with their profuse display of religious phrases, their 
clumsily cut European clothes, 1 contrasting with an often sensual face, their off- 
hand manners and great conceit. But pause a moment before you too hastily 
condemn the results of mission teaching. These clothed negroes, whose very 
clothing is an offence as it often induces uncleanly personal habits, and a con- 
sequent disagreeable personal smell, and whose aping of European ways is a 
provocation to criticism, are nevertheless more useful members of the community 
than an untutored savage. They may be cheeky if you attempt, as many white 
men do, a bullying manner, but they are men of the world. They will not offer 
you physical violence nor attempt to oppose your researches into their country ; 
on the contrary they will make common cause with you, and espouse your 
cause if necessary against their wild brothers. They are now British subjects, 
emphatically as much wedded to the British policy with all its mistakes and 
even with any temporary injustice it may entail, as you are. Gradually they 
or their descendants will find their proper place. When by education and 
inherited culture they are on the level of the white man, then by all means let 
them take their place as his equal. The British Empire is, or should be, 
independent of considerations of race and colour, and should take as its sole 
standard of citizenship, mental, moral and physical qualifications. Otherwise 
we have no right to interfere with these alien races, and teach them to walk in 
our ways, and submit to our rule. 

The fact is that it takes at least three generations before any clear apprecia- 
tion of the principles of morality, truth, gratitude and honour can penetrate the 
intellect and curb the instincts of the negro. Nor in this disadvantage is he 
singular amongst the backward races of mankind. The same statement applies 
equally to the Red Indian, the Polynesian or the Papuan. You cannot in a year 
or two convert a wolf into a sheep dog, or a skulking jackal into a black and 
tan terrier ; this change cannot be effected in the one individual, as a rule, no 
matter how long he may live ; the result can only be attained by generations 
of transmitted culture, induced by constant restraint and careful education. 

1 This item of criticism cannot be made to apply to the pupils of the Universities Mission who are very 
wisely made to dress in long " kanzus," or garments of Arab style. 


Even then, when the bulk of your subjects are firmly established in their new 
mode of life, and breed true, there will be occasionally disappointing reversions. 
A young sheep dog will take to worrying sheep, or a black and tan terrier be 
detected killing fowls. 1 

I know several ordained missionaries who are pure negroes, and who 
are most worthy men. Close your eyes and you might be talking to a 
cultivated Englishman. But I only recall, at most, three instances of negro 
priests of this excellent description who have been, in the one individual, 
raised up from a condition of utter savagery to that of an educated civilised 
man, and who have maintained themselves on this high level ; almost all 
others having undergone similar experiences relapse at one time or another in 
a manner very similar to that described in Grant Allen's striking story, The 
Reverend John Greedy. But my hope for the eventual results lies in the know- 
ledge of what has been done amongst the negroes of the West Indies. Some 
of the best, hardest-working and most satisfactory, sensible missionaries I have 
ever known have been West Indians in colour as dark as the Africans they 
go to teach, but in excellence of mind, heart, and brain-capacity, fully equal 
to their European colleagues. But then these men were at least three genera- 
tions removed from the uncivilised negro, and were as much strangers to Africa 
and African habits as the average European. Per contra, what disappointing 
results on a surface examination would appear to him who first commenced 
studying the effects of mission work in Central Africa. If he has really been 
a student of African History, if he has read old Blue-books, old descriptions of 
travel, old missionary records, he will have noted that at the end of the 
"seventies" or the beginning of the "eighties," the missionaries of the day wrote 
with rapture of the remarkable progress in learning and in religion which had 
been made by John Makwira, Joseph Evangel, Robert Ntundulima, Simpson 
Chokabwino : 2 of how John Makwira and Simpson Chokabwino had been 

1 As an instance of the disappointing naughtiness which may occur even amongst people who have 
lived round the mission station for years, I would tell the following story. While cruising on Lake 

Nyasa in 1895 on one of our gunboats I visited the Island of an important station of the 

Mission. We arrived on the Saturday evening, dined with the missionaries and were invited to 
lunch with them the next day. Early on Sunday morning a number of youths came off from the shore 
in canoes bringing small tins and bottles of milk. I am exceedingly fond of milk and it is not an easy 

thing to get in Africa as a rule, I was therefore delighted at the enterprise shown by the natives of . 

The Commander of the gunboat accordingly bought up all the milk that was offered for sale and 
that morning we feasted on porridge and milk and cafi-aii-latt, and put aside plenty of milk for tea in 
the afternoon and puddings in the evening. As it is very difficult ordinarily to obtain milk at all from the 
natives in this part of Africa, as the cows and goats are often allowed to run about unmilked, (the 
natives not caring for milk themselves) we were full of praise regarding the enterprise of these mission 
boys. Later on we appeared at lunch, and the ladies and gentlemen of the mission apologised to us for 
handing round tinned milk, than which nothing becomes more hateful to the resident in Africa, "but," 
said the missionaries " our boys you know- are very strict Sabbatarians. On Sundays they absolutely 
refuse to milk the goats, so we have to go without, though we get plenty of milk on the other days of the 
week." I was just going to exclaim " How extraordinary ! why lots of your boys came off this morning 
with quite a large quantity of milk for sale " when an idea struck the Commander of the vessel and 
myself simultaneously and we held our peace. On enquiry we found these youths of Sabbatarian instincts 
reserved the Sunday's milk for themselves, and on occasions were very willing to sell it to strangers. 

2 The names of course are fictitious but they give some idea of the want of taste too often shown 
by the missionaries in naming their converts. This would be very apparent to anybody who takes up one 
or other of the missionary journals published in Centra! Africa and reads the list of baptisms. I quote 
haphazard from Life and Work in British Central Africa, the organ of the Blantyre Mission for September, 
1896, and on the first page amongst the baptisms I find the names of " Mungo Park Kalima and Tabitha 
his wife who have just had a little daughter christened ' Bonnie' ;" and of " Marcus Aurelius Mlnimju." 
Either let a European Christian name and surname be given straight away, or keep to the child's existing 
name or to any other native appellation and there is nothing to grate on the ear ; but Agnes Tanga- 
langa and Dora Chokabwino, Athanasius Ndodo and Wilfred Pujapuja are incongruous, absurd and 


sent to the Lovedale Institute in South Africa, and Robert Xtundulima and 
Joseph Evangel to Scotland ; and of the great things which were to be expected 
from the raising up of a native Pastorate. Then this student will in the later 
" nineties " visit British Central Africa and it will gradually dawn on him that 
this disreputable scoundrel, living with and constantly beating four \vives, and 
so often inebriated with native forms of alcohol that he is continually in the 
police courts, is Simpson Chokabwino ; or that this lying " capitaO " who is 
brought before a magistrate charged with defrauding his employer (a coffee 
planter) by a forged bill is Joseph Evangel. Perhaps Robert Xtundulima may 
be found to have settled in douce sloth, though still a church goer with one 
wife, but with all religious enthusiasm dead and an expensive education wasted 
on market gardening. 

At the present moment although missionaries have been at work in British 
Central Africa since 1875, the numbers of real, sincere, believing, professing 
Christians amongst their native adherents are relatively small. The Universities 
Mission may count 300, the Church of Scotland 400, and the Free Church 
Mission 500, because the missionaries themselves are grown far honester than 
their predecessors of the "forties" and "fifties" and are very careful not to 
confuse converts with adherents and scholars, therefore in their returns they 
only give the actual number of baptised and confirmed Christians, but this 
in no way gauges the real results of their work. 1 Their scholars may be 
numbered by the thousand though those scholars may not be sufficiently 
advanced in their religious belief to be baptised ; and their adherents that 
is to say, all the surrounding natives who more or less follow their advice and 
are benefited by the example of the mission in striving to live peacefully and 
decently number thousands more. Even if the actual religious results of so 
much labour and expenditure of lives and wealth seem inadequate it is 
consoling to reflect on the immense service which missionary enterprise has 
rendered to Africa and to the world at large. When the history of the great 
African states of the future comes to be written, the arrival of the first 
missionary will with many of these new nations be the first historical event 
in their annals, allowing for the matter of fact and realistic character of 
historical analysis in the 2 1st century. This pioneering propagandist will 
nevertheless assume somewhat of the character of a Quetzalcoatl one of those 
strange half-mythical personalities which figure in the legends of old American 
empires ; the beneficent being who introduced arts and manufactures, imple- 
ments of husbandry, edible fruits, medical drugs, cereals, domestic animals. 
To missionaries rather than to traders or government officials many districts 
of tropical Africa owe the introduction of the orange, lime, and mango, of 
the cocoanut-palm, the cacao-bean and the pine apple. Improved breeds of 
poultry and pigeons, many useful vegetables, and beautiful garden flowers have 
been and are being taken further and further into the poorly-endowed regions 
of barbarous Africa by these emissaries of Christianity. It is they too who 
in many cases have first taught the natives carpentry, joinery, masonry, 
tailoring, cobbling, engineering, book-keeping, printing, and European cookery ; 
to say nothing of reading, writing, arithmetic and a smattering of general 

1 In other parts of Africa, principally British possessions, large numbers of nominal Christians exist, 
but their religion is discredited by numbering amongst its adherents all the drunkards, liars, rogues, and 
unclean livers. Among the natives in or near European settlements in one of the oldest of our \Yest 
African possessions all the unrepentant Magdalenes of the chief city are professing ChriMians, and I 
remember when visiting the place referred to in iSSS seeing a black Messalina going to church in pomp, 
clad in a white silk dress anil followed by a train of negro admirers. 


knowledge. Almost invariably it has been to missionaries that the natives 
of Interior Africa have owed their first acquaintance with the printing press, 
the turning lathe, the mangle, the flat iron, the saw mill, and the brick mould. 
Industrial teaching is coming more and more into favour, and its immediate 
results in British Central Africa have been most encouraging. Instead of 
importing printers, carpenters, store clerks, cooks, telegraphists, gardeners, 
natural history collectors from England or India, we are gradually becoming 
able to obtain them amongst the natives of the country, who are trained in 
the missionaries' schools, and who having been given simple wholesome local 
education have not had their heads turned, are not above their station in life, 
and consequently do not prove the disastrous failures I have introduced in 
my foregoing references to typical individuals sent for their education to South 
Africa or the United Kingdom. At the Government press at Zomba there is 
but one European superintendent all the other printers being mission-trained 
natives. Most of the telegraph stations are entirely worked by negro telegraph 
clerks also derived from the missions. As an instance of the intelligence of 
some of these missionary scholars, I have given at the end of the chapter dealing 
with the flora of British Central Africa a list and description of the native trees 
which is a really remarkable essay sent to me in the native tongue by a 
Blantyre scholar. 1 

Who can say with these facts before them, with the present condition of the 
natives in South Africa to consider, with the gradual civilisation of Western 
Africa, 2 that missionary work has been a failure or anything but a success in the 
Dark Continent ? 

Is it of no account, do you think, is it productive of no good effect in the 
present state of Africa, that certain of our fellow-countrymen or women- 
possessed of at least an elementary education, and impelled by no greed of gain 
or unworthy motive should voluntarily locate themselves in the wild parts of 
this undeveloped quarter of the globe, and, by the very fact that they live in a 
European manner, in a house of European style, surrounded by European 
implements, products, and adornments, should open the eyes of the brutish 
savages to the existence of a higher state of culture, and prepare them for the 
approach of civilisation ? I am sure my readers will agree with me that it is as 
the preparer of the white man's advent, as the mediator between the barbarian 
native and the invading race of rulers, colonists, or traders, that the missionary 
earns his chief right to our consideration and support. He constitutes himself 
informally the tribune of the weaker race, and though he may sometimes be 
open to the charges of indiscretion, exaggeration, and partiality in his support 
of his dusky-skinned clients' claims, yet without doubt he has rendered real 
services to humanity in drawing extra-colonial attention to many a cruel abuse 
of power, and by checking the ruthless proceedings of the unscrupulous pioneers 
of the white invasion. 

Indirectly, and almost unintentionally, missionary enterprise has widely 
increased the bounds of our knowledge, and has sometimes been the means 

1 This essay has been kindly translated for me into English by the Rev. Alexander Hethervvick of the 
Church of Scotland Mission, but I understand sufficient of Chinyanja, having the original with me, to 
know that the translation though a smooth one imparts no sense into the text which is not to be found in 
the original document. To test the intelligence of these scholars of the Blantyre Mission Schools I had 
offered a small pri/e for the best essay on this subject. There were many competitors and some of the 
essays were very good besides that one which I now publish, and which was adjudged to lie the best. 

- \\ here the Basel missionaries have played much the same part as the British missionaries in Nyasa- 
land in introducing industrial teaching. 


of conferring benefits on science, the value and extent of which itself was 
careless to appreciate and compute. Huge is the debt which philologists owe 
to the labours of British Missionaries in Africa ! By evangelists of our own 
nationality nearly two hundred African languages and dialects have been 
illustrated by grammars, dictionaries, vocabularies, and translations of the Bible. 
Many of these tongues were on the point of extinction, and have since become 
extinct, and we owe our knowledge of them solely to the missionaries' inter- 
vention. Zoology, botany, and anthropology, and most of the other branches 
of scientific investigation have been enriched by the researches of missionaries, 
who have enjoyed unequalled opportunites of collecting in new districts ; while 
commerce and colonisation have been so notoriously guided in their extension 
by the information derived from patriotic emissaries of Christianity that the 
negro potentate was scarcely unjust when he complained that " first came the 
missionary, then the merchant, then the Consul, and then the man-of-war." 
For missionary enterprise in the future I see a great sphere of usefulness work 
to be done in the service of civilisation which shall rise superior to the mere 
inculcation of dogma ; work which shall have for its object the careful educa- 
tion and kindly guardianship of struggling, backward peoples ; work which, 
in its lasting effects on men's minds, shall be gratefully remembered by the new 
races of Africa when the sectarian fervour which prompted it shall long have 
been forgotten. 



THAT botany plays a very important part in British Central Africa north 
of the Zambezi will be plain to the most unobservant traveller. It does 
not take the first rank in popular interest, as in West Africa, for vegetable 
growth is less marvellous and fantastic than in the hot rainy countries along the 
West Coast belt and in the Congo Basin. Zoology, perhaps, has the first claim 
on the attention of the naturalist in South Central Africa ; still botany comes 
in as a good second ; for all this district (as I have incidentally pointed out in a 
previous chapter) is a kind of secondary development of the forest region ; it is 





on the whole much more clothed with vegetation than is East Africa, North- 
Central or South Africa. 

Flowering plants and trees are either much more abundant or, owing to the 
less dense vegetation, much more apparent than in West Africa. Perhaps there 
are not colour displays quite as gorgeous as the evanescent sheets of bloom to 
be met with in Temperate Xorth or South Africa, but then the show of flowers 
is not confined to a few weeks in the year, but is pretty constant throughout all 
the twelve months. Of course there is a marked bursting into bloom at the 
beginning of yearly rains and again in the benign 

autumn when the violence of the rainy season ^K^^^^^^^^^^_ 

is over and vet the soil is still moist. 

I have not been able 
to understand (as I have 
mentioned in a preced- 
ing chapter) why certain 
naturalists have spread 
abroad the impression 
that singing birds, sweet 
smelling flowers and gor- 
geous displays of bloom 
are practically confined 
to the temperate regions 
and are not characteristic 
of the Tropics. No doubt 
these impressions were 
formed from an exclusive 
acquaintance with the 
dense forests of Tropical 

America and Malaya, where, just as in West Africa, (owing to the pre- 
ponderating gloom}- forest) there is an immense display of foliage varied 
by no more than an occasional flower or spray of blossoms. And however 
wonderful the orchids of these regions may be, they rarely grow in sufficient 
numbers or near enough to the purview of the human eye to constitute a 
blaze of colour. But no one who has kept his eyes open in the drier regions 
of Central Africa can refuse to acknowledge that the flower displays are marked 
and very gorgeous, especially in that part of the country which lies a thousand 
feet and more above sea level. In the swamps and on the low-lying land it is 
possible to pass through the country seeing little sign of any flowers during 
certain months of the year ; though here, again, the traveller, to be consistent 




in his declaration that he has seen no flowers, must be very careful not to look 
too closely into the details of the landscape or he will falsify his own statement ; 
for in the marshes there are blue or white water-lilies ; amongst the high reeds 
on the forested banks of the rivers trailing convolvuluses seem to be always in 
bloom. The white plumes of the reeds and the efflorescence of many rushes 
are often beautiful and form a pleasant feature of the landscape. 

But if these low- lying lands are visited in the spring-time the display of 
flowers is quite as gorgeous 
as elsewhere. The acacia 
trees are loaded with small 
orange-coloured blossoms ; 
a creeper (which some- 
times grows indepen- 
dently as a bush) has all 
along the under part of 
the stalk a continuous 
mass of small crimson 
petalless flowers. When 
these are fully out and 
the branches are twined 
round some smaller tree 
or trailing on the ground 
they are like great wreaths 
of crimson. A strange leaf- 
less shrub which resem- 
bles a miniature baobab 
tree, has large blossoms 
that are rose-coloured and 
white ; every moist glade 
teems with Crinum lilies 
of the purest white, or 
else white with a line of 
pink (the scent of their 
flowers being almost in- 
toxicating when in close 
proximity) ; the india- 
rubber vines have sweet- 
scented, chaste white 
blossoms; there are shrubs 

allied to the jasmine with flowers like those of that plant ; the Pterocarpus 
trees for one fortnight in the spring are loaded with immense masses of yellow 
laburnum-like blossom. Other papilionaceous trees of the genus Lonchocarpns 
flower profusely and resemble the Wistaria in colour and appearance ; the 
Gardenia tree has, as the reader will see by the illustration, large handsome 
white flowers which in the centre are touched with pink and orange ; then 
there are the various species of Erythrina. One of these, at least, has blossoms 
so gorgeous that I should like to get it introduced into cultivation. The 
tree belongs to the bean family ; the flowers which grow in large clusters 
are vivid crimson-scarlet. It usually has but few leaves on it when it bursts 
into bloom. Suddenly meeting with it in the jungle great crimson splodges 
radiating from the gnarled grey trunk you rub your eyes thinking that it must 




be some optical delusion. Then there is a mighty tree of the genus Spat/witen 
(probably S.cainpaiinlatti). Its flowers again are crimson-scarlet with a curious 
velvet hood of even deeper and richer crimson ; and there -is the Bombax, whose 
flowers also are vivid scarlet-crimson with a mass of dull-black anthers and a 
calyx of yellow-green. Both Spathodea and Bombax are trees of great height 
and stateliness. The Bombax is the more effective object because the leaves 
are not much out when the flowers burst forth ; and the spectacle is such that 
if Linnaeus gave way to tears before a field of gorse, one wonders what he_ 
would have done in full view of a mighty Bombax with its branches hung with' 
pendant crimson flowers, like innumerable red lamps. Even the baobab's 
flowers, though they tarnish quickly, are beautiful for a brief space, while they 
retain the creamy white of their petals and the pale gold dazzle of their 
multitudinous stamens. 

There are many beans of the genus Tephrosia, growing as creepers or erect 
shrubs with flowers usually 
a rich purple, but in one 
species (Tephrosia Vogelii} 
with the corolla snow- 
white and the calyx, stalks, 
and ovaries the deepest 
purple. Other bean flowers 
(Crotalaria and Eriosema] 
are yellow. There are 
Hibiscuses, with huge ____ __ 

flowers of lemon -yellow 
crimson-centred ; others of 
pure white, others of pale 

There are shrubs of 
the genus Copaifera whose 
flowers have large, crinkly 
petals of pure white 
streaked with rose, and a 
powerful aromatic scent ; and straggling 
cucurbits with cold - white blossoms and 
gaudy-coloured gourds. The Cncstis shrub 
exhibits big seed-vessels, several in a clump, 
covered with orange or scarlet velvet, through 
the valves of which the black-headed beans 
protrude. Ground orchids, chiefly of the 
genus Lissochilus, grow amid the grass with 
columns of red, mauve, or sulphur-yellow 
flowers. Epiphytic orchids are not so 
common, and are only found in clumps of 
dense forest, where they are chiefly represented by the genera 
Ansdlia and Angnccnm. 

Everywhere in moist places straggles the Commelina with 
its blooms of cobalt-blue, yellow, or white flowers that 
wither before the noonday sun, but are lovely in the morning 



This enumeration is wearisome to the eye from the constant 

* * Tir* K R '' ORCHIS 


21 I 

citing of Latin names ; but I wish to substantiate my statements regarding 
the beauty of the flora by enabling the reader to identify the objects of my 
admiration. He should derive from this list the just impression that throughout 
at least six months in the year even the low-lying plains of Central Africa are 

bright in colour with flowers and fruits ; but 
if this is the case with the lowlands what 
adjectives can be employed to adequately 
picture the flora of the highlands ? One 
sweeping statement must be made that during 
spring-time they are gorgeous with their 
flower displays gorgeous with lakes of azure- 
blue and mauve, stretches of pinkish-white, 
mounds of rose-tint, columns of purple, sheets 
of ultramarine, circles of orange, constellations 
of pure white, stains of blood-red, billows of 

yellow. Anything more beautiful 

than these wild flower gardens in 
the country which lies between 1000 
and 4000 feet in altitude I have 
never seen. And as I have already 
remarked, although in its full efful- 
gence during the spring months 
(October, November, December) and 
in the autumn revival (April, May, 
June), yet the flower display in the 
uplands maintains itself throughout 
the whole year. Why should I 
weary the reader further by Homeric 
lists of scientific names ? All these 
can be found in the Appendix ; and 
those inclined to doubt or minimise 
statements may look up the 




various genera and species in the 
Gardens and at the Herbarium at Kew, and (taking for granted the truth 
of my statements that the flowering plants frequently grow in masses which 
contribute great effects of unbroken colour) may even without a visit to British 
Central Africa become once for all convinced that whatever may be the case 
with the gloomy forests of the Amazon or Malay Archipelago, the open, 
reasonably-rained-on parts of Tropical Africa are as splendidly endowed with 
flower shows as with singing birds. Up in the high mountains this is still more 
marked. Here an emotional person would faint away before the rocks hung 
with blue lobelias, and the clumps of smalt and cobalt Disa Orchids. 1 

There is a tree lily ( Vellozia splcndcns} which in the spring-time bears from 
its gouty stems (ordinarily finished by a tuft of grass-like leaves) sprays of 
creamy-white blooms, so beautiful that even the botanists of Kew were touched 
and called it " splendens." 2 

Perhaps the loveliest ground orchid in the world Disa hamatofetala. This is well figured from 
our specimens in the Transactions of the Linn.ean Society for May. 1894. 

Botany should he dealt with by a class of sylphs; instead' of which its priests are often old and 

istic men. Plod through page after page of botanical description, and where do you find anv 

as a rule of the matchless beauty they should be describing? Little if any mention is made of the 

the corolla (as u is correct to call the showy part of the flower), but' what the botanist likes to 

,o much satisfaction is that the plant is either glabrous or scabrous, that it is po^ibly caulescent 




Then there are the numerous Coreopses (relations of the Sunflower) golden- 

yellow, creamy -white, and blood -red 

pinkish-white anemones; purple iris 
(Aristea}; rosy-tinted, salmon-tinted, 
apricot - tinted gladioli, or even a 
gladiolus with huge blossoms of a pale 
buff colour like cafc-au-lait. There is 
a great range in the colour of these 
gladioli. One has a flower of purplish- 
green. The Hypericuin shrub, like the 
St. John's wort in England, has large 
pale yellow blossoms. In the stream 
valleys there are balsams of pink- 
mauve ; by the water side at the 
greatest altitudes is the blue Cyno- 
glosstun, and there are silver and gold 
Helichrysums. And yet I have only 
signalised by name a twentieth part of 
the flowering plants of these high 
mountains in Central Africa. 

and that the outer whorl is covered with black emergences. He likes the perianth cup to be short and 
fleshy and prefers the anthers to be sessile. Not a single exclamation of praise or prayer at the flower 
displayed. Of course he is right: science must be unemotional. A good diawing of this I'ellozia is 
given in the Transactions of the Linmean Society for May, 1894. 




So much for beauty of colour ; now for the beauty of outline. There are 
five species of palm abundantly represented in British Central Africa : the 
Borassus, the Hyphaene, the Wild date, the Raphia, and the Oil palm. 1 The 
cocoanut palm grows at one or two places on the Shire River and on Lake 
Nyasa, but it is an introduction from the East Coast. The most graceful of 


1 The oil palm, either the Elais guineensis of West Africa or a nearly-allied species grows in North- 
West Nyasaland. It is found chiefly in the very fertile plain lying between the Nkonde mountains and the 
Lake shore ; also in the well-watered hill country of the Atonga. So far as I am aware it is not found 
further south than the latitude of Bandawe about the middle of Lake Nyasa nor does it seem to reach 
any part of the east coast of that lake. It may be reported eventually from the Chambezi River which 
flows down the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau and becomes the Upper Congo, but it has not been recorded up 
to the present. Therefore, after quitting Lake Nyasa and ascending to the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau one 
does not encounter the oil palm again until the south shore of Tanganyika is reached. Here there are a 
few examples but it is not abundant. On the Upper Luapula, however, Mr. Sharpe found it growing in 
considerable numbers and apparently identical with the West Coast species ; but this may be the result of 
direct introduction by the Alunda a West African people who make considerable use of its oil for food. 
Mr. Whyte and myself have done our best to introduce the oil palm into South Nyasaland and the nuts 
planted in the Zomba Botanical Gardens have already grown to the height of a couple of feet. Even if 
there was no idea of exporting the palm oil and thus competing with West Africa it would be extremely 
useful locally for cooking purposes. The illustration I give here is done from a photograph taken of a 
clump of oil palms at the north end of Lake Nyasa. 

2I 4 



these palms is the Raphia, a species as yet unnamed. The trunk or stem 
seldom reaches to any great height above the ground ; it has enormously long 
fronds which rise into the air and give the idea of height. The foliage of these 
fronds is a glaucous green, but the midrib in the living frond is bright orange. 

The seeds are much like the cones of certain 
conifers. They are covered with glossy brown 
scales and are extremely hard, taking a whole 
year to germinate in the ground. This palm 
would no doubt produce a wine-like sap, as 
is the case with its near congener the Raphia 
vinifcra ; but I have not heard of the natives 
using it for this purpose in Central Africa. 
The midribs of its enormous fronds are of 
greatest service to man, being very light, 
easily straightened, somewhat uniform in 
girth and very strong. The Raphia midribs 
at once constitute a light and effective ladder 
20 feet long by small rungs being inserted 
in the holes made on the leaf-bearing surface of the midrib. This palm also 
in the same manner furnishes rafters for houses. The destruction of it at the 
hands of the natives has been somewhat wanton, and we have taken measures 
in the more settled districts to protect the Raphia, besides gathering the seeds 
and replanting them extensively. 

The Borassns flabellifcr grows to a great height. Its fronds curl into 
a semicircle and make the 
familiar palm fan of the East. 
The fruit is large as big as 
a child's head and the husk 
is a pale yellowish-green when 
ripe. I believe the kernel to 
be of little use The trunk of 
the palm is very good for 
certain purposes in building. 

The Central African Hy- 
prutne is so similar in appear- 
ance to the Borassus that the 
one is often mistaken for the 
other by the passing traveller. 
They are distinguished chiefly 
by the difference in their fruit. 
The fruit of the Borassus I 
have already described. That 
of the Hyphrene is much 
smaller the size of a large 
egg-shaped Java orange. Its 
covering is a rich chestnut- 
brown and has a sweetish taste, like gingerbread. The kernel of the nut is white 
and extremely hard and can be used as a sort of vegetable ivory. Innumerable 
things are made of the tough and lissom fronds, and the trunk of this palm can 
be made very useful in building as it is easily split with wedges into board-like 
segments. It takes a beautiful polish, having a very handsome grain. 


A REKD HRAKK (Pkragmites coimuni>.\ 



I have not observed in British Central Africa the curious swelling of the 
stem either of the Borassus or Hyphaene which is so noticeable in other parts 
of Africa, such as the East Coast or the Congo Basin. 

A wild date grows either on high mountain slopes which are well watered 
or on the banks of large rivers or the shores of a lake. It is a handsome palm ; 
though occasionally when growing to a great height the stem becomes spindly 
and has a tendency to curve and lean. The fronds are extremely green and 
never have that glaucous tint so characteristic of the date palm. The fruit 
when ripe is just eatable. It looks 
and tastes like a very poor form 
of date. 

The cocoanut palm should do 
well in the vicinity of all our 
lakes and rivers judging by the 
examples already growing at 
Kotakota and on the Central 
Shire. The fruit produced at 
Kotakota is excellent. 

Handsome Cycads grow on 
the lower slopes of Mount Mlanje. 
I have not observed them else- 
where. Wild bananas (Musa 
ensete) grow on the hillsides. 
They are really beautiful objects ; 
the trunk is much thicker and 
the foliage more statuesque and 
ample than in the cultivated 
species. They would be familiar 
objects to Londoners, as allied 
forms are planted in the London 
parks during the summer. 

Although it forms an abomin- 
able growth to force one's way 
through on account of the stiff 
spear-blades, \h&Phragmites reed 1 
can be an object of great beauty 
with its enormous flower-plumes 
of grey -white. But the leaves 
though not exactly rigid are stiff 
and have a sharply-pointed ter- 
mination, and these points pierce 
the skin if abruptly encountered. 
There are innumerable other 
grasses, handsome in the outline 
of their growth and beautiful in 
their flowering. One small, low 
grass in the height of the rainy 
season spreads the ground with 
a fleecy carpet of p*ale mauve, its 
abundant inflorescence being of 

1 /'. coiiiiiittnis. 




that tint. Still the grass of Central Africa is one of its great plagues. Between 
the months of November and February there grows up a monstrous herbage 
under the influence of the sun and rain. The grass stems w r ill sometimes 

reach eight feet in height. Not only do 
many of their leaves cut like razors or 
stab like spears but in the autumn months 
of April and May their seeds ripen and 
in some cases seek distribution by methods 
painful to the human animal. There is 
one especially a species of Stipa, whose 
seeds I here illustrate. As you pass along 
a native path which is almost invisible 
(for grass growing on either side leaves 
nothing but an obscure narrow tunnel), 
the seeds of this Stipa easily detach 
themselves and descend with a spiral 
flight on to your person, the slight im- 
petus of their fall carrying the sharp 
barbed point of the seed right into the 
clothing ; here the movement of the body 
acting on the barbs of the seed w r orks it 

farther and farther in, so that it eventually reaches and scratches the skin. There 
are cases reported of this Stipa where the seed has actually penetrated the skin 
of certain animals. At one time the idea was mooted that the seed germinated 
thus in the flesh, but this is not true. It is a mere accident that the barbed 



AFRICA (Pistia stratiotfs) 



grain happens to alight on an animal. What it intends to do is to pitch, point 
first, on the ground, which is hardened by the dry weather, and pierce its way 
through the soil by the same means that will enable it to pass through a coat 
of thick texture. The feathery plume attached to the seed acts as a kind of 
float to carry it through the air perpendicularly towards the ground. 

There is no lawn grass indigenous to Central Africa, but the Dub grass 
of Ceylon has been introduced by Mr. Whyte and the late Mr. John Buchanan, 


and has thriven wonderfully. With this we can get excellent lawns and very 
superior fodder for horses and cattle. 

Among rushes there is the king of them, the papyrus. I have referred once 
or twice before in this book to its great beauty, and will not weary my readers 
by the repetition of my descriptions. The pith of the papyrus which was used 
by the Egyptians as a material on which to write, and which has given its name 
to "paper," appears to possess a sugary or starchy quality, so that when the 
flattened strips of rolled-out pith are moistened the edge of one can be laid on 
the edge of the other, and will adhere to it ; and this, I believe, is the way 
sheets of paper were made. Why it should not once more be brought into use 
as a paper-making material I do not know. 

Amongst the graceful types of vegetation mention must no f be omitted of 



the tree ferns on the mountains and the many beautiful ferns to be found in 
moist places. The Osmunda grows luxuriantly in the stream valleys, and there 
are many varieties of maiden-hair. The dear familiar bracken appears directly 
an altitude of 3000 feet is reached, and flourishes thence up to 6000 feet ; in 
company with it grows the blackberry bramble, and the two together gladden 

the exile's heart like emissaries 
from home. 

There are many noble forest 
trees to be signalised for their 
beauty of outline and foliage. 

There are the Parinariums, 
which tower up a hundred feet 
into the air; the velvet-foliaged 
Albizsia; the Ebony (Diospyros}; 
the Khaya (K. senegalensis} ; the 
Pterocarpus, with its glorious fort- 
night of efflorescence, when the 
whole tree is a mass of large 
yellow flowers, and exhales an 
intoxicating odour of honey, at- 
tracting thereby thousands of 
bees ; and glossy-leaved fig trees 
of the genus Ficus^ These hand- 
some forest trees, however, are 
generally restricted to the banks 
of rivers or the shores of lakes, 
or else to moist mountain slopes. 
The bulk of the country is covered 
by a forest of thin and poor type 
chiefly Trachylobiums and Copai- 
feras, Hymenocardias, Anonas 
and Misuko (Uapaca kirkiand], 
besides certain vines of large size 
growing in the habit of a shrub, 
and acacias which are of various 
forms and very little foliage. 
Some of these acacia trees are 
more clothed when they grow 
near water, and the scent of 

their flowers is delightful ; but in the form of bushes they are intolerable. 
Were it not that the uniform pale green of the trunks and branches of the 
better developed acacias and their feathery light-green foliage and orange- 
coloured flowerets class them as beautiful, I should have been inclined to put 
them in the division of the vicious. 

There is malicious vegetation in Africa. There is a small plant a kind of 
asafcetida which gives forth the most noxious smell of bad drains when it 
is trampled on. There are various kinds of arums that give out a sickening 
odour ; an euphorbia which, when broken, spurts out a poisonous milk, one 

1 These are especially beautiful at the north end of Lake Nyasa where they are grown by the natives 
for the sake of the shade they give. Their branches have long brown rootlets which gradually reach 
to the ground where they make independent growth, as is done by the Banyan tree in India. 




drop of which in the eye will bring about severe inflammation ; very thorny 
mimosas (sensitive plant) ; and a horrid little vine l growing on all cultivated 
ground, and springing up from underground tubers which are very difficult 
to extirpate. An atrocious pest, the " Spanish needle," has reached this 
country. It is found all round the world now in the cultivated regions of 
the Tropics. The flower is a poor irregular composite, like a lanky daisy, 
with white petals and yellow centre, and seeds that develop at one end 
a number of tiny hooks, so that passing through a field where this weed 
grows one's trousers bristle with innumerable brown seeds, clinging tightly 

to the cloth. A still greater 

pest is the Mucuna' 1 bean, of 
which I give an illustration. It 

is a creeper that grows over 
bushes and trees. The seed pods 
are covered with tiny silky hairs 
of a reddish - brown. These, if 
touched by the skin, cause a 
most extraordinary, most extra- 
vagant irritation a sort of nettle 
rash. The skin is covered with 
large white weals and the irrita- 
tion and heat are so bad that 
nothing but stripping and rubbing 
oneself with a cooling lotion afford 
relief. This cow itch is of very 
subtle dispersal. Clothes which 
have been washed are laid out to 
dry on bushes, and attract a few 
of the hairs off the seed pods of 
the Mucuna. To all appearance 
they might have nothing on them 
to attract attention, but they are 
no sooner worn next the skin than a sensation as of innumerable fleas attacking 
one begins to be felt until at last the irritation is unendurable. The cow itch 
is a thing which particularly affects old clearings and abandoned plantations, 
and therefore grows frequently by the roadside in Central Africa where the 
path traverses districts that have been inhabited. 

A Sinilax yam is a noxious thing, as it twines round the shrubs and plants 
and throttles them ; moreover the under side of the stalks are armed with 
sharp thorns which tear the skin when one is forcing a way through the bush. 
A lily, supposed to be the species which for inadequate reasons was named by 
Linnaeus Gloriosa supcrba, is very poisonous to cattle or horses. But for 
this reputation (which is not absolutely proved) it is a pretty thing ; the 
flowers develop, as they expand, from yellow-green to brownish-crimson and 
the terminations of the leaves are prolonged into fantastic tendrils. 

The grotesque in vegetation is well represented. Look at the Baobab tree 
without its leaves ! Is it not as though nature had perpetrated a loathsome 
jest? Its enormous bulk (they have been measured 80 feet in girth) which 


1 This Vitis serpais, as it is called, clambers over and throttles plant after plant. At the same time 
n it has reached a fence and spread itself out with its pretty red-currant-like grapes it is very 
-- 14 - Chiles of many parts of Nyasaland. 




after all is nothing but soft, fibrous, pithy wood inside the hard rind ; its gouty 

limbs springing from the massive trunk and so inadequately fulfilling the 

promise of majesty ; and the leprous look of the whole object with its smooth, 

shiny, dirty-pink bark make up a total that is wholly 
grotesque. The leaves only remain on this tree for 
about five months, and even then they are so thinly 
scattered as to give no shade. The flowers are hand- 
some as they open, but soon tarnish and turn brown, 
as though the whole tree were permeated with a sickly 
taint. The seed vessels, shaped like huge bean-pods, 
hang perpendicularly from the branches by string-like 
stalks and are covered with a thin grey plush. Broken 
open they will be found to contain a white pith, yield- 
ing a pleasant acid taste, which can be made into a 
drink faintly resembling lemonade. 

Another grotesque thing is the EupJwrbia, which 
grows in the plains a cube-like stem with a few flat 
segments branching off it ; or the Candelabra Euphor- 
bia found in the low country and on the harsher 
uplands. The species of this Euphorbia which grows 
in the hills does not reach the same size as the 
monster of the plains. It looks, with the blood-red 
aloes growing in the same locality, a fit vegetation to 
surround the entrance to a witches' cavern. The 
subsidiary branches are like innumerable scorpion 
tails, as though a congeries of immense scorpions 
were collected in a knot with their tails in the air. 
There are many other Euphorbias not already 

instanced which are distinctly quaint, though their absurdity has a dash of the 

saturnine. Their determination to grow absolutely green flowers, when nearly 

every other plant goes in for colour, 

shows a trait of originality. 

The Aloe when it is in blossom 

and throws up its spike of coral 

coloured tubes, can be almost pretty ; 

otherwise without flowers it is gro- 

tesque as it sprawls over the ground 

and its thick-spotted red and green 

leaves with sharp serrated edges and 

long whip-like terminations writhe in 

ascending whorls from the crouching 

woody stem. 

The Kniphofia (the " red - hot 

poker" of our gardens) is on the 

borderland between the grotesque 

and the beautiful. When its flower 

spike is in full bearing and the main- 

little tube-like flowers are scarlet, lightening into yellow, it offers a fine body 

of colour ; but without the bloom the plant with its limp attenuated leaves 

(green and spotted with white, having much of the aloe's fleshiness without 

its pompous stiffness) looks like some monstrous caricature of a lily made in 





a madman's world. The Pro tea has tried to be beautiful but it merely succeeds 
in being strange, with its immense saucer-shaped flowers like gigantic daisies. 
These soon wither and yet remain on the bush, hideous black objects, for many 
months afterwards. The Protea shrub is only fit to look at during one month 
in the year. 

The many creepers of the forests develop huge lianas. These are chiefly 
characteristic of the various rubber-vines of the genus Landolphia. 

The Sansevieria plants should be classed amongst 
the grotesque if they did not lead us by a natural 
transition to the useful. They are absurd things, just 
segments of crude vegetation which might be stalks, 
but which are, I suppose, leaves that come up out of 
the ground anyhow. One triangular leaf may be standing 
alone, although there may be a Stonehenge clump of 
four or five others growing stiffly together and yet having 
as little connection with each other as possible. It is very 
rare to see these things in flower. When they do flower 
the blossom comes out at the side of the leaf, which makes 
you think that the leaf after all is a stalk. Ordinarily 
they look as though they had forgotten where 
they came from and what they were doing, 
and whether they should or should not 
have leaves or stalks or flowers. 
They are fleshy, but with limp 
leathery edges, and they produce 
excellent fibre. A company has 
been started for the cultivation of 
the Sansevieria, which grows in 
dry, stony ground ; but unfortu- 
nately at the present time the 
price of fibre is so low that the 
export of the Sansevieria will not 
yield large profits. 

Fibre is also obtained from the A LANDOLPHIA LIANA 

Aloes, Baobab and the arboreal 

Hibiscus ; the extraordinary Kigclia tree (whose seed pods are sometimes nearly 
as thick as a man's thigh and like a huge pendant sausage in shape) contains in 
its seed pods a fibrous material like the Egyptian Lufah which can be used for 
rubbing the skin after a bath, and might be utilised for many other purposes. 
The natives take the seeds of these Kigclia pods and roast and eat them in 
times of scarcity. A species of hemp, probably introduced, grows wild all 
over British Central Africa. It is smoked by the natives, as I have already 
stated. This hemp might also be got to yield a fibre, and some of the palms 
would do the same. 

Oils are produced by the Scsauinin (a handsome flowering plant with large 
mauve-pink blossoms), by several species of Vitex, by the Castor oil plant 
(Ricinus) (which grows in extravagant abundance in and near to the native 
settlements), by the Oil palm found in North-West Nyasaland, by the ground 
nuts (Arachis and Yoand/eia, which are almost indigenous); and by other 
seeds and nuts not yet identified. 

For timber there are the African teak (Oldficldia}\ the Klumi ; the 



Greivia (often twelve feet in circumference with black hard wood in the middle 
through which no insect can penetrate); various species of Vitex ; the 
Parinariuin ; the Afzelia (whose bark is often made into boxes) ; the Ebony 
(Diospyros) ; the Ironwood (Copaifera) ; the Msuko (Vapaca kirkiand) ; and the 
Mlanje Cedar ( Widdringtonia whytei). 



Drugs are obtained from the Strophanthus creeper 1 (used for poisoning 
arrows and killing fish, valuable in affections of the heart) ; from the Erythroph- 
Icenm (the bark of which produces a violent emetic or poison known as Muavi}\ 
from the roots of certain nettles (which furnish purgatives) ; from the seeds of 
the Crotons, the Castor oil plant, certain beans, euphorbias, and innumerable 

1 The Strophanthus may be recognised by the extraordinary position of its two seed pods which grow 
exactly at the end of the stalk and opposite to each other so that they look like one large pod placed at 
right angles to the end of the stalk. 



roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and barks not as yet identified and named. Many of 
these like the Strophanthus may prove valuable additions to our Pharmacopoeia. 
The natives eat the fruit of the Amomum. The flower of this plant 
appears a short distance above the ground in the spring months. One species 
is a lovely purple-red, another a pink-mauve, a third crocus-yellow, and a fourth 

( U'ittciriiigtvnia wliytei) 

white. They look at a distance like exaggerated crocuses. Preceding the 

florescence of the yellow species, large flat, yellow leaves appear, and spread 

over the surface of the soil ; but in the case of the purple Amomums the 

flower goes before the leaf, and the tall foliage which then follows is somewhat 

e a dwarf banana, to which genus the Amomums are distantly related Their 

vessels are bright red, and are divided into sections, each with a black 

Ihe pulp surrounding them is pleasantly acid and is chewed bv the 



natives. The seeds of one A mo mum are very aromatic, and form the " Mala- 
guetta " pepper from West Africa of which our ancestors were so fond, that 
it proved in the beginning of our trade with the Dark Continent, a more 
powerful motive for sending ships to West Africa than the obtaining of slaves 
or gold. 

The fruits of the Msuko (Uapaca\ the Parinarium, the Tamarind (a very 
common tree in the lowlands), the Sycomore fig, certain species of Strychnos, 



the Anona or Custard Apple, and the various kinds of Landolphia are much 
eaten by the natives. With the exception of the Tamarind, they offer little 
attraction to the European. 

Many trees have a sweet or an edible gum, but I have not been able 
to identify the species. From the fact that a TracJiylolnnin is found there 
max- be gum copal, but I cannot say that any has been brought to light as yet. 
Rubber is obtained from two or more species of Landolphia, also from Ficns, 
and from the handsome tree or shrub Tabcnueinontana. 



THE following essay on the "Useful Trees of British Central Africa" is the 
prize essay among several sent in from the native scholars of the Blantyre 
Mission Schools (Church of Scotland) to compete for a prize I offered for the 
best description in the Ci-nyanja language of the Useful Trees of the 

The essay here given was written in Ci-nyanja by Harry Kambwiri, one of 
the native scholars of the Mission, and has been kindly translated for me into 
English by the Rev. Alexander Hetherwick, M.A., of the Church of Scotland 
Mission.- H. H. J. 



Chirama grows near marshy ground, or in the middle of the marsh itself. It is of 
smooth bark, in parts scaly. It bears a fruit which is used as medicine for pleuritic 
or neuralgic pains in the chest. The fruit is plucked, then roasted by the fire, and applied 
to the painful spot, for the relief of the pain. 

Chandimbo 1 grows on any kind of sandy soil. It has an edible fruit, black in colour 
On removing the outer rind it is found exceedingly pleasant, or on simply chewing in the 
mouth it resembles a sweetmeat. The wood of it is used for making pestles, spoons, 
pillows and drums. It is apt to crack. The tree is not a pretty one ; it has a lar^e 
number of branches ; the wood is not hard ; it is useless as a firewood ; cuttings 
planted out grow well, and are employed as fencing poles. 

Msuko '- grows on sandy soil, and nowhere close to water. Its fruit reaches maturity 
in October, and is edible in November and December. When the fruit is ripe it 
tails of itself, and is picked up as an edible fruit exceedingly good. In famine seasons 
people squeeze the fruit into a dish, mash it up, and eat it. 

The wood of it is used for boards, which are good for tables, chairs, desks, etc., etc. 
I he boards are red in colour, but are apt to crack. If left, however, till thoroughly dry 
it does not crack. 

It is used by women as firewood for burning pots, plates, etc., but it leaves a very 
abundant ash. 

It is employed in medicine. Pieces are chipped off and steeped. The water is then 
drunk. It has an astringent taste. 

It is not a deep rooter only the tap root goes down any distance, 
t is good for charcoal making; also is used for couples, etc., in house-building, as 
it cannot be bored by wood insects. If the seeds are planted they grow into a tree, but 
very slowly. 

Mpindimbi* grows on sandy soil near water. The fruit is edible, but bad smelling 
and is usually only eaten by animals. The timber is white, and is easily made into 
If cut green the wood cracks, but not if cut dry. It is made into spoons, 
mortars, pillows, etc. One species, called chipindimbi, is used in medicine. If a child 
is feverish its leaves are taken and pounded and mixed with water, in which the child 
is then bathed. 

1 Erythrina tomcntosa (?). H. II. J. -' Uafaca kirkiana.\\. II. J. ' Fife* sp. H. M. |. 


Mnyotiveve 1 grows in flat, open, damp soil, or near water. Its fruit, when ripe, is 
black, and is edible. I think the Europeans might employ it after pounding in the 
manufacture of ink. Its wood is used in furniture-making. 

Mpingo- is a good wood, used in making the masts of dhows. With the inner 
wood natives make canes, knife-handles, etc. It grows near streams, and is always 
seen on the banks of big rivers. Long ago people employed this wood in making 
arrow-heads, as it is exceedingly hard. 

Mkitndan^ulmve grows on sandy soil. Is used in making knobkerries, tobacco pipes. 
It takes on a good polish. 

Mpinjipinji is a choice fruit tree. It is propagated from cuttings, and takes five 
years before reaching maturity. 

Masai/ grows anywhere on high ground. The surface of the tree is covered with 
small prickles. It has short, small leaves and a small fruit. When ripe the fruit is red. 
It is then plucked or picked off the ground where it may have fallen. It is boiled in a 
pot into which a gun.-barrel has been inserted. The pot is covered up, and a fire 
is kindled beneath it. Water is poured on the gun-barrel, and the distilled liquid is 
caught in a bottle as Kachaso (spirits). 

Mkakatuku grows on sandy soil. It is a very hard wood, hence its name. The 
wood is good at the heart of the stem. People scrape off the bark, steep it, and 
drink the liquid. 

Mkwesu grows near the river or lake on small ant hills. The wood is very hard. 
The fruit is long and finger-like. The wood is good for making boards for furniture, etc. 

Mtundula grows near a stream. Its fruit is edible and sweet. The bark is used 
for dyeing cloth of a red colour, like Turkey-red calico. The wood can be made 
into boards. 

Muungiitwa a large tree growing in the long grass near a stream. It produces 
a red fruit inedible save by elephants. The wood is used for making mortars, and also 
for canoes. 

Chitasya is a hard wood that does not, however, grow to any si/e. It grows on sandy 
soil. The wood is used in making head-rests (pillows) and lip ornaments for women. 

Mkuyii 3 grows either near a stream or on high ground. If the stem is cut it exudes 
a white sap which is used in smearing arrows, so as to harden them. The fruit is called 
/i^in'ii, and is edible. In seasons of famine the fruit is plucked when still green, and 
pounded and eaten as a porridge with fowl as relish. If picked up hard and dry the fruit 
is mashed up and cooked. The bark of the tree gives good bark-rope. It affords good 
shade. The fruit is eaten by the birds. There is another species of fig called mpumbe, 
with a larger fruit. If many of the fruit are eaten they are apt to cause sore throat. 

Mbawa 4 grows near a stream or in dense clumps of forest. It is a large tree. The 
fruit is not edible, but the seeds of it are roasted, pounded, and used in dyeing or softening 
bark-cloth. The bark of the tree is thick. The wood is used in canoe-making. The 
Europeans make excellent boards of it, as it does not crack, which they make into articles 
of furniture. The natives use it as a medicine for the stomach. They chip off pieces 
of bark and steep them in a dish, and drink the water. 

Mngwenye is a special large-si/ed tree, which grows near streams. Chips of the bark 
are used as medicine for the stomach. They are steeped in water, and the water is drunk. 
The leaves are long and narrow. The fruit is small and inedible. The wood makes 
excellent boards, of a light colour, which crack only to a small extent. The wood is 
very hard, and is used for making furniture. It is also used in canoe-making. 

1 Nuxia congesta. II. II. J. - Ebony Diofpyros sp. 1 1. II. J. 

:! Ficns syconiorns. II. II.'j. 4 Khaya xcne^alensis. - -1 I. II. J. 


Msumbuti grows anywhere on sandy soil. Its bark is used in making bark- cloth, 
and also bark-rope. When dry the timber makes good firewood. 

Napiri^ grows on flat, open, wet plains, also on higher ground. The natives 
use the wood in making pestles for pounding grain, as it is hard and heavy. It makes 
good firewood. 

Mloinlnvn grows anywhere on sandy soil or on the hills. By partially burning it 
makes good charcoal. The sap is red and is sticky to the touch. The natives make 
mortars, drums, spoons, pestles, etc. It makes beautiful boards. The bark is used as 
medicine for nettlerash. The fruit is used in pleuritic pains of the chest. It is roasted, 
and the ash is punctured into the painful spot. 

Nkomwa grows near a stream. It is used in making drums, pestles, spoons, pillows. 
It is a very light wood, and makes good boards. The leaves are small, and the bark 
is thin. 

+)[joml>o- grows near streams or on sandy soil. The fruit is eaten by baboons. 
Natives make bark-cloth and strong bark-rope. 

Mkalate grows on sandy soil, especially near the foot of hills. It is used in making 
wall posts for houses, and roofing. 

Balisa grows on high ground. It makes into good boards. The wood of it is very 
hard. The natives here make good pestles of it. 

Xkako grows near streams or in clumps of forest trees. Natives make head-rests of it, 
and wooden arrow-heads for shooting small birds. The wood is good and hard. 

Mlendimilo grows on high ground or on hills. It blossoms into flowers on the 
approach of the rainy season. Natives use the wood for making drums, which are strong 
and give out plenty of sound. Chips of the bark are used in medicine. 

Mt>a//ga grows on high ground. It is an exceedingly hard wood. The leaves are 
used as medicine in headache. They are pounded or steeped in a pot or basin, and the 
face is washed with the water. Sometimes simply the smell of the leaves is sufficient. It 
makes an excellent medicine, and effects a cure after repeated applications. When dry 
the wood makes good firewood which leaves no ash. 

Mlambe* the largest tree in this country, grows near water. It produces a fruit called 
malambe, the inside of which is white and is eaten thus : the inside is scooped out, 
mixed with water, and eaten. Large strips of the w r ood are taken and beaten, so as to 
form a fibre from which cord is made. The tree produces very few leaves. 

Mkongomwa is a good tree for shade. It grows near the River Shire, and also in the 
Mangoni country. 

Ngosa grows on flat plains near rivers. The wood on being cut is very soft. The 
bark is used in making cord for weaving nets or sewing sleeping mats. The fruit is 
roasted and mixed with tobacco snuff as a flavouring. 

Mlnndo grows anywhere on sandy soil. The leaves are small ; the wood is hard : 
the fruit is inedible. It is used as medicine for the stomach by steeping the bark and 
drinking the water, or by twisting it into a cord and wearing the cord tied round the waist. 

Chikitjumlni grows on sandy soil or near a stream. The bark is covered with small 
scales. One is growing in the Square at Blantyre Mission. The wood is used for 
making mortars, pestles, spoons and pillows. 

Chuiiibu is used as stomach medicine. The bark is chipped off and steeped, and 
the water is drunk. It is also used in treating boils. The boil is opened with a sharp 
point made of this wood which prevents it recurring again. The tree grows on sandy 
soil near ant-hills. It is a very soft wood. 

1 Copaifera sp., allied to the Mopane or " ironwood " tree of Livingstone. H. II. (. 

' 2 Brachystegia ion^ijolia. \\. II. J. The Baobab Adansonia digitata. II. II. |. 


Mfawa grows on any kind of soil. The wood is not hard. When dry it is not 
heavy, but when green, natives make good bark-cloth of it, and rope. 

Msopa is used in medicine, and also to make bows. It makes good boards. Chips 
of it are steeped in the water where bark-cloth is steeped, so as to dye it black. The 
wood is hard to cut and cracks. It grows close to streams or in damp, marshy spots. 

Mkwale grows on plains, as on the bank of the Tuchila. It is used for making 
spoons, pestles, and lip-rings worn by native women. It is very white, and does not crack. 

Msolo grows on sandy soil, and makes good boards. Natives cut it into pestles, 
pipes, and spoons. It will not make mortars because it is too hard. The fruit is eaten 
by game such as bushbuck, etc. 

Msechela grows on sandy soil near a hill. It is very like the msuku tree, but has 
smaller leaves. It makes as good boards as the msuku tree. The fruit is small and 

Mchenje grows on plains near ant-hills. The bark is rough and the leaves are small. 
It is used in medicine by steeping chips of it in water, and drinking the water. It is 
used as medicine for game-traps. The fruit is pounded and placed in the traps. In 
seasons of famine it is eaten as a food. 

Nkungunyanjila grows anywhere near the river. Its fruit is not eatable. The wood 
makes good boards. It is used as medicine for sores, by steeping chips of the wood 
in water, and washing over the wound by means of a feather. 

vrs near streams. The stem is light in colour. The leaves are long and 
narrow. The natives make the wood into pestles, spoons, mortars, etc. It makes good 
boards of a white colour. It is also used in making drums, and as stomach medicine in 

Mkwakwa produces a nice fruit. It grows on hills in dense clumps of trees. The 
fruit is sweet and tastes like pineapple. 

Mguwanguwo is used in medicine by steeping the bark. It has a very bitter taste 
like quinine. It makes into good boards. 

Mseje cuts into good boards. It is not hard to saw up. The wood is red in colour. 
It grows on sandy soil. When the tree is small its branches make good pestles. 

Mjole ] is a good wood used in canoe-making. It is a very tall tree, with the leaves 
all at the top. It makes into very strong canoes. It grows on the river and at Linjisi. 

Sanyo ^ is a tree that grows at the river, and is used in making wall-posts of houses, 
and in twisting into ropes. It is a very common tree. 

Mtomoni grows on sandy soil and hilly country. It is used in medicine. It makes 
a good tree for fence-posts, as it takes root and grows. The sap is used in smearing the 
tops of drums, that the india-rubber may adhere to the skin. The fruit is inedible. 

Mbewe grows on sandy soil. Long ago the wood was used for arrow-heads. It is 
used also in smelting and working iron, that the metal may be made readily malleable. 

Mpelele grows on plains near the river. The tree is one used in canoe-making, as it 
does not crack. 

Mtondo is found at the river, and is used in canoe-making, and in making mortars, 
pestles, etc. The fruit, which is called Matondo, is edible. 

Msichisi- grows near streams. The wood is used in making stocks of guns, pestles, 

Msangu, a canoe tree. The bark is rough, the leaves are small. It grows at the river. 

Msumiva grows at the river; somewhat rough in the bark. The tree is useful in 

1 Parinarium sp. H. II. J. " Wild date palm, Phctnix sp. H. II. J. 


Mkunde 1 grows near streams. Is useful in canoe-making. The fruit is edible, but is 
apt to discolour the teeth. 

Dulnlu grows on sandy soil. It is used in making drums, mortars, spoons, etc. It 
makes good boards. The root also is used in drum-making. It is a light wood. 

Mtondewoko is used in canoe-making. Elephants are fond of the fruit. The wood 
is hard and very heavy. It is used in making the big drums used by the river people. 

Mtitndu grows in clumps of trees or on the sites of deserted villages. Cuttings are 
planted at the chief's courtyard, and grow very quickly into a big tree which can be 
readily recognised. 

Mkolononjo grows on plains. The wood of the stem is very full of knots. It is 
used in canoe-making. It is found at the river and at the Tuchila. 

Ntepa makes excellent bark-rope. It grows on flat grassy plains. 

Ngachi? a leafless tree. If the sap drops into the eye it causes inflammation of the 
cornea. It is used as a fish poison. It grows on the sites of old villages. 

Mdogodea cuts easily into boards. It is a smooth-barked tree with small leaves, and 
grows near a stream. The fruit is named Mandogodia. 

Mvumo? or Ngwalangwa, is a river tree of great height. The fruit is edible. The 
leaves are long like those of the date palm. It is propagated from the seed. The root 
also is used as food in a similar manner to the carsana plant. 

M-iCaja a large tree growing on the banks of streams. It is red in colour, and 
produces a fruit as large as a pumpkin. When ripe the fruit falls to the ground. People 
pick it up, take out the seeds, roast them, and eat them. The tree is found on Mounts 
Mangoche and Nangu. 

Nangwesie is a good tree for bark-cloth. It grows on sandy soil. Its bark is also 
used for bark-rope. 

Mtalawanda is used for bows and sticks. The bark is smooth, and the leaves are 
small. It grows at the river. 

Tcuza is used for bows and sticks. It grows in sandy soil near streams. It is not of 
much use. In appearance it is very similar to the Mtnhuvanda tree. 

Mtewelewe grows an edible fruit. It is used for wall-posts of houses. 

Nkope is used for making bows. The wood is hard, the leaves are large, and the bark 
smooth. It grows near streams in clumps of trees. 

Nkulakula is used in making lids of covered baskets. The wood is adzed down thin, 
and bent into a circular form. It is also used in making beer cups. 

Nabukwi is used for mortars, drums, etc. It is also made into boards. 

Chinyeuyc is used to make mallets for hammering out bark-cloth. Europeans may 
use it for wooden hammers. It grows near the river. 

Mpawoni is a large tree like Mbawa. It grows near streams on the banks of the 
Tuchila and Nkwakwasa. In appearance it is like the Mbawa, but has not the red 

Mchi/e, or Kn/isiu/ic, grows anywhere even as a parasite. It makes very strong bark- 
cloth. It is red in colour, and is used also in making bark-cloth. Its fruit is called Ngile. 

Chisije. The Chikunda people at Michiru take chips of the wood, mix the water in 
which they are steeped with Likwanya plant, and use it in dyeing cloth of a black colour. 
It grows anywhere on sandy soil. 

1 Parhia Jllicoidea. H. H. J. - Euphorbia sp. H. II. |. 

:! Apparently these arc t\v<> different palms. Mvumo is the fiorasnt* tLibcllifcr, and Xi;\valani;wa 
Ifyf>h<rne sp. inc. II. II. |. 


Lungwe makes a medicine for sores. Chips are taken off, placed in a pot, and heated 
over the fire. The infusion is applied to the sore by means of a feather. 

Mkakomtela makes lip-rings, and is carved into gun-stocks. 

Mkemgusa (Mlanje Cedar) is a noteable tree in British Central Africa. It is used in 
making tables, chairs, etc. It is easily cut and planed, and has a sweet smell. It also 
makes good walking-sticks. 

Nkolopochi a tree which grows on the hills, and has a fruit of the same name, which 
is bright red when ripe. 

Mchenjilema is a tree that grows on hilly ground. It is a tree of great use. It is 
large in size, and grows in forest clumps. It has very large roots that grow down deep 
into the ground. 

Msilanyama a fruit tree, but small. People take the bark (or husks) and pound it 
in a mortar, and make an oil used in smearing their bodies. It grows on sandy soil. 
The fruit is small like a chitalaka bead. 

Nkuluktitutu grows on sandy soil or near a stream. The fruit is very edible. The 
wood is used for making wooden spoons. 

Chipisawago, like the chinyenye tree, is used for making wooden mallets. After 

adzing, they are marked with a hot iron, and are used for hammering bark-cloth. It is 

an exceedingly hard wood, hence its name chipisawago, "the blunter of the axe." 
If Europeans make mallets of this tree they will find it very useful. 

Mpandabivalo is easily cut into boards. It does not crack. The seeds are used by 
women for lip-rings. 

Nakalima grows on hilly country, and makes into good boards. 

Chandafu grows on hilly country ; is a very large tree, and makes good boards. The 
tree is dark in colour, and the bark is very rough. 

Nkangasa a canoe-tree growing at the river or on the hills. It is found here, and 
makes good boards. 

Mchelechela grows near streams or in clumps of forest trees. It is a very large tree, 
and is used in making, spoons, mortars, and canoes. 

Nkalala grows in forest clumps. It is used in canoe-making. 

Mchenga is used in making handles for hoes and axes. The leaves are small, and the 
bark is rough. 








THE following list, compiled for the most part from the plants and manuscript records 
in the Herbarium of the Royal Gardens, Kew, must be regarded as provisional. The 
knowledge of the flora of the British territory north of the Zambezi has been so rapidly 
extended during recent years, and is yet so imperfectly known, that any account 
approaching completeness is at present impossible. Little has been published hitherto, 
and the facts now collected together will serve to bring into one view nearly all we 
know of the Botany of British Central Africa. 

The first collections were made by two members of the Livingstone Expedition 
in the years 1861, 1862. Dr. (afterwards Sir) John Kirk and Mr. J. C. Meller, while 
exploring the course of the Shire River and wandering in the Mananja hills, made 
considerable collections, which were transmitted to Kew, some of them in time 
for description in the Flora of Tropical Africa. Subsequently Dr. Kirk journeyed 
up the Zambezi into the Batoka country, from the highlands of which and from the 
region of the Victoria Falls other plants were sent home. The new species 
gathered by- him were described in a variety of different publications. In the 
following years Mr. Horace Waller, residing in the Mananja hills, continued to 
transmit plants to Dr. Kirk, who was at that time H.M.'s Consul in Zanzibar. After 
this comes a gap of some years in which nothing was added to our knowledge, 
until Dr. Emil Holub, in 1879, returned from a journey during which he had made 
considerable collections. Of these, a few of the plants had been gathered about 
Sesheke, almost the most northern point which he reached, and within the territory 
under consideration. At the same time (1878) Major Serpa Pinto made, in his 
journey across the continent, a small collection on the table-land over the river 
Ninda, and the plants of this were, in 1881, described in the Transactions of the 
Linmean Society. Again in this year, 1878, the late Mr. John Buchanan sent to Kew 
his first collection of Nyasaland plants, and Mr. L. Scott travelled collecting through 
the Shire Highlands to the head of Lake Nyasa. 

From this date our knowledge has steadily grown. Under the influence and with 
the help of Sir Harry Johnston, the region of the Shire Highlands has been 
energetically explored. The frequent mention below of the names of J. Buchanan, 
G. F. Scott-Elliot, J. McClounie, J. Last, A. Whyte, and K. C. Cameron shows how 
much has been done in this region. Further north, in 1879, Mr. Joseph Thomson 


had gathered plants on the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, and these reached Ke\v in 
1880. Messrs. Carson, Nutt, Scott-Elliot and Sir Harry Johnston have also collected 
on the plateau, and the first-named on a journey along the Kalungwizi River to 
Lake Mweru. 

The collection made at Boroma, on the north of the Zambezi, by the Rev. 
L. Menyharth, is only in part known. 

As a guide to the distribution, the region has been divided into four sections, as 
follows : 

1. Shire Highlands. 

2. Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau; some of the plants probably collected on 

the German side of the boundary line. 

3. Extreme west, where Major Serpa Pinto alone has collected. 

4. Upper Zambezi. 

It must be understood that all the plants collected by Buchanan were obtained 
in the Shire Highlands ; all by Carson and Nutt, unless otherwise stated, from the 
region near the south end of Lake Tanganyika ; all from Serpa Pinto from the one 
plateau near the river Ninda ; and all from Menyharth from Boroma. It was not 
thought necessary to repeat these localities with the collectors' names. 


Clematis Ktrkti, Oliv. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

C. grata, Oliv. (i) Buchanan. 

C. simensis, Fresen. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

C. Thunbergii, Steud. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Clematis sp. (2) Carson. 

Thalictrum rhynchocarpum, Dill, et Rich, (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

T. longipedunciilatum, Harv. et Sond. (i) Buchanan. 

Anemone whyteana, Baker fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

Ranunculus pinnatus, Poir. (i) Buchanan. 

Ranunculus sp. (2) Carson. 

Delphinium dasycaulon, Fresen. (2) Nutt. 


Anona senegalensis, Pers. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, 


Anona sp. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
( '- t 'ria spp. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 
Xylopia sp. ? (i) Buchanan. 
Unona spp. (i) Buchanan. 
Monodora stenopetala, Oliv. (i) Rapids of Shire River and west of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 


Jateorhiza Cohimba, Miers. (i) Buchanan. 

Tiliacora (?) funifera, Oliv. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 
7^iliacora sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Cocculns -i'illosHs, DC. (i) Rapids of Shire River, Kirk. 
Cissampelos Pareira, L. (i) Buchanan; Shire Highlands and Lake Nyasa, Scott-Elliot; 

Zomba, Whyte. 

C. nephrophylla, Bojer. (i) Buchanan. 
Stephania abyssintca, Rich. (?) (i) Buchanan. 



Nymphaea steUata, Wilid. (i) Lake Nyasa and Shire River, Kirk; Buchanan; (2) Carson. 


Nasturtium indicum, L. (4) Menyharth. 

Bnissica juncea, DC. (i) Murchison Falls, Shire River, Meller ; Buchanan. 


Cleome monophylla, L. (i) Zomba and Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
C. chilocalyxi Oliv. (i) Shire River, Meller. 

C. hirta, Oliv. (i) Maravi country, Kirk; (2) Carson; Lower plateau, north of Lake 

Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

C. ciliata, Schum. et Thonn. (2) Carson. 
Cleome sp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

Gynandropsis pentaphylla, UC. (i) Buchanan ; Shire River, Meller. 
Thylacinm afn'cnni/m, Lour, (i) Shire River, Kirk; Buchanan. 
Maenia nervosa, Oliv. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Maerita sp. (i ) Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Boscia salici folia, Oliv. (i) Shire River, Kirk. 

B. Carsoni, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 

Capparis rosea, L. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; by Lake Nyasa and Upper Shire, 

C. tomentosa, Lam. (i) Buchanan. 

C. Kirkii, Oliv. (i) By Lake Nyasa and Upper Shire, Kirk. 
Capparis sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Ritchiea sp. (2) Carson. 


Caylusea abyssinica, Fisch. et Mey. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 


lonidium enneaspermnm, Vent, (i) Blantyre, Last ; (4) Menyharth. 

/. nyassensc, Engl. (i) Buchanan. 

Viola abyssinica, Steud. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 


Motinga pterygosperma, DC. (i) Lake Nyasa and Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 


Oncoba spinosa, Forsk. (i) Shire River, Kirk ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan. 
O. lasiocaly.v, Oliv. (i) Lake Chilwa, Kirk. 
O.petersiana, Oliv. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Flacourtiit Rui/ioutc/ii, L'Hcrit. (i) Buchanan. 

Aphloia theaeformis, Benn. (i) Mlanje, McClounie and Whyte; Zomba, Whyte; 

Kiggelaria grcmdifolia t Warb. (i) Buchanan. 


Pittosporum sp. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 


I'olygaln gomesinnn, Wehv. (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk; Zomba, Whyte; Blantyre, Last; 

2} Xutt ; lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
/'. ninboinensis, Gurke. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 



Polygala tcmdcaulis, Hook. fil. (2) Carson. 

P. ranfol/ti, DC. (2) Nutt. 

P. triflora, L. (i) Buchanan. 

P. polygonifolia, Chodat. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

P. brittenituia, Chodat. (2) Nyasa- Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 

P. persicariaefolia, DC. (i) Blantyre, Last ; Zomba and Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan ; 

Mananja hills, Kirk and Waller. 

P. petitiana, Rich, (i) Blantyre, Last ; Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Waller. 
P. virgata, Thunb. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie ; Buchanan. 
P. krumanina, Burchell. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
P. micrantha, G. et P. (2) Carson. 
Poly gala spp. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last. 
Securidaca longepedunculata, Fresen. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Zomba, Whyte; 


Securidaca sp. (i) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott- Elliot. 
Muraltia mix fa, L. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie ; Zomba, Whyte. 


Dianthns Serpae, Ficalho et Hiern. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

Silene Burchellii, Otth. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie; Shire Highlands, Scott- 
Elliot ; Buchanan ; (2) Upper Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson. 
Silene sp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson. 
Cerastium africamim, Oliv. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Cerastium sp. (2) Lower Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson. 
Stellaria. media, Cyr. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Drymaria cordata, Willd. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Polycarpaea corymbosa, L. (4) Menyharth ; var. effusa, Oliv. (i) Buchanan. 
Polycarpaea sp. (4) Menyharth. 


Portitlaca quadrtfida, L. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Mweru, Carson. 


Hypericum peplidifo Hum, Rich, (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte; Shire Highlands, Scott- 
Elliot ; Buchanan ; (2) Nutt. 

H. lanceolatum, Lam. (i) Buchanan; Mananja hills, Meller; Blantyre, Last; Mlanje 
and Zomba, Whyte. 

H. quartinianum, Rich, (i) Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Hypericum sp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

Psorospermum febrifugum, Spach. (i) Mananja hills, Meller and Kirk ; Zomba, Whyte ; 
Buchanan ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot and J. Thomson. 

Psorospermum sp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

Haronga madagascariensis, Choisy. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan. 


Garcinia IJuchanani, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 


Vatica africana, Welw., var. glomerata, Oliv. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 


2 37 


Sidn hum His. Cav. (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

S. rhonibi folia, L. (i) Buchanan. 

-S'. spinosa, L. (i) Buchanan. 

S. cordifolia, L. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller ; Buchanan. 

Sida sp. (4) Menyharth ; Holub. 

Abutilon angitlatitni, Mast, (i) Katunga, Meller; Chiraozulu, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

A. zanzibaricnin, Bojer. (i) Buchanan. 

A. longicuspe, Hochst. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller. 

A. indicum, Don. (i) Mafianja hills, Meller ; Mlanje, Whyte ; (4) Sesheke, Kirk. 

A. graveolens, W. et A. (i) Buchanan. 

Abutilon sp. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

Urena lobata, L. (2) Carson. 

Pavonin Meyeri, Mast, (i) Mafianja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 

P. schimperhmn, Hochst. (i) Buchanan; Chiradzulu, Meller and Whyte; (2) Lower 

plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
P. urens, Cav. (i) Buchanan. 

Pavonin spp. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 
Kosteletzkyct adoensis, Hcchst. (i) Buchanan. 

Hibiscus ritifolius, L. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan. 
H. dh'ersifolius, Jacq. (i) Mafianja hills, Meller ; Lower Shire Valley, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
H. surattensis, L. (i) Buchanan. 
H. Sabdariffa, L. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Kirk. 
H. cannabinits, L. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; Chiradzulu, Meller. 

H. gossypinus, Thunb. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk and Meller; Chiradzulu, Whyte; 
Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

//. micrnnthus, L. (i) Katunga, Meller; Buchanan; (2) Carson; Nvasa-Taneanyika 

plateau, Scott-Elliot. 

H. Solandra, L'He'rit. (i) Shire River, Kirk. 

H. physaloides, G. et P. (i) Zomba and Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Carson. 
Hibiscus spp. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, K. C. Cameron ; (2) Carson ; Nyasa- 

Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson ; (4) Holub. 
Gossypium barbadense, L. (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 
Adansonia digitata, L. (i) Lake Chilwa, McClounie. 


Sterciilin melisstfolici, Benth. (2) Carson. 

-V. triphaca, R. Br. (i) Buchanan. 

Stcrctilin sp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

Dombeya multijlorn, Planch, (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan ; Zomba, Whyte. 

n. spectabilis, Bojer. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 

1). Kirk ii, Mast, (i) Katunga, Meller. 

/>. Jiiirgcssine, Gerr. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Blantyre, Last; Chiradzuiu, Whyte- 

Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Dombeya sp. (2) Carson ; Upper and Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, Thomson. 
Melhaniti Forbcsii, Planch, (i) Buchanan. 
J/. acuminata, Mast, (i) Buchanan. 
Waltheria <ii)ie>icnn<i, L. (i) Buchanan. 

Melocliia corchorifolia. L. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Valley, Kirk. 
Hermannia inamoena, K. Schuin. (i) Buchanan. 
H. Kirkh', Mast, (i) Buchanan. 



Grew in asiatica, L. (i) Buchanan. 

G. inaequilatera, Garcke. (i) Lower Shire, Kirk and Meller. 

Grewia spp. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

Triumfctta rhomboidea, Jacq. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

T. IVelwitschii, Mast, (i) Near Lake Nyasa, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

T. Mastcrsii, Baker fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

T. Sonderii, Ficalho et Hiern. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

T.pilosa, Roth, (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

T. trichocarpa, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 

T. tomcntosa, Bojer. (i) Buchanan. 

Triumfetta spp. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Nyasa, 

J. Thomson ; Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot ; (4) Menyharth. 
Sparmatmia abyssinica, E. Mey. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, McClounie ; (2) Lower plateau, 

north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
S. palmata, E. Mey. (i) Buchanan. 
Cor chorus tridens, L. (i) Blantyre, Last. 
C. olitorius, L. (i) Buchanan. 
Ceratosepalum digitatum, Oliv. (2) Carson. 


Erythroxylon emarginatum, Schum et Thonn. (i) Buchanan; Shire Highlands, Scott- 


Acridocarpus chloroptcrus, Oliv. (i) Shire Valley, Meller and Kirk. 
Acridocarpus^. (i) Buchanan. 
Triaspis sp. (i) Buchanan. 


Tribulus terrestris, L. (i) Buchanan. 


Geranium aculeolatum, Oliv. (i) Buchanan. 

G. simcnsc, Hochst. (i) Zomba, Kirk; Mlanje, Whyte; (2) Lower plateau, north of 

Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

G.favosum, Hochst. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Geranium spp. (i) Zomba, Cunningham ; Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake 

Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Pelargonium sp. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson and Scott-Elliot ; Carson. 
Oxalis semiloba, Sond. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk; Blantyre, Last. 
O. oligotricha, Baker. (2) Carson. 

O. sensitiva, L. (i) Buchanan ; Zomba, Whyte ; Blantyre, Last. 
O. trichophylla, Baker. (2) Carson. 
O. corniculata, L. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt. 

Oxalis spp. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (2) Nutt. 
Impatiens capensis, Thunb. ( i ) Chiradzulu and Mananja hills, Meller. 
/. Kirkii, Hook. fil. (i) Western side of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 
/. assurgens, Baker. (2) Nutt ; Carson. 
/. shircnsis, Baker fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 
/. gomphophylla, Baker. (4) Carson. 
/. 'micrantha, Hochst. (?) (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Impatiens spp. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last ; (2) Carson. 



Toddalia aculeata, Pers. (i) Buchanan. 

Toddalia spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Clansena inaequalis, Benth. (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte. 

Citrus Aurantiuin, L. (i) Buchanan. 


Brucea sp. (?) (4) Menyharth. 

Kirkia acuminata, Oliv. (i) Buchanan. 


Ochna leptodada, Oliv. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Maravi country, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
0. macrocaly.v, Oliv. (i) Sochi, Kirk; Mananja hills, Meller; Zomba, Whyte- Mlanie 

McClounie; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
O.Jioribunda, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 
Ochna spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; Carson 


Canarhtm sp. (i) Lake Nyasa, Scott-Elliot. 

Commiphora pilosa, Engl. (4) Menyharth. 

C. mozambicensis, Engl. (i) Lower Shire River, Kirk. 

Commiphora spp. (4) Menyharth ; Boroma and Batoka country, Kirk. 


Turraea nilotica, Kotschy. (i) Shire River, Kirk. 

T. capitata, Klotzsch. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

Turraea sp. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; (4) Menyharth. 

Trichilia cmetica, Vahl. (i) Shire River, Kirk ; Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

T. capitata, Klotzsch. (i) Shire River, Kirk ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; (4) Menyharth. 

T. Buchanani, C. DC. (i) Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

Trichilia spp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

Khaya senegalensis, A. Juss. (?) (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 

Ekebergia fiuchananii, Harms, (i) Buchanan. 


Olax dissitiflora, Oliv. (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk ; (4) Menyharth. 
Olax sp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott- Elliot. 
Ximenia americana, L. (i) Buchanan. 
Apodytes di midiata, E. Mey. (i) Buchanan. 
Chlamydocarya sp. (4) Menyharth. 


Ilex capcnsis, Sond. et Harv. (i) Mlanje, McClounie; Buchanan. 


Celastrns laurifolius, Rich, (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

C. senegalensis, Lam. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte; Buchanan; (2)? Lower plateau north of 
Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

C. serratus, Hochst. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Gymnosporia laurina, Szyszyl. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

(j. undata, Szyszyl. (i) Buchanan. 

G. bnxifolia, Szyszyl., var. vcmnnta, Sand, (i) Buchanan. 



Gymnosporia sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Cassinc Bnchananii, Loesn. (i) Buchanan. 

C. aethiopica, Thunb. (i) Buchanan. 

Hippocratea obtusifolia, Roxb. (4) Menyharth. 

Hippocratea Buchananii, Loesn. (i) Buchanan. 

Hippocratea sp. (4) Menyharth. 

Salaria spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Pleurostylia Wightii, Wight et Arnott. (i) Buchanan. 


Zizyphns Jujuba, Lam. (i) Buchanan; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot, 

Z. mucronata, Willd. (i) Shire River, Kirk and Meller. 

Gouania sp. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

Helinus ovatus, E. Mey. (i) Lower valley of the Shire River, Meller ; Buchanan. 

Phylica spicata, L. ? ( i ) Mlanje, Whyte. 


Vitis erythrodes, Fresen. (i) Buchanan. 

V. congesta, Baker, (i) Katunga, Meller. 

V. abysstnica, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 

V. rnbiginosa, Welw. (i) Buchanan. 

V. serpens, Baker, (i) Zomba, Whyte. 

V. grisea, Baker. ( I ) Shire River, Kirk. 

V.jatrophoides, Welw. (i) Mbami, near Blantyre, Kirk ; Buchanan. 

V. integrifolia, Baker, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (4) Menyharth. 

V. subciliata, Baker, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Katunga, L. Scott. 

V. ibuensis, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

Vitis s.pp. (i) Buchanan; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; Mananja hills, Meller; 

(2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson. 
Cissus aristolochiaefolia, Planch, (i) Buchanan. 
C. subglaucescens, Planch, (i) Buchanan. 

C. kirkiana, Planch., var. Livingstonii, Planch, (i) Buchanan. 
C. Buchananii, Planch, (i) Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 
C. cucumerifolia, Planch, (i) Katunga, Kirk. 
C. crotalarioides, Planch, (i) Buchanan. 
Leea sp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 


Cardiosperminn microcarpum, H. B. K. (i) Buchanan. 

Paulliniapinnata, L. (i) Buchanan ; Zomba, Whyte. 

Paullinia sp. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 

Schmidelia repanda, Baker, (i) Shire River, Kirk. 

S. africana, DC. (i) Buchanan. 

Schmidelia spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Cnpania spp. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

Blighia zambesiaca, Baker, (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolia, Baker, (i) Shire River, Kirk ; (4) Menyharth. 

Sapindus xanthocarpus, Kl. (i) Buchanan ; Shire River to Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

Dodonaea viscosa, L. (i) Buchanan ; Zomba, Whyte ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake 

Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Rersama sp. (i) Buchanan; Zomba, Whyte; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 



Rfnis I'iminalis, Vahl. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 

A', villosa, Linn. fil. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan ; Zomba, Whyte : var. 

grandtfolia, Oliv. (i) Mbami, near Blantyre, Kirk. 
R. Kirkii, Oliv. (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 
R. pulcherrima, Oliv. (i) Buchanan. 
R. glaucesccns. Rich, (i) Lake Nyasa, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north 

of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

R. mitcronifolia, Sond. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
R. insignis, Del. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
R. retinorrhoea, Steud. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
Rhus sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Spondias sp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (4) Menyharth. 
Sclerocarya caffra, Sond. (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 


Roiirca oi'alifolia, Gilg. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 


Crotalaria anthyllopsis, Welvv. (i) Buchanan. 

C. laxiflora, Baker. (2) Carson. 

C. glaitca, Willd. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk. 

C. I'ogelii, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 

C. cephalotcs, Steud. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last. 

C. lotifolia, L. (i) Buchanan. 

C. deomifoiia, Welw. (i) Buchanan. 

C. erisemoiiies, Ficalho et Hiern. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

C. lanccolata, E. Mey. (i) Buchanan. 

C. intermedia, Kotschy. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

C. natalitia, Meisn. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 

C. hyssopifolia, Kl. (i) Buchanan. 

C. recta, Steud. (i) Mlanje, Whyte; Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Waller : (2) Carson. 

C. spinosa, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 

Crotalaria spp. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last ; Chiradzulu, Whyte : (2) Nutt ; Carson. 

Argyrolobium shir ens e, Taub. (i) Buchanan. 

Adenocarpns Mannii, Hook. fil. (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

Parochetits comnninis, Hamilt. (i) Mananja hills, Meller. 

Medicago lupulina, L. (i) Buchanan. 

Lotus arabicus, L. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

L. tigrensis, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

Lotus sp. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Psoralea sp. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Indigo/era vicioides, Jaub. et Spach. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 

I. trachyphylla, Benth. < i ) Buchanan. 

/. polysphaera, Baker. (2) Carson. 

/. Lyallii, Baker, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

/. heterotricha, DC. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

/. dodecaphylla, Ficalho et Hiern. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

/. secnndiflora, Poir. (i) Upper Shire Valley, Scott-Elliot; (2) Lower plateau, north of 

Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; Carson. 
/. splendens, Ficalho et Hiern. (3) Serpa Pinto. 




Indigofcra muliijuga, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

/. demissa, Taub. (i) Buchanan. 

I. tinctoria, L. (i) Buchanan. 

/. hirsuta, L. (i) Buchanan. 

/. tomlosa, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

/. emarginellci) Steud. (i) Buchanan. 

/. arrecta, Hochst. (2) Karonga, L. Scott. 

7 cndccaphylla, Baker, (i) Zomba, Meller. 

Lprocera, S. et T. (i) Buchanan. 

Indigofcra spp. (i) Buchanan; Biantyre, Last; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; (2) Nyasa- 

Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson and Scott-Elliot ; Nutt ; Carson. 
Tephrosia sericea, Baker, (i) Mananja hills, Waller ; Zomba, Whyte. 
T. Vogelii, Hook. fil. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt. 
T. longipes, Meisn. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
T.purpurea, Pers. (i) Buchanan ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 
T. linearis, Pers. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
T. whyteana, Baker fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
T. Nyasae, Baker fil. (i) Buchanan. 
T. lupinifolia, DC. (i) Buchanan. 
T. dichroocarpa, Steud. (i) Buchanan. 
T. schizocalyx, Taub. (i) Buchanan. 
T. sambesiaca, Taub. (i) Buchanan. 
Tephrosia spp. (i) Buchanan; (2) Carson; Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, 

J. Thomson. 

Mundulea suberosa, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 
Sesbania sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Astragalus abyssinicus, Steud. (i) Buchanan. 
Ormocarpum mimosoides, S. Moore, (i) Buchanan. 
Herminiera elaphroxylon, Guill. et Perr. (i) Buchanan. 
Aeschynomene aspera, L. (i) Elephant Marsh on Shire River, Kirk. 
A. shirensis, Taub. (i) Buchanan. 
A. indica, L. (i) Buchanan. 
A. Schimperi, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 
A. siifolia, Welw. (i) Zomba and Mlanje, Whyte. 
A. ghttinosa, Taub. (i) Buchanan. 
Aeschynomene spp. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte ; Biantyre, Last ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; 

(2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot ; Carson. 
Smithia nodulosa, Baker, (i) Chiradzulu, Meller. 
S. strobilantha, Welw. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 

5". strigosa, Benth. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
S. scaberrima, Taub. (i) Buchanan. 
5. sensitiva, Ait. (i) Buchanan. 
S. Carsoni, Baker, (i) Carson. 
Smithia spp. (i) Zomba, Whyte; Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, 

J. Thomson ; Carson. 
Geissaspis humiiloides, Hiern. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot; Lower 

plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Arachis kypogaea, L. (2) Nutt. 

Desmodium dimorphum, Welw. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
D. Scalpe, DC. (i) Buchanan. 
D. barbat um, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 



Desnwdiiiin lasiocarpum, DC. (i) Buchanan. 
D. gangeticum> DC. (i) Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Meller. 
D. hirtum, Guill. et Perr. (i) Buchanan ; Zomba, Whyte. 
D. ascendens, DC. (1) Zomba, Whyte. 

D. latifolium, DC. (i) Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Waller. 

D. tanganyikense, Baker. (2) Carson. 

D. paleaceum, Guill. et Perr. (i) Buchanan. 

Desniodiuni spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

Pseiidarthria Hookeri, W. et A. (2) Nutt. 

Pseudarthria sp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

Alysicnrpus rugosus, DC. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands and Lake Nyasa, Scott-Elliot. 

Alysicarpus sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Lathyrits sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Abrus precatorius, L. (i) Buchanan. 

Clitorea ternatea, H. B. K. (i) Buchanan. 

Dumasia villosa, DC. (i) Buchanan. 

Glycine javanica, L. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

Glycine sp. (2) Carson. 

Teramnus sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Erythrina tomentosa, Benth. (i) Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Meller. 

E. Humet, E. Mey. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Shire River, Kirk. 

Erythrina sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Mucuna coriacea, Baker, (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Mlanje and Chiradzulu, Whyte 

M. erecta, Baker. (2) Carson. 

Mnctina sp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

Canavalia obtusifolia, DC. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

C. ensiformis, DC. (i) Buchanan. 

Phaseolns lunatus, L. (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

P. Kirkii, Baker, (i) West shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

Phaseolus spp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan. 

Vigna vexillata, Benth. (i) Buchanan ; Zomba and Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

r. tuteola, Benth. (i) Zomba and Mlanje, Whyte ; Fort Johnston, Scott-Elliot. 

V. Catjang, Walp. (i) Buchanan. 

Vigna sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Voandzeia subterranea, Thouars. (2) Nutt. 

Psophocarpus longepedunculalus, Hassk. (i) Buchanan. 

Dolichos btflonts, L. (2) Carson. 

D. erectus, Baker fil. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Zomba and Mlanje, Whyte. 

D. platypus, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 

D. axillaris, E. Mey. (i) Mbami, L. Scott. 

D.pteropus, Baker. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot ; Carson. 

D. siinplicifolius, Hook. fil. (i) Buchanan. 

D. xiphophyllus, Baker. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot ; Carson. 

D. lupinoides, Baker. (2) Carson. 

Dolichos spp. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan ; (2) Nutt ; Carson. 

Cajanus indicus, Spreng. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

Rhynchosia cyanosferma, Benth. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan 

A', densiflora, DC. (i) Shire River, Kirk. 

R. antenmtUfera, Baker, (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Meller. 

R. caribaea, DC. (i) Buchanan. 



RhyucJwsia minima, DC. (i) Buchanan; Upper Shire River, Scott-Elliot. 
R. comosa, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
Rhynchosia spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Eriosema cajanoides, Hook. fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan; (2) Carson; (3) Serpa 

E, parviflorum, E. Mey. (i) Mlanje, Whyte; Buchanan. 
E.flemingioideS) Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

E. shirensis, Baker fil. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
E. montanum, Baker fil. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

E. polystachyum, Baker. (2) Carson. 

Eriosema spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson; Nutt ; Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, 
J. Thomson. 

Flemingia rhodocarpa, Baker, (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

F. macrocalyx, Baker fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Dalbergia Melanoxylon, Guill. et Perr. (i) Buchanan. 
Dalbergia spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Pterocarpus melli ferns, Welw. (i) Zomha, Whyte. 
Pterocarpus sp. (0 Buchanan. 

Lonchocarpus laxiflorus, Guill. et Perr., var. sericciis, Baker, (i) Zomba and east end of 

Lake Chilwa, Meller ; Buchanan. 
Lonchocarpus spp. (i) Buchanan. 
Degiielia Stiihlmanni, Taub. (i) Buchanan. 
Baphia racemosa, Hochst. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
Baphia sp. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Osmosia sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Swartsia madagascariensis, Desv. (i) Maravi country Kirk ; Buchanan. 
Cordyla africana, Lour, (i) Mananja hills, Meller. 
Cassia abbreviata, Oliv. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; west shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk; 

C. pctersiana, C. Bolle. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller; Blantyre, Last; Buchanan; 

Zomba and Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

C. didymobotrya, Fresen. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; (2) Carson. 
C. Grantii, Oliv. (r) Maravi country, Kirk. 
C. Tora, L. (r) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

C. Kirkii, Oliv. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk and Meller ; Buchanan. 
C. mimosoides, L. (i) Buchanan; Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Carson. 
C. occidentalis, L. (i) Buchanan. 
C. Absns, L. (i) Buchanan. 
C. goratensis, Fresen. (2) Carson. 
Cassia sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Bauhinia fassoglensis^ Kotschy. (i) Mananja hills, Waller ; Buchanan. 
B. Kirkii, Oliv. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
B. Serpae, Ficalho et Hiern. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
B. petersiana, Bolle. (i) Mananja hills, Waller; Buchanan; Mlanje, McClounie ; (2) 

Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
B. reticulata, DC. (i) Shire River, Meller ; Buchanan. 
Banliinia sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Afzelia citansensis, Welw. (i) West shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
Afzelia sp. (2) Carson. 

Cryptosepalnm maraviense, Oliv. (i) Maravi country, Kirk ; (2) Nutt ; Carson. 
Cryptoscpalum sp. (i) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 



Bracliystegia appendicitlata, Benth. (i) Zomba and east end of Lake Chilwa, Kirk 

(2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot ; (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
B. globiflora, Benth. (i) Shire Highlands, Whyte. 
B. longifolia, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 
B.floribunda, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 

Tamarindus indica, L. (i) Shire River, Kirk ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan 

(4) up the Zambezi to the Batoka country, Kirk. 
Copaifera coleosperma, Benth. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
Burkea africana, Hook, (i) Buchanan. 
Trachylobium sp. Shire Highlands, Johnston. 
Erythropkleum guitteense, Don. (i) Buchanan. 
Parkin filicoidea, Welw. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
Entada abyssinica, Steud. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 

Entada spp. (i) Zomba and east end of Lake Chilwa, Meller ; Buchanan. 
I*iptadcnia Bnc/ianani, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
Piptadenia sp. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
Tetraplcurii undotigens/s, Welw. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
Neptitnia oleracea, Lour, (i) Shire River, Kirk. 
Dichrostachys me tans, Benth. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
D. nyassana, Taub. (i) Buchanan. 
Acacia nigrescens, Oliv. (i) Shire River, Kirk. 
A.pennata, Willd. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk. 
A. lasiopetala, Oliv. (i) M'pemba hill, Kirk. 
A. albida, Del. (i) Shire River, Kirk. 
A. Kirkii, Oliv. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
A. Seyal, Del. (i) Mananja hills, Meller. 
A.fastigiata, Oliv. (i) Buchanan. 
Acacia spp. (i) Buchanan. 
Calliandm sp. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 

Albiszia anthelmintica, A. Brongn. (i) Shire River, Meller. 
A. Lcbbek, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 
A. versicolor, Welw. (r) Maravi country, Kirk. 
A.fastigiata, E. Mey. (i) Buchanan; Mlanje, Whyte. 


Parinan'iem Mobola, Oliv. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Batoka country; Kirk. 

P. capcnsc, Harv. (4) Sesheke, Kirk. 

Pygcinn africamtm, Hook. fil. (i) Foot of Chiradzulu, Kirk ; Buchanan. 

Rubiis apetalus, Poir. (i) Foot of Chiradzulu, Kirk; Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

A', huillcnsis, \\ r elw. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Rubns&p. (i) Buchanan. 

Alrltcinilla sp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

lincanfoUa, Eck. et Zeyh. (i) Mlanje, Whjte. 

sp. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 


Chorislylis shirensis, Baker fil. (i) Mlanje, \\"hyte. 


'I'iliacn pcntiuidra, Royle. ,i Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Blantyre, Last ; Buchanan. 
/'. aqmitica, L. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 




Crassula globularioides, Britten, (i) Chiradzulu, Meller ; Mlanje, Whyte. 

C. abyssinica, A. Rich, (i) Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Crassitla spp. (i) Blantyre, Last ; Buchanan. 
Kalanchoe platysepala, Welw. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk. 
A', pzlosa, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 

K. coccinea, Welw. (i) Mananja hills, Meller. 

KaLmchoe spp. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; (2) Nutt ; Carson. 

Cotyledon sp. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 


Drosera ranicntacea, Burch. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 

D. affinis, Welw. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Xyasa, J. Thomson. 


Myrothamnns flabellifolia, Welw. (i) Mlanje, Whyte; Buchanan. 


Tcrminalia nyassensis, Engl. (i) Buchanan. 

Terminalia sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Combretinn holosericeum, Sond. (i) Chiradzulu, Kirk. 

C. laurifoliiun, Engl. (i) Buchanan. 

C. tomentosum, Don. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 

C. oatesii, Rolfe. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson. 

C. mweroense, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 

C. splendcns, Engl. (i) Buchanan. 

Combrelum spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson. 


Eugenia cordata, Laws, (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 

E. owariensis, P. Beauv. (i) Buchanan. 

Eugenia spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 


Antherotoma Naitdini, Hook. fil. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; (2) Nutt. 

Dissotis phaeotricha, Hook. fil. (i) Mpatamanga, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (2) Xutt ; Carson. 

D. Melleri, Hook. fil. (i) Chiradzulu and Mananja hills, Meller; Zomba, Kirk. 

D. princcps, Triana. (i) Mananja hills, Meller and Kirk; Mlanje, Chiradzulu, and 

Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

D. incana, Triana. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
D. johmtoniana, Baker fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
D. cryptantha, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
Dissotis spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 
Tristemma sp. (2) Carson. 

Osbcckia Antherotoma. Naud. (i) Shire Highlands, K. C. Cameron. 
Osbcckia spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Xyasa. J. Thomson. . 


Rotttli-tjUifortnis^ Hiern. (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 

Nesaca heptamcru, Hiern. (i) Zomba and east end of Lake Chilwa. Meller. 

N.floribunda, Sond. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 

Ainmannia salicifolia, Monti. (2) Carson. 

A. scnegalcnsis, Lam. (i) Buchanan. 

Ainmanniti sp. (2) Carson ; (4) Menyharth. 

Hcteropy.vis nataltnsis, Haw. (i) Buchanan. 



Epilobium sp. (2) Carson. 

Jussiaea pilosa, H. B. K. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk ; Upper Shire, Scott-Elliot. 

J. I'illosa, Lam. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller. 

J linifolia, Vahl. (i) Upper Shire, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan. 

Lndiuigia prostrata, Roxb. ( i ) Buchanan. 

L. parvifo Ha, Roxb. (i) Buchanan. 

L. jussiaeoides, Lam. (i) Buchanan. 

Trapa bispinosa, Roxb. (r) Shire River, Kirk; Blantyre, Last ; Lake Nyasa. Laws(r). 


Myriophyllum sp. (i) Lake Nyasa, Laws. 


Homaliiun africanuni, Benth. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 


Wormskiolctta longepedunculata, Mast. (i) Mananja hills, Meller and Waller; 

Buchanan; Allanje, Whyte; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; (2) North Nyasa, 

L. Scott ; Carson ; var. integrifolia, Urb., Blantyre, Last. 
//". lobata, Urb. (i) Buchanan. 


Tryphostemma apetalum, Baker fil. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
Tryplwstemma sp. (i) Mlanje, Scott-Elliot. 
Modecca stricta, Mast, (i) Murchison Falls, Meller. 
Modecca sp. (i) Buchanan. 


Trochomeria macrocarpa, Hook. fil. (i) North of Chiradzulu, Kirk. 

Adenopus breviflorus, Benth. (i) Elephant Marsh on Shire River, Kirk; Buchanan. 

Luffa aegvptiaca, Miller, (i) Buchanan. 

Luffa sp. (2) Carson. 

Lagenaria sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Momordica Charantia, L. (i) Shire Valley. Kirk ; Buchanan. 

M. Morkorra, A. Rich. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson. 

J/. foctida, Schum. et Thonn. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 

Momordica spp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

RaphanocarpKS Kirkii, Hook. fil. (i) Shire River, Kirk ; (4) Menyharth 

Ciicumis inctiiliferus, E. Mey. (i) Shire River, Kirk. 

C. Melo, L. (i) Buchanan. 

Cu aunts spp. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (2) Carson. 

Zehneria microsperma, Hook. fil. (i) Katunga, Meller. 

Zchncria sp. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte; Buchanan. 

Miikin scabrella, Arn. (i) Shire River, Kirk. 

Cephalandra sp. ? (i) Mlanje, Scott-Elliot. 

Ctcnolcf>is sp. ? (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 


lic^onia sp. (i) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson ; Carson. 



Mollugo niidicauUs, Lam. (i) Buchanan. 

M. Glinits, A. Rich, (i) Lake Nyasa, Scott-Elliot. 

M. Spergula, L. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

M. verticillata, L. (i) Buchanan. 

Mollngo sp. (i) Buchanan. 


Hydrocotyle moschata, Forst. (i) Chiradzulu, Kirk. 

H. asiatica, L. (i) Ruangwa, near Lake Nyasa, Kirk ; Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte. 

Alepidca anatymbica, Eck. et Zeyh. (j) Sochi, Kirk; Zomba, Whyte; Buchanan; 

(2) Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; Carson. 
Sanicuhi europaea, L. (i) Buchanan. 
Heteroinorpha arborescent, Cham, et Schlecht. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Chiradzulu, 

Whyte ; Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last. 
Pimpinella sp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt. 

Diphlophhim zambesiacuiii, Hiern. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
Physotrichia Buchanani, Benth. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte ; Zomba, Kirk. 
Physolrichia sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Peucedanum fraxinifolium, Hiern. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Chiradzulu, Whyte; 


Peucedanum sp. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Carson. 
Lefeburia spp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan. 
Caucalia infesta, Curt, (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
C. mclanantha, Benth. et Hook. fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte; (2) Lower plateau, north 'of 

Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
C. pednnculata^ Baker fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Cauca/ts sp. (i) Buchanan. 


Cussonia spicata, Thunb. (i) Chiradzulu, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
C. Kirldi, Seem, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Cussonia sp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 


Adina microccpJiala, Hiern? (i) Buchanan. 

Hymenodictyon Kurrni, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 

H. parvifolitim, Oliv. (i) Buchanan. 

Crossopteryx kotschyana, Fenzl. (i) Buchanan. 

Pentas purpurca, Oliv. (i) Mananja hills, Sochi and Mbami, Kirk; Buchanan ; Mianje 

and Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

P. carnea, Benth., var. Klotsichii, Scott-Elliot, (i) Buchanan. 
P. longiflora, Oliv., var. nyassuna, Scott-Elliot, (i) Buchanan: Mlanje, McClounie ; 

Chiradzulu, Whyte ; (2) Lower plateau, north ot Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; Carson. 
P. confertifolia, Baker. (2) Carson. 
P. modesta, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 
Pentas spp. Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

-ia dilaia, Hiern. (i) Zomba and Mlanje, Whyte. 

. (Pentas spcciosa, Baker), (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan-; Blantyre, Last. 
Otomeria sp. (2) Carson. 
Hedyotis spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 



Pentodon dccitmbens, Hochst. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 

Oldenlandia trincwia, Retz. (i) Buchanan. 

O. echinulosa, K. Schum. (i) Buchanan. 

O. globosa, Hiern. (i) Buchanan. 

O. corymbosa, L. (i) Buchanan ; (2 Xutt. 

O. macrophylla, DC. (r) Buchanan. 

O. macrodonta, Baker. (2) Carson. 

O. effusa, Oliv. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, K. C. Cameron. 

O. Heynei, Oliv. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last ; (2) Carson. 

(>. Bojeri, Hiern. (i) Buchanan ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 

O. tenuissiina, Hiern. (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 

O. olk>criana, K. Schum. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 

O. licdyotoides, Boiss. (i) Mlanje, Scott-Elliot. 

O. lancifolia, Schweinf. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

O. virgata, DC. (2) Carson. 

Oldenlandia spp. (i) Buchanan; Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte; Blantyre, Last; (2) 

Mussaenda arcnata, Poir. Mananja hills, Waller ; Kanjanje, Kirk ; Buchanan ; Shire 

Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (2) Nutt. 
Mussaenda sp. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 
Sab;'cea&p" (0 Buchanan. 

Heinsia fasmimflora, DC. (i) Shire River, Kirk; Blantyre, Last. 
H. benguelensis, Welw. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Heinsia sp. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 
Berticra sp. ? (4) Menyharth. 
Leptactina sp. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 
Chomclia Bnchananii, K. Schum. (i) Buchanan. 
Randia Buchananii^ Oliv. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
Randia spp. (i) Buchanan; Chiradzulu, Kirk; (2) Nutt. 
Gardenia Thiinbergia, L. fil. (i) Lake Chilwa, Meller ; Mananja hills, Waller; 


G. resiniflua, Hiern. (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

G. Manganjae, Hiern. (i) Mananja, Meller; Chiradzulu, Kirk; Buchanan. 

Gardenia sp. (i) Near Lake Chilwa, Kirk ; Buchanan. 

O. \yanihns sp. ? (i) Buchanan. 

Zygoon gravcolens, Hiern. (i) Shire rapids, Kirk. 

Empogona Kirkii, Hook. fil. (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk ; (4) Menyharth. 

Tricalysia Nyassae, Hiern. (i) West shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

T. jastniniflora, Benth. et Hook. fil. (i) Lower Shire, Kirk; Mananja hills, Meller; 


T. A'tr/cti, Hiern. (i) River Shire, Kirk. 
Tricalysia spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Pcntanisia Sch-^einjiirtliii, Hiern. (2) Nutt; Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, 

rcntanisia spp. (i) Buchanan; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Cremaspora nfrianid, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 

C coffe aides, Hemsl. (i) Ruo River, Johnston. 

C'. heterophylla^ K. Schum. (i) Buchanan. 

Polysplmeria lana'D/n/a, Hiern. (2) Karonga and Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau. Scott-Elliot. 

Polysphacria spp. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 

Canthium foetidum, Hiern. (i) Mpatamanga, Kirk. 



Canthiiim sanqucbaricum, Klotzsch. (i) West shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

C. lanciflorum, Hiern. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 

C. Guenzii, Sond. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan ; (2) Upper plateau, north of Lake 

Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Canthiiim spp. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; (4) Menyharth. 
Plectronia sp. (2) Carson. 
I'angucria I'clutina, Hiern. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; Buchanan; (4) Batoka 

country, Kirk. 

I '. edulis, Vahl. (i) Buchanan. 
V. infatista, Burch. (i) Buchanan. 
\\uigueria sp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Fadogia ancylantha, Schweinf. (i) Buchanan. 

F. triphylla, Baker. (2) Carson. 

Fadogia spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot and J. 

Thomson ; Carson. 

Craterispcrmuin laurinum, Benth. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
Ixora laxiflora, Sm. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Ixora sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Coffea arabica, L. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Pavetta gracilzs, Klotzsch. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot : 

(4) Menyharth. 

P. Baconia, Hiern. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
P. sclmmanniana, Ferd. Hoffm. (i) Buchanan. 
P. canescens, DC. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 

Pavetta sp. (i) Mlanje, McClounie ; Zomba and Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Psychotria hirtella, Oliv. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Psyciiolria sp. (i) Mlanje, McClounie ; Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Grumilea Kirkii, Hiern. (i) Zomba, Kirk. 

Siphomeris foetens, Hiern. (i) Shire Rapids, Kirk; (4) Menyharth. 
Otiophora sp. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Anthospermumwhyteanum, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
A. lanceolatum, Thunb. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Anthospernntm sp. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, McClounie ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake 

Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Paederia foctida, L. (i) Buchanan. 
Spermacoce scnensis, Hiern. (i) Near Sochi, Kirk. 
i'. dibmchidta, Oliv. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk and Meller ; Buchanan; Mlanje, Whyte ; 

Blantyre, Last. 

.S'. stricta, L. (i) Blantyre, Last ; Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 
Spermacoce spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Xyasa, J. Thomson ; 


Richardia sp. (i) Shire Highlands, K. C. Cameron. 

Riibia cordifolia, L. (i) Shire Highlands, K. C. Cameron; Buchanan; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Gal him Aparinc, L. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
(/. rrcctum, Huds. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

G. stennphyllum, Baker, (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt ; Carson, 
(y'. Mollugo, L. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

Galhtin spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot ; Carson. 


Thunb. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 



Cephalaria centaur aides, Roem. et Schult. (i) Between Mbami and Sochi, Kirk ; 

Buchanan ; (2) Nutt ; Carson ; Xyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
Cephalaria sp. (2) Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Scabiosa Columbaria, L. (i) Blantyre, Last ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan ; 

(2) Upper and Lower plateaux, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 


Gutenbergia polyccphala, O. et H. (i) Lake Chilwa, Kirk. 

Bothriocline Schimperi, O. et H. (i) Blantyre, Last ; Mlanje and Chiradzulu, Whyte ; 

B. laxa, N. E. Br. (i) Blantyre, Last. 

Vemonia marginata, O. et H. (i) Shire River, Stewart ; Buchanan ; Zomba and Chirad- 
zulu, Whyte ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

V. purpurea, Sch. Bip. (i) Chiradzulu, .Meller. 

V. cistifolia, O. Hoffm., var. rosea, O. Hoffm. (i) Buchanan. 

V. Melleri, O. et H. (i) Mananja hills, Meller. 

V. o.vyura, O. Hoffm. (i) Buchanan. 

V. pteropoda, O. et H. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller and Whyte ; Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

V. senegahnsis, Less, (i) Near Katunga, Meller ; (2) Nutt. 

V. glabra, Yatke. (i) Shire River, Meller; Buchanan; Mlanje, Whyte; (2) Lower 
plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

V. shirensis, O. et H. (i) Shire Valley, Meller. 

/". oocephala, Baker, (i) Carson. 

V. livingstoniana, O. et H. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Shire, Stewart ; Buchanan. 

\\podocoma, Sch. Bip. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Buchanan. 

V. aemulans. Vatke. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 

V. cinerascens, Sch. Bip. (i) Lake Nyasa, Scott-Elliot. 

V. decumbens, Vatke. (i) Buchanan. 

V. cincrca, Less, (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last ; (2) Carson. 

V. nataknsis, Sch. Bip. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Zomba and Mlanje, Whyte. 

V. Perottctii, Sch. Bip. (2) Carson. 

V.poskeana, Vatke et Hildebr. (i) Buchanan; Upper Shire, Scott-Elliot: Blantyre, 
Last ; Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Carson. 

V. subaphylla, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 

V. whytcana, Britten, (i) Zomba, Whyte. 

Vernonia spp. (i and 2.) There are many unnamed specimens in the Herbarium at Kew 

from all the botanists who have collected in these two regions. 
ElepJiantopus scaber, L. (i) Buchanan. 
Elcphantopus sp. (2) Carson. 
Adenostemma viscosum, Forst. (i) Buchanan. 
Aster sp. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 

Ageratum conyzoides, L. (i) Mlanje and Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Eiipatoriuin africanism, O. et H. (r) Buchanan ; Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte. 
Mikania scandcns, Willd. (i) Murchison Falls, Meller; Buchanan: Chiradzulu and 

Zomba, Whyte ; (2) Carson. 

Dicroccphala I at (folia, DC. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

Felicia abyssinica, Sch. Bip. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Felicia sp. (2) Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Erigcron sp. (2) Nutt. 

Microglossa i>oh<bilis, DC. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 

Nidorella nricroccphala, Steetz. (i) Shire Valley, Meller: Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte: 
Lake Nyasa, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan. 



Nidorella sp. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

Conyza perstcifotia, O. et H. (i) Mlanje, McClounie ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

C. variegata, Sch. Bip. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

C. Hochstetteri, Sch. Bip. (i) Buchanan. 

C. aegyptiaca, Ait. (i) Mlanje, \Vhyte. 

Conyza spp. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau, Scott-Elliot. 

Psiadia sp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Bhunea lacera, DC. (i) Zomba, Whyte; Buchanan; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, 


Blumea sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Laggera brevipcs, O. et H. (i) Sochi, Kirk. 

L. a/ata, Sch. Bip. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Denekia capensis, Thunb. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
Sphaeranthus hirtus, Willd. (i) Buchanan. 
Sphaeranthns sp. (i) Shire Highlands, K. C. Cameron ; (2) Carson ; Lower plateau, 

north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; (4) Menyharth. 
Amphidoxa filaginea, Ficalho et Hiern. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
Achyrocltne batocana, O. et H. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
A. Hochstetteri, Sch. Bip. (i) Blantyre, Last ; Mlanje, Whyte. 
A. Schimperi, Sch. Bip. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Mlanje, Whyte. 
Gnaphalium Steudelu, Sch. Bip. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 
G. luteo-album, L. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Gnaphalium sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Helichrysum pachyrhizum, Harv. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
H. auricu/atum, Less. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Shire, Stewart; Zomba, Whyte; 

Buchanan ; Katunga, Kirk. 
H. Kirkii,Q. et H. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Sochi, Kirk; Shire, Stewart; Maravi 

country (?) Kirk ; Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 
H. nitons, O. et H. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller ; Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie ; Blantyre, 

Last ; Buchanan. 

H. argyrosphaerum, DC. (i) Maravi country. Livingstone and Kirk. 
H. globosiim, Sch. Bip. (i) Buchanan. 

H. gerberaefolium, Sch. Bip. (i) Sochi, Kirk ; Shire River, Stewart ; Mlanje, Whyte. 
//. Pctcrsii, O. et H. (i) Mpatamanga, Kirk. 
H. o.vypliyllitm, DC. (i) Mananja hills, Meller. 

H. (.yinosiun, D. Don. (i) Mlanje, Whyte; Blantyre, Last; Buchanan. 
H. Buchananii) Engl. (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte; Mlanje, McClounie; Blantyre, 

Last ; Buchanan. 

H. midifloruin, Less, (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 
H. whyleanum, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie ; Buchanan. 
//. inilanjiense, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 
H. densifloruin, Oliv. (\) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
H. lati folium, Less, (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 
H. iindatum, Less, (i) Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan ; Blantyre, L. Scott. 
//. Lastii, Engl. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 

H.foctiditm, Cass. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
1/eUchrysnm spp. (i) Buchanan; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; Mlanje, McClounie; 

Blantyre, Last and L. Scott ; (2) Upper and Lower plateaux, north of Lake Nyasa, 

J. Thomson. 
Atlinxia rosmarinifolia, O. et H. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller; Zomba, Mlanje, and Chiradzulu, 

Whyte ; Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 



Inula glomerata^ O. et H. (i) Sochi, Kirk ; Buchanan. 

/. shirensis, Oliv. (i) Buchanan. 

I mt la spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Bojeria vcstila, Baker. (2) Carson. 

Geigeria Zeyhcri, Harv. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

Sphacophyllum Lastii, O. Hoffm. (i) Blantyre, Last. 

S. Kirkii, Oliv. (i) Zomba, Kirk. 

Anisopappus africatnis, O. et H. (i) Buchanan. 

Anisopappus sp. (2) Carson. 

Ambrosia sp. (2) Carson. 

Eclipta erecta, L. (i) Buchanan. 

Epallage dent at a, DC. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Blainvillea gay ana, Cass. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Itlainvillea sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Aspilia Kotschyi, Benth. et Hook. fil. (i) Buchanan. 

Aspilia spp. (i) Shire Highlands and Lake Nyasa, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, 

Whyte ; (2) Carson ; Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson ; Nutt. 
Melanthera abyssinica, O. et H. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
M. Brownci, Sch. Bip. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; (2) Carson. 
Sptfanthes Acmella, L. (i) Shire River, Kirk ; Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Spilanthes sp. (2) Nutt. 

Siegesbeckia abyssinica, O. et H. (i) Buchanan. 
Guisotia bidentoides, O. et H. (i) Maiianja hills, Kirk. 
Guisotia sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Coreopsis Steppia, Steetz. (i) Maiianja hills, Kirk; Chiradzulu, Whyte; Buchanan; 

(2) Carson. 

C. Grantii, Oliv. (2) Carson. 

Coreopsis spp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan ; (2) Xutt. 
Bidcns lincariloba, O. et H. (2) Carson. 
B. pilosa, L. (i) Mlanje and Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of 

Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Bide us sp. (2) Carson. 

Chrysanthclliini procumbens, Pers. (i) Buchanan. 
Jaumea sp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 
Gynura cernua, Benth. (i) Zomba and Chiradzulu, Whyte; Mananja hills, Meller ; 

Blantyre, Last ; Buchanan ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot ; Lower 

plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; Carson. 
G. amplc.vicaulis, O. et H. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
G. crepidioides, Benth. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Carson. 
G. vitellina, Benth. (2) Carson. 
Gynura spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt ; Carson. 

Gongrothamnus divaricatits, Steetz. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Kirk and Meller. 
Cineraria /ci/iwanscharica, Engl. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Cineraria spp. (i) Buchanan. 
Emilia sagitttifa, DC. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Shire Valley, Kirk ; Blantyre, Last ; 

(2) Carson. 
E. integrijolia, Baker. (2) Nutt ; Carson ; Lower plateau north of Lake Nyasa, J. 


Emilia sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Scnccic buplcuroides, DC. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Sochi, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
S. cyanens, O. Hoffm. (i) Buchanan. 



Senecio ddtoidciis, Less, (i) ? Mpatamanja, Kirk ; Buchanan. 

.V. subscandens, Hochst. (i) Murchison Falls, Meller. 

5. mweroensis, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 

S. lasiorltiziis, DC. (i) Mlanje, McClounie and PWhyte. 

S. latifolius, DC. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte. 

S. auriculatissimus, Britten, (i) Zomba and Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

S. whyteanus, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Senecio spp. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; (2) 

Nutt ; Carson. 

Othonna whyteana, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 
Tripteris monocephala, O. et H. (i) Mananja hills, Meller. 
Osteospermum moniliferum, L. (i) Buchanan; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, 

J. Thomson. 

Haplocarpha scaposa, Harv. (i) Sochi, Kirk ; (2) Carson. 
Gazania serrulata, DC. (i) Sochi, Kirk. 
Gazania sp. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
Berkheya Zeyheri, Sond. et Harv. (i) Kanjanje, Kirk; Buchanan; (2) Upper plateau, 

north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
B.johnstoniana, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

B. subnlata, Harv. (i) Zomba, Kirk ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan. 
Berkheya sp. (2) Carson. 
Carduus leptacanthns, Nees. (i) Buchanan. 
Pleiotaxis pulcherrima, Steetz. (2) Carson. 
Pleiotaxis sp. (2) Carson. 
Erythrocephahun zambesiacum, O. et H. (i) Shire Valley, Waller; Mananja country, 

Kirk ; Blantyre, Last ; Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Mlanje and 

Zomba, Whyte. 

Erythrocephalum spp. (2) Carson ; Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Phyllactinia Grantii, Benth. (2) Carson. 
Dicoma Kirkii, Harv. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 

D. sessiliflora, Harv. (i) Lake Chilwa, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 
D. anomala, Sond. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 
D. tomentosa, Cass. (4) Menyharth. 
D. quinqnevidnera, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 
Gerbera abyssinica, Sch. Bip. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie; Zomba, Whyte; 

G. piloselloides, Cass. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, 

north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Gerbera spp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; Buchanan; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau, Scott-Elliot ; Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Tolpis abyssinica, Sch. Bip. (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte. 
Crepis sp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie ; Buchanan. 
Lactuca abyssinica, Fresen. (i) Buchanan. 

L. capensis, Thunb. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte ; (2) Carson. 
Lactuca sp. (i) Mlanje, McClounie ; (2) Carson. 
Sonchus Bipontini, Aschers. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller. 
S. Schiveinfurthii, O. et H. (i) Buchanan. 

S. rarifolius, O. et H. (i) Zomba and east end of Lake Chilwa, Meller. 
5. oleraceus, L. (i) Buchanan. 
Sonchus spp. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, McClounie. 
Lobelia trullifolia, Hemsl. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller. 



Lobelia Melleri, Hemsl. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

L. Nyassae, Engl. (i) Buchanan. 

L. nnda, Hemsl. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 

L.fervens, Thunb. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

L. naialcnsis, A. DC. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 

L. coronopifolia^. (i) Mlanje, McClounie ; Zomba, Whyte. 

Lobelia spp. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte ; Blantyre, Last ; (2) Carson ; Nutt ; Upper 

and Lower plateaux, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Cephalostigma hirsutmn, Edgw. (i) Near Katunga, Meller. 
Sphenoclea zeylanica, Gaertn. (4) Menyharth. 
Lightfootia abyssinica, Hochst. (i) Marianja hills, Meller; Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte 

Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (2) Nutt. 
L. arenaria, A. DC. (i) Blantyre, Last. 

Lightfootia, spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Upper and Lower plateaux, north of Lake Nyasa 
J. Thomson. 

Wahlenbergia oppositifolia, A. DC. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

W. virgata, Engl. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie ; Buchanan. 

Wahlenbergia spp. (i) McClounie ; Buchanan ; (2) Nutt ; Lower plateau, north of Lake 
Nyasa, J. Thomson. 


Vacci ilium africanum, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 


Aganria salitifolia, Hook. fil. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, 
J. Thomson. 

Erica johnstoniana, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

E. ivhyteana, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Erica sp. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; Mlanje, McClounie ; Buchanan. 

Blacria setulosa, Welw. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

B. microdonta, Wright, (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 

Blaeria sp. (i) Blantyre, Last. 

Philippia milanjiensis, Britten et Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

P. bengitellensis, Welw. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Philippia spp. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

Ericinella Mannii, Hook. fil. (i) Buchanan. 


Plumbago zeylanica, L. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 


Anagallis qitartiniana, Engl. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 
Anagallis sp. (2) Carson. 


Maesn lanccolata, Forsk. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte; Buchanan. 
Maesa sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Myrsine. africana, L. (i) Mlanje, McClounie; Buchanan. 
^. (i) Buchanan. 



ChrysophyUum mctgalismontanitm, Sond. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 

C. Stithlmannii) Engl. (i) Buchanan. 
ChrysophyUum spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Sideroxylon brevipes, Baker. (2) North end of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 
Mimusops Mochtsia, Baker. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
M. Kirkii, Baker, (i) Lower Shire Valley, Kirk. 
.]/. linchananii) Engl. (i) Buchanan. 


Royena pallens, Thunb. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; (4) Sesheke, Kirk. 

R. whyteana, Hiern. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Royena sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Enclea Divinorum, Hiern. (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 

E. multiflora, Hiern. (4) Menyharth. 

Euclea sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Maba spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Diospvros shirensis, Hiern. (i) Fort Johnston and River Ruo, Scott-Elliot. 

D. batokana, Hiern. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
Diospyros sp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 


Jasminium stenolobum, Harv. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; 

Buchanan ; (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 

/. brachyscyphum, Baker, (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, McClounie. 
/. Walleri, Baker, (i) Mananja hills, Waller. 
/. mauritianum, Bojer. (i) Buchanan; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson ; (4) 

Sesheke, Holub. 

/. niicrophyllum, Baker, (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 
J. Kirkii, Baker, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Jasminium spp. (i) Buchanan. 
Schrebera Buchanani, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
S. alata, Wehv. (i) Buchanan. 
S. golungensis, Welw. (4) Menyharth. 
Schrebera sp. (i) Buchanan. 


" Salvadora persica, L. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 
Azima spp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (4) Menyharth. 


Landolphia Kirkii, Dyer, (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
Landolphia sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Carissa Arduina, Lam. (i) Buchanan. 

C. edulis,V&\\\. (i) Buchanan; Mananja hills, Meller: Chiradzulu, Whyte and Kirk; 

(4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 
Diplorrhynchus mossambicensis, Benth. (i) Buchanan; (4) Menyharth. 

D. psilopus, Welw. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

Ranwolfia caffra, Sond. (i) Buchanan ; Mananja and Katunga, Kirk. 

Holarrhcna fcbrifuga, Klotzsch. (i) Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Meller ; west side of Lake 

Nyasa, Kirk ; Zomba, Whyte ; Lake Chilwa, McClounie ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau, Scott-Elliot. 



Tabernacmontana stapfiana, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
T. ventricosa, Hochst. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
T. clegans. (i) River Ruo, Johnston. 

Voacanga africana, Stapf. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; 

Stroplianthus Konibe, Oliv. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan ; (4) Victoria Falls, 

*S\ ecaudatits, Rolfe. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
Stroplianthus sp. (2) Carson ; Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott- Elliot. 
Mascarenhasia variegata, Britten et Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Adenium multiflorum, Klotzsch. (i) Near Metope, L. Scott. 


Cryptolepis obtusa, N. E. Br. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller ; (4) Menyharth. 

C. Welwitschii, Schlechter. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau, Scott-Elliot. 

Cryptolepis sp. (i) Mananja hills and west shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk; Shire Highlands, 


Raphionacme grandtflora, N. E. Br. (i) Blantyre, Last. 
R. longifolia, N. E. Br. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk. 

Secamonc zambesiaca, Schlechter. (i) Shire River, Kirk ; Chiromo, Scott-Elliot. 
Taccazia Kirkii, N . E. Br. (4) Menyharth. 
Chlorocodon Whytei, Hook. fil. (i) Buchanan. 
Daemia cxtensa, R. Br. (i) Shire Valley, Meller; Buchanan. 

D. barbata, Klotzsch. (4) Menyharth. 
Xysmahbium spuriitm, N. E. Br. (i) Buchanan. 
X. Carsoni, N. E. Br. (2) Carson. 

X. bellum, N. E. Br. (i) Buchanan; Mananja hills, Kirk; Shire Highlands, K. C. 

Cameron ; (2) Carson. 
X. reticitlatum, N. E. Br. (i) Buchanan. 
X.fraternitiii, N. E. Br. (i) Blantyre, Last. 
Xysmalobium sp. (2) Carson. 
Schizoglossum connatum, N. E. Br. (2) Carson. 

. elatum, K. Schum. (i) Buchanan. 

-S. shirense, N. E. Br. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk and Waller. 
S. Nyasae, Britten et Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte; Buchanan. 
S. barbatum, Britten et Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 
S. erttbesccns, Schlechter. (i) Mlanje, Scott-Elliot. 
Schizoglossum sp. (i) Mlanje, Scott-Elliot; (4) Menyharth. 

Asclepias spectabilis, N. E. Br. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last ; Magomera, Waller. 
A. consptcna, N. E. Br. (2) Carson. 
A.fniticosa, L. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller. 
A. amabilis, N. E. Br. (2) Carson. 

A.pygmaca, N. E. Br. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
A. reflexa, Britten et Rendle. (i) Mananja hills, Meller and Waller; Zomba, Meller; 

Mlanje, Whyte ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan ; (2) North Nyasa, 

L. Scott. 
A. lincolata, Schlechter. (i) Mlanje, Scott-Elliot; Shire Valley, Kirk and Waller; 

(2) Carson. 

A. palustris, Schlechter. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; Mlanje, Scott-Elliot and McClounie. 
Asclepias sp. (2) Nutt. 



Gomphocarpns foliosus, K. Schum. (i) Marianja hills, Waller; Blantyre, Last; (2) 

Higher plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Brachystelma Bitchanani, N. E. Br. (i) Sochi, Chiromo and Mananja, Scott-Elliot; 


Cynanclniin nwssanibiccnsc, K. Schum. (i) Shire Rapids, Kirk. 

Margaretta distincta, N. E. Br. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
M. orbicularis, N. E. Br. (i) Maravi country, Kirk ; (2) North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
M. Wkytei, K. Schum. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller ; Zomba and east end of Lake Chihva, 

Meller ; Blantyre, L. Scott ; Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte ; near Metope, Scott-Elliot. 
Dregea macrant/ia, Kl. (i) Chiromo, Scott-Elliot ; (4) Menyharth. 
Gymnema sylvestre, R. Br. (i) Buchanan. 
Pergularia africana, N. E. Br. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
Sphacrocodon obtusifolium, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 
Ceropegia constricta, N. E. Br. (2) Carson. 
C. debtlis, N. E. Br. ( i ) Zomba, Buchanan. 
Riocreuxia prof lisa, N. E. Br. (i) Buchanan. 


Mostuaea Brunonis, F. Didrichs. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Bnddleia salviaefolia, Lam. (i) Zomba, Kirk and Whyte ; Buchanan. 

Buddleia sp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Nuxia congesta, R. Br. (i) Buchanan; Zomba, Whyte; var. N. tomentosa, Sond/f (i) 

Buchanan ; var. N. dentata, R. Br. (i) Mananja hills, Meller. 
N. sambesina, Gilg. (i) Zomba, Kirk. 
Strychnos dysophylla, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 
5. spinosa, Lam. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
Strychnos sp. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 

Anthodeista zambesiaca, Baker, (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
A. nobilis, Don. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
Anthodeista sp. (i) Buchanan. 


Exacuin sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Sebaea bradiyphylla, Griseb. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last. 
S. crassulaefolia, Cham, et Schlecht. (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Sebaea sp. (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 
Tadiiadcnus continentalis, Baker. (2) Carson. 
Chironia purpurascens, Benth. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt. 
C. laxiflora, Baker, (i) Mananja hills, Meller and Kirk. 
C. densiflora, Scott-Elliot, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Chironia sp. (2) Nutt. 

Faroa salutaris, Welw. (i) West shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 
F. Bndianani, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

Swertia Mannii, Hook. fil. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 
spp. (i) Buchanan. 


Cordia abyssinica, R. Br. (i) Buchanan. 

C. Myxa, L. (i) Buchanan. 

C. Kirldi, Baker. (4) Menyharth. 

C. Rot/tit, Roem. et Schult. (4) Menyharth. 



Ehrctia divaricata, Baker, (i) Chiradzulu, Kirk. 
Ehretia sp. (4) Menyharth. 

Trichodesma zeylanicum, R. Br. (i) Blantyre, Descamps. 

T. physaloides, A. DC. (i) Zomba and east end of Lake Chilvva, Meller ; Mananja hills, 
Meller ; Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (2) Carson ; 
Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson. 

Heliotropiitm oral i folium, Forsk. (i) Shire Valley, L. Scott ; Fort Johnston, Scott-Elliot. 
H. strigosttm, Willd. (i) Buchanan. 
H. bractcatum, R. Br. (2) North Nyasa, L. Scott. 

H. zeylanicmn, Lam. (i) Buchanan ; North Nyasa, L. Scott and J. Thomson. 
H. indicum, L. (i) Shire River, L. Scott ; Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Cynoglossum hmceolatum, Forsk. (i) Mlanje, McClounie ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan ; 

(2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
Lithospermiiin crythrocephaliim, Baker. (2) Carson. 
Lobostemon cryptoccphalnm, Baker. (2) Carson. 


Argyreia laxiflora, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

Lepistemon africanum, Oliv. (i) Shire Highlands, Kirk ; Lake Nyasa, Simons. 

Heivittia bicolor, Wight, (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte; Mananja hills, Meller; Shire Valley, 

L. Scott ; Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Jacqiiemontia capita ta, Don. (i) Shire Valley, L. Scott. 

Convolvulus hyoscyamoides, Vatke. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
C. iiKili'aceus, Oliv. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; Mlanje, Whyte; Buchanan; 

(2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
C. sagtttatiis, Thunb. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
C. Thomsoni, Baker. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Evolvulus alsinoidcs, L. (i) Buchanan ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 
fpomoea simplex, Thunb. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan. 
/. Pes-tigridis, L. (4) Menyharth. 
/. tanganyikensis. Baker. (2) Carson. 
/. discolor, Baker. (2) Carson. 
/. operosa, Wright, (i) Shire Highlands, Whyte. 

/. involucnita, P. Beauv. (i) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Lpilcata, Roxb. (2) Carson; Nutt. 

/. crassipes, Hook, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; Buchanan. 
/. chryseides, Ker. (4) Menyharth. 
/. Hanntngtom, Baker. (2) Carson. 
/. / I'd-idtsc/in, Yatke. (i) Buchanan. 
/. (ingiistfo/ia, Jacq. (i) Buchanan; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. 

Thomson ; (3) Serpa Pinto ; (4) Menyharth. 
/. vngtins, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
/. Carson i, Baker. (2) Carson. 
/. inconspiciui. Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
/. erio.drpa, R. Br. (i) Shire Highlands, V. Scott; Buchanan; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau, J. Thomson ; (4) Menyharth. 
I. iiiwerooisis, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 
L pharbitifortnis, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 
/. stmonsiiina, Rendle. (i) Nyasa, Simons. 
/. shirensiS) Oliv. (i) Shire Highlands, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
f. liallcriana, Britten, (i) Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte; near Katunga, Kirk. 



Ipomoca tambclcnsis, Baker, (i) Upper Shire Valley, Kirk. 

I.obsaira, Koen. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, 

J. Thomson. 

/. Buchanani, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

/. Undleyi, Choisy. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (4) ? Menyharth. 
/. aqiiatica, Forsk. (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 
I.pilosa, Sweet, (i) Buchanan; (4) Menyharth. 
/. Wightii, Choisy. (4) Menyharth. 
/. afra, Choisy. (i) Buchanan. 

Lpterygocaulis, Choisy. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 
I.pinnata, Hochst. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 
/. palmata, Forsk. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 
/. dissecta, Willd. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 
I. kirkuma, Britten, (i) Shire Highlands, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
I.fulvicaulis, Boiss. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 


Solatium nodiflorum, Jacq. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk. 

S. nigrum, L. (i) Blantyre, Descamps. 

S. schimperianum, Hochst. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

5. Naumannii, Engl. (i) Buchanan. 

S. anomalum, Thonn. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

S. aculeastrum, Dun. (i) Blantyre, L. Scott ; Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Meller. 

S. Rohrti, Wright, (i) Mpatamanga, Kirk. 

5. chrysotrichum, Wright, (i) Buchanan. 

S. acanthocalyx, Klotzsch. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte. 

S. trepidans, Wright, (i) Shire Valley, L. Scott. 

Pliysalis pubescens, L. (i) Blantyre, Descamps. 

P. pcruviana, L. (i) Blantyre, L. Scott. 

Capsicum conoides, Mill. (4) Sesheke, Kirk. 

Datura alba, Nees. (i) Shire Highlands, Kirk ; Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Meller. 


Diclis ovata, Benth. (i) Mandala, Scott-Elliot. 
D. tenella, Hemsl. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Hal I ena Indda, L. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
H. elliptic*, Thunb. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Chaenostoma sp. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 

Uimuliisgnicilis, R. Br. (i) Zomba and east end of Lake Chilwa, Meller ; Buchanan. 
Craterostigma plantagineunii Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 
Torenia pannflora, Hamilt. (2) North of Lake Nyasa, L. Scott. 
Vanddlia lobclioides, Oliv. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson. 
Ilysanthcs sp. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Valley, L. Scott ; (2) Nutt. 
Alectra melmnpyroides, Benth. (i) Mbami, near Blantyre and Mananja hills, Kirk; 

Ikichanan ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Alectra, sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Atihiya obtiisifolia, Benth. (i) Shire Highlands, K. C. Cameron. 
Huchncra quadrifaria, Baker. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J 

Carson ; Nutt. 
B. Lasiii. Engl. (i) Blantyre, Last. 



Biichnera spp. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan; Mlanje and Chiradzulu, Whyte ; 

(2) Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Striga elegans, Benth. (i) Blantyre, Last. 
S. cocdnea, Benth. (i) Shire Highlands, Kirk ; Buchanan, 
.s. Forbesii, Benth. (i) Shire Highlands, Meller. 

S. orobanchoides, Benth. (2) North of Lake Xyasa, L. Scott ; Carson. 
Striga spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) North of Lake Nyasa, L. Scott ; Carson. 
Rhamphicarpa fistulosa, Benth. (2) North of Lake Nyasa, L. Scott. 
R. serrata, Klotzsch. (i) Zomba and east end of Lake Chilvva, Meller ; Buchanan. 
A', tubulosciy Benth. (i) Mandala, Scott-Elliot. 

Rhamphicarpa spp. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 
Cycninm udotiensc, E. Mey. (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte; Buchanan; (2) Carson; 

Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 

C. longiflorum, Eck. et Zeyh. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk; Buchanan; (2) North of Lake 

Xyasa, J. Thomson and L. Scott. 
Cycnium spp. (i) Buchanan; (2) Carson. 
Sopitbia Janata, Engl. (2) Carson ; Nutt. 
6". mmosa, Hochst. (i) Mananja hills, Meller and Kirk ; Blantyre, Last ; Buchanan ; 

(2) Carson ; Nutt. 

S. dregcana, Benth. (i) Zomba, Whyte; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
S. Hildebrandtii, Vatke. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Sopubia spp. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, 

J. Thomson; Carson. 


Orobanche ccrnna, Loefl. (i) Shire Highlands, L. Scott. 


UtricuJaria capensis, Spreng. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last. 

Utrictdaria spp. (i) Buchanan ; Lake Nyasa, Laws ; (2) Nutt ; Carson ; Lower plateau, 
north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; (4) Victoria Falls and Batoka country, Kirk. 


Streptocarpus caulescens, Vatke. (i) Buchanan. 
S. Cooperi, C. B. Clarke, (i) Buchanan. 


Tecoma shirensis, Baker, (r) Buchanan. 

71 nyassae, Oliv. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Dolichandrone obtusifolia, Baker, (r) Shire Highlands, Buchanan and Scott-Elliot. 

D. toincntosa, Benth. (2) Carson. 

Stcreospennnin kunthiannm, Cham. (i) Shire Highlands, Waller ; Buchanan ; Chirad- 
zulu, Meller ; West shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk ; (2) Mweru, Carson ; (4) Batoka 
country, Kirk. 

Kigelia pinnata, DC. (i) Buchanan. 


Sesamum angolense, Welw. (i) Buchanan ; West shore of Lake Xyasa, Kirk ; Blantyre ; 

Last ; (2) Carson ; Xutt. 
S. indicum, L. (2) Karonga, L. Scott. 
S. \calycinum, Welw. (4) Holub. 
Ceratothcca sesamoides, Endl. Buchanan ; (i) Shire Valley, L. Scott ; West shore of 

Lake Nyasa, Kirk and Simons ; (2) Carson ; Karonga, L. Scott ; (4) Holub. 
Ceratothcca sp. (2) Karonga, L. Scott. 
1'rclrcii -.anqiiebarica, J. Gay. (i) Zomba and east end of Lake Chilwa, Meller; (4) Holub. 



Hebenstreitia sp. (4) Holub. 
Selago milanjiensis, Rolfe. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
6". whyteana, Rolfe. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 

Selago spp. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller and Whyte; Mlanje, McClounie; Buchanan; (2) 
Lower and Upper plateaux, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; (4) Menyharth. 


Thunbergia kirkiana, T. Anders, (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

T. a/a/a, Bojer. (i) Buchanan; Mlanje, Whyte; Mananja hills, Kirk and Meller; 
(2) Carson. 

T. lancifolia, T. Anders, (i) Blantyre, L. Scott ; Mananja hills and Chiradzulu, Meller; 
Buchanan ; Zomba, Whyte ; (2) Carson ; Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson. 

T. obtusifolia, Oliv. (2) Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

T. erecta, Benth. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last ; Mananja hills, Waller. 

T. oblongifolia, Oliv. (i) Mananja hills, Waller; Buchanan; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau, Scott-Elliot. 

T. subulata, Lindau. (i) Buchanan. 

T. mollis, Lindau. (i) Buchanan. 

T. manganjensis, Lindau. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk. 

Thunbergia spp. (i) Buchanan ; Zomba, Whyte ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (2) 

Nutt ; Carson ; Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
Nelsonia campestris, R. Br. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 
Hygrophila spinosa, T. Anders, (i) Buchanan ; Shire River, Kirk. 
H. parviflora, Lindau. (i) Buchanan. 

Mellera lobulata, S. Moore, (i) Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Meller. 
Calophanes spp. (i) Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Ruellia pro strata, T. Anders, (i) Buchanan; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; Lower Shire 

Valley, Kirk ; (2) Carson. 

Paulo-wilhclmia sp. (i) Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Mananja hills, Meller. 
Mimnlopsis sesamoides, S. Moore, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Mimulopsis sp. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Eranthemnm senense, Klotzsch. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, McClounie ; Mananja hills, Kirk. 
Acanthopale sp. (Dischistocalyx confertiflora, Lindau). (i) Buchanan. 

Whitfieldia sp. (2) Carson. 
Dyschoriste, sp. {Calophanes verticillaris, Oliv.) (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan ; 

Chiradzulu, Whyte ; (2) Higher plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Dyschoriste spp. (2) Carson ; (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
Strobilanthes sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Phaylopsis parviflora, Willd. (i) Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Phaylopsis sp. (Micranthus Poggei, Lindau). (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Blepharis serrnlata, Ficalho et Hiern. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

B. longifolia, Lindau. (i) Buchanan. 
Blepharis spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutf. 

Crossandra Greenstockii, S. Moore, (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Mlanje, Whyte and 
McClounie ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan. 

C. nilotica, Oliv. (2) Tanganyika and Mweru, Carson. 

C. puberula, Klotzsch. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller and Kirk ; Mananja hills, Meller ; 


Crossandra sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Barleria Kirkii, T. Anders, (i) Buchanan. 
B. calophylloides, Lindau. (i) Nutt. 
/,'. Prionitis, L. (i) Shire Highlands, Meller. 



Barleria spinulosa, Klotzsch. (i) River Shire, Meller and Kirk : Buchanan. 

B. eranthemoides, R. Br. (i) Buchanan. 
Barleria sp. (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

Crabbeanana, Nees (C. aovalifolia, Ficalho et Hiern.) (3) Serpa Pinto. 
Crabbea sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Lepidagathis spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt. 

Asystasia coromandeliana, Nees. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 
Asystasia sp. (2) Carson. 

Brachystephanus africanus, S. Moore, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Justicia Whytei, S. Moore, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
J. heterocarpa, T. Anders. (2) Nutt. 
J. anselliana, T. Anders, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
J. melainpyrum, S. Moore, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Justicia spp. (i) Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Blantyre, Last ; Shire Highlands and 
Lake Nyasa, Scott-Elliot ; (2) Nutt ; Carson ; Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
Isoglossa milanjiensis, S. Moore, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Isoglossa sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Rhinacanthus commitnis, Nees. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Rhinacanthiis sp. (i) Buchanan; Blantyre, Last ; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Himantochilus marginatus, Lindau. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Dicliptera sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Peristrophe bicalyculata, Nees. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
Hypoestes -vertidllaris, R. Br. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 
H. phaylopsoides, S. Moore, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
H. Rothii, T. Anders, (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
H. latifo/ia, H. (i) Buchanan. 
Hypoestes spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 


Lantana salviaefolia, Jacq. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje and Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Shire 
Highlands, Scott-Elliot; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson; 
Carson; Nutt; (3) Serpa Pinto. 
Lippia nodiflora, A. Rich, (i) Buchanan. 
L. asperifolia, Rich, (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; (2) Plateau, 

north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Lippia sp. (2) Carson. 
Priva leptosiachya, Juss. (i) Buchanan. 
Premna scnensis, Klotzsch. (i) Buchanan. 
Premna sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Holmskioldia tettensis, Vatke. (i) Banks of Shire River, Kirk. 
Vitex milanjiensis, Britten, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; Mlanje and Zomba, 

Whyte ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
V. Mombassae, Vatke. (i) Buchanan. 
V. paludosa, Vatke. (i) River Shire, Kirk; Buchanan; Maiianja hills, Meller; (2) 

Karonga, L. Scott. 

V. Buchananii, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

Vitex spp. (i) Buchanan ; Lake Chilwa, Kirk ; (4) Menyharth. 
Clerodendron tanganyikense, Baker. (2) Carson. 

C. capitation, Schum. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. 

Thomson ; Carson. 
C. discolor, Vatke. (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte. 



Clerodendron lanccolatum, Giirke. (4) Menyharth. 

C. myricoides, R. Br. (i) Buchanan; Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte ; Shire Highlands, 

Scott-Elliot ; Mananja hills, Meller. 

C. spinescens, Giirke. (i) Maravi country, Kirk ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 
Clerodendron spp. (i) Maiianja hills, Meller ; Lower Shire Valley, Waller ; Buchanan. 


Ocimum suave, Willd. (i) Shire Highlands, Last ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; (2) Nutt. 

O. affinc, Hochst. (i) Blantyre, L. Scott ; Mlanje, McClounie ; (2) Carson. 

O.filamentosum, Forsk. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

O. cornigertim, Hochst. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

O. hians, Benth. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

O. bracteosum, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 

Ocimum spp. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot, L. Scott and K. C. Cameron ; 

(2) Upper and Lower plateaux, north of Lake Nyasa. 
Acrocephalus caUianthus, Briquet, (i) Buchanan; Chiradzulu, Whyte; Blantyre, Last; 

Mananja hills, Meller. 
A. zambesiacus, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
A. caeruleus, Oliv. (2) Nutt. 
Acrocephalus spp. (i) Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Kirk ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake 

Nyasa, J. Thomson ; Carson ; Nutt. 
Orthosiphon coloratus, Vatke. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
O. trichodon, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
O. Kirkii, Baker, ined. ex. Britten, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 2nd Ser. iv., p. 37. (i) Mlanje, 


O. Canter oni, Baker. (2) Carson. 

Orthosiphon spp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 
Geniosporum affine, Giirke. (i) Buchanan. 
Moschosma polystachyum, Benth. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
M. riparium, Hochst. (i) Murchison Falls, Meller; Chiradzulu, Whyte; Last; 

Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, L. Scott ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, 

J. Thomson. 

Moschosma sp. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last. 
Coleus umbrosus, Vatke. (i) Blantyre, Descamps. 
C. leucophyllus, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 
C. punctatus, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 
C. shirensis, Giirke (Plectranthus glandulosies, Britten, non Hook. fil.). (i) Buchanan; 

Zomba, Whyte. 

Coleus spp. (i) Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; (2) Carson. 
Solenostemon sp. (i) Blantyre, Last ; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Aeolanthus Nyassae, Giirke. (i) Buchanan. 
A. ukambensis, Giirke. (i) Buchanan. 
Aeolanthus spp. (i) Buchanan. 
Pycnosiachys parvifolia, Baker. (2) Carson. 
P. verticillata, Baker. (2) Carson. 
P. cyanea, Giirke. (i) Buchanan. 
P. pnbescens, Giirke. (i) Buchanan. 
P. reticulata, Benth. (2) Carson. 

P. urtici folia, Hook, (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Pycnostachys spp. (2) Nutt ; Carson. 
Plectranthus subacaulis, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 



PlcctnintJnis niodcstus, Baker. (2) Carson. 

PL floribitndus, N. E. Br. ; var. longipes, N. E. Br. (i) Marianja hills, Meller ; 

Maravi country, Kirk; Buchanan; Shire Highlands, L. Scott; (2) Lower plateau, 

north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
PL elegans, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
PL priinulinus, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 
PL sangu incus, Britten, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
PL betonicaefolins, Baker. (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

PL dcnsus, N. E. Br. (2) Higher plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
PL manganjensis, Baker, ined. ex. Britten, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 2nd Ser. iv., p. 37. (i) 

Zomba, Whyte. 

Plectranthits sp. (PL Mellcri, Britten, non Baker), (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Chiradzulu, 

Plectranthiis spp. (i) Shire Valley and Mananja hills, Kirk; Buchanan; Last; Shire 
Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; 

Hoslimdia opposita, Vahl. (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte; Mananja hills, Zomba and 

east end of Lake Chilwa, Meller. 

Hyptis pcctinata, Poit. (i) Zomba and Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Blantyre, Descamps. 
Calamintha simensis, Benth. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Micromeria biflora, Benth. (i) Mlanje, Whyte; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Xyasa, 

J. Thomson. 

Micromeria sp. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
Elsholtzia sp. (2) Carson. 

Achyrospermum sp. (i) Ndirande Mountain, Buchanan. 
Lasiocorys sp. (2) Carson. 

Lconitis pallida, R. Br. (i) Blantyre, Descamps. 
L. nepetaefolia, R. Br. (2) Carson. 
L. Leonitrus, R. Br. (2) Carson. 

L. I'diitina, Fenzl. (i) Buchanan ; Descamps ; Mananja hills, Meller. 
Leonitis spp. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Tinnea sp. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
Scutellaria paucifolia, Baker. (2) Carson ; Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, 

J. Thomson ; Mweru, Carson. 
.5". Livingstonei, Baker, ined. ex. Britten, in Trans. Linn. Soc. 2nd ser. iv. p. 37. (i) 

Mananja hills, Kirk ; Buchanan ; Blantyre, L. Scott ; Zomba, Whyte ; Livingstone ; 

(2) Mweru, Carson. 
Scutellaria sp. (2) Carson. 
Stachys aethiopica, L. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Stachys sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Lcucas martinicdisis, R. Br. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 
L. Nyassae, Giirke. (i) Buchanan. 

L. milanjiana, Gtirke (L. glabrata, Britten, non R. Br.) (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
L. decadonta, Giirke. (i) Buchanan. 
Lcucas spp. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Buchanan; (2) Nutt; Carson; Lower plateau, 

north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 


Mirabilis Jalapa, L. (i) Shire Valley, Meller; Mananja hills, Kirk. 
Jioerhaat'in rcpens, L., var. asccndcns, Willd. (i) Buchanan. 
/>'. filiiinl><tincti, Cav. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
/.'. Hurchellii, Choisy. (i) Shire Valley, Waller. 



i sp. (3) Serpa Pinto. 


Celosia argentea, L. (2) Carson. 

C. Schweinfurthii, Schinz. (i) Shire Valley, L. Scott. 

C. trigyna, L. (i) Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Meller ; Mlanje and Chiradzulu, Whyte ; 
Blantyre, Last. 

Celosia spp. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk ; Buchanan. 

Amarantiis Blitnm, L. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan. 

A. Thunbergii, Moq. (i) Shire Valley, L. Scott. 

A. caiedatiis, L. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Mpatamanga, Shire River, Kirk ; (2) North 
Nyasaland, L. Scott. 

Centema Kirkii, Hook. fil. (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk; Elephant Marsh, Shire River, L. 
Scott ; Buchanan. 

Cyathula cylindrica, Moq. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

C. globulifera, Moq. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Mpata- 
manga, on Shire River, Kirk. 

Pu.palia lappacea, Moq. (i) Buchanan. 

Aema lanata, Juss. (i) Buchanan. 

A. javanica, Juss. (i) Shire Highlands, and throughout the Mananja and Shire hills, 
Buchanan, Meller and L. Scott. 

Psilotrichum spp. (i) Blantyre, Buchanan and Last ; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

Achyranthes aspera, L. (i) Blantyre, Descamps ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; (2) Carson ; var. 
argentea, Lam. (2) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

Achyranthes sp. (2) Carson. 

Alternanthera sessilzs, R. Br. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (2) North Nyasa, L. Scott. 

A. nodiflora, R. Br. (i) Buchanan. 


Chcnopodiujii Botrys, L. (i) Buchanan ; var. C. procerum, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 


Phytolacca abyssintca, Hoffm. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan. 


OxygoniDii atriplicifoliiun, Baker (Ccntogomun atriplicifolium, Meisn.), var. O. sinii- 
atuni, Engl. (i) Lake Chilwa, Kirk. 

Polygonum Poiretii, Meisn. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

P. plcbchnii, R. Br. (i) Buchanan. 

P. senegalensc, Meisn. (i) Banks of Shire River, Kirk ; (2) North Nyasa, L. Scott. 

P. tomentosuiii, Willd. (i) Buchanan. 

P. serrielatitin, Lag. (i) Zomba, Whyte ; (2) Lake Nyasa, L. Scott. 

P. barbatum, L. (i) Buchanan ; Lake Nyasa, Scott-Elliot. 

P. tristachyiiin, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

P. glabrum, Willd. (i) Upper Shire, Scott-Elliot. 

P. lanigcrum, R. Br. (i) Upper Shire, Scott-Elliot ; Lower Shire Valley, Meller; 

Lake Chilwa, Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, K. C. Cameron. 
P. lapathifolium, L. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller. 
P. alatinn, Hamilt. (i) Buchanan. 
P. strigosuin, R. Br. (i) Buchanan. 
Ritmex nepalensis, Spreng. (i) Buchanan. 

R. abyssinicus, Jacq. (i) Shire Highlands, K. C. Cameron; Buchanan. 
R. maderensis, Lowe. (2) Carson ; Higher plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 



Hydrostachys polymorpha, Klotzsch. (i) Tributary of Shire to north-east of Katunga, 

Kirk ; Blantyre, Last ; Buchanan. 
Sphaerothylax sp. (i) Blantyre, Last. 


Piper capense, L. fil. (i) Chiradzulu and Zomba, Whyte; Buchanan. 

Pepcromia reflexa, Dietr. (i) Mlanje, McClounie and Whyte; Zomba, Whyte; Buchanan. 


Cassytha guincen si's, S. et T. (i) Buchanan. 


Protea Nyasae, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

P. abyssinica, Willd. (i) Blantyre, L. Scott; Buchanan; (2) Nutt ; (4) Batoka country, 

Protea spp. (i) Marianja hills, Meller ; Buchanan; Katunga, Kirk; (2) Higher plateau, 

north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Faurea speciosa, Welw. (i) Buchanan ; Zomba, Whyte. 

Faurea sp. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller; near Chiradzulu, Kirk; Buchanan; (4) Batoka 
country, Kirk. 


Arthrosolenflavus, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Blantyre, L. Scott ; (2) Nutt. 

A. glaucescens, Oliv. (2) Carson. 

Arthrosolen spp. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk and Meller ; Last ; Buchanan ; (2) Nutt. 

Gnidia Buchananii, Gilg. (i) Buchanan ; Chiradzulu and Mananja hills, Meller. 

G. microcephala, Meisn. (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte; Zomba and east end of Lake 

Chilwa, Meller. 

G. apiculata, Gilg. (i) Buchanan. 
G. fastigiata, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Gnidia spp. (i) Foot of Chiradzulu, Kirk; Blantyre, L. Scott; Sochi, Kirk; Buchanan; 

(2) Carson ; Upper and Lower plateaux, north of Lake Nyasa. J. Thomson ; Nutt. 
Lasiosiplion spp. (i) Buchanan; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson; 

(4) Batoka country, Kirk. 

Peddiea longipediccllata, Gilg. (i) Buchanan. 


Loranthus iinccmcnsis, Baker. (2) Mweru, Carson. 

Loranthus spp. (i) Lower Shire, Meller; Zomba, Kirk; Buchanan; (2) Lower plateau, 
north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; Carson. 


Thcsium nigricans, Rendle. (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte. 

T. whyteanitm, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Thesiitm spp. (i) Foot of Chiradzulu, Kirk ; Blantyre and Matope, L. Scott ; Buchanan ; 

Mlanje, McClounie ; (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
Colpoon sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Osyridocarpus scandens, Engl. (i) Katunga, Kirk. 


Euphorbia scordi/olia, Jacq. (i) Buchanan. 

E. zainbesiaca, Benth. (i) Mlanje, McClounie ; Buchanan ; Zomba and east end of Lake 

Chilwa, Meller ; (2) Mweru, Carson. 
E. Grantii, Oliv. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 



Euphorbia u>hyteana, Baker fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
E. shirensis, Baker fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
E. indica, Lam. (4) Menyharth. 

Euphorbia spp. (i) Above Elephant Marsh and Murchison Falls, Shire River, and 
Mananja hills, Meller ; Katunga, Kirk ; west shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk ; Buchanan ; 
(2) Karonga, L. Scott ; Carson. 
Synadenium Grantii, Hook. fil. (4) Menyharth. 
Synadcninm sp. (2) Carson. 
Bridelia micrantha, Baill. (i) Buchanan. 
Briddia sp. (i) Zomba, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 
Phyllantkus nummulariaefolius, Poir. (i) Blantyre, Last. 
P. leucanthus, Pax. (i) Buchanan. 

P. maderaspatemis, L. (i) Above Elephant Marsh, on River Shire, L. Scott. 
P. hystcracanthus, Muell.-Arg. (i) West shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 
P. rotundifolius, Willd. (i) Mlanje, Whyte; var. leitcocaly.i; Muell.-Arg. (i) Mlanje, 

Phyllanthus spp. (i) Buchanan; Blantyre, L. Scott; Mlanje, Whyte; (2) Karonga, L. 

Scott ; Carson ; Nutt ; (4) Menyharth. 
Securinega obovata, Muell.-Arg. (4) Menyharth. 

Uapaca nitida, Muell.-Arg. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 

U. kirkiana, Muell.-Arg. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk ; Buchanan. 

Uapaca spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Antidesma spp. (i) Shire River, Kirk ; Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
Jatropha Curcas, L. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, McClounie ; (4) Menyharth. 
Jatropha sp. (2) Carson. 

Croton macrostachyus, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 

Croton spp. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 

Cluytia richardiana, Muell.-Arg. (t) Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

Cluytia sp. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Caperonia spp. (i) Blantyre, Last ; Buchanan. 

Cephalocroton sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Micrococca Mercurialis, Benth. (i) Elephant Marsh, on Shire River, L. Scott. 

Acalypha bcnguelensis, Muell.-Arg. (i) Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte. 

A. villicauiis, A. Rich, (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte; 
Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

A. pilosfachya, Hochst. (i) Mpatamanga, on Shire River, Kirk ; Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, 
Whyte ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Acalypha spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Alchornea sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Neoboutinia africana, Muell.-Arg. (l) Zomba, Whyte. 

Mallotus Mclleri, Muell.-Arg. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 

Macaranga spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Ricinus coininunis, L. (i) Lower Valley of Shire, Meller. 

Tragia mitis, Hochst. (4) Menyharth. 

Tragia sp. (i) Shire River above Elephant Marsh, L. Scott. 

Dalechampia sp. (i) Lower Shire River, Kirk ; (4) Menyharth. 

Maprounea sp. (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 

Excoecaria sp. (i) Buchanan. 


Trema spp. (i) Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Meller and Kirk. 
Dorstcnia Bitchananii, Engler. (i) Buchanan. 



Dorstcnia Wallcri, Hemsl. (i) Marianja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 

Dorstenia spp. (i) Buchanan. 

Fiats capreaefolia, Del. (i) Island in River Shire, near Mbenje, L. Scott. 

Fiats spp. (i) Katunga, Shire Valley, L. Scott; Buchanan; Kankanje, Kirk; (2) 

Karonga, L. Scott. 

Treculia sp. (i) West shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 
Myrianthus sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Urtica sp. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
J'lcitrya aestuans, Gaudich. (i) Buchanan. 
Fleurya sp. (i) Shire Valley, L. Scott ; (4) Menyharth. 
Urera sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Girardinia heterophylla, Dene, (i) Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Waller ; Chiradzulu, Kirk. 
Girardinia sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Pilea sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Boehmeria platyphylla, Don. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte; Buchanan. 
Bochmcria sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Ponsolzia sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Pipturus sp. (i) Buchanan. 


Myrica pilulifera, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Myrica spp. (i) Buchanan. 


Ceratophyllum sp. (i) Blantyre, Last ; Lake Nyasa, Laws. 


Lagarosiphon Nyassac, Ridley, (i) Lake Nyasa, Laws. 

Vallisneria spiralis, L. (i) Lake Nyasa, Laws. 

Ottelia spp. (i) Luangwa, west shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk ; Blantyre, Last. 


Biirtnannia bicolor, Mast., var. ufricana, Ridley. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, 
J. Thomson. 


Liparis Boivkcri, Harv. (i) Buchanan. 

Megaclinium Melleri, Hook. fil. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller : Mlanje, McClounie. 

Knlophia callichroma, Rchb. fil. (i) Mananja hills, Meller and Kirk ; Zomba, Meller. 

E. Nyasae, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

E, aristata, Rendle. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

E.praesfans, Rendle. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

E. milanjiana, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Mananja hills, Meller : Buchanan. 

E. missionis, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Scott-Elliot. 

E. Shupangae, Kranz. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk and Waller ; Blantyre, L. Scott; Zombn, 


E. longesepala, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
E. 't'cuulosa, Rchb. fil. (E. hionilis, Rendle). (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Shire Highlands, 

Eulophirt spp. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk, Meller and Waller ; Mlanje, McClounie ; 

Buchanan ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson and H. H. Johnston : Carson ; 

Nutt ; (4) Sesheke, Holub. 
Cyrtopcrn II 'nllcri, Rchb. fi). i M.manja hills, Waller ; Buchanan. 



Lissochilus microceras, Rchb. fil. (i) Sochi, Kirk ; Mananja hills, Meller. 

L. heteroglossus, Rchb. fil. (i) Upper Shire Valley, Kirk. 

L. gracilior, Rendle. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

L. livingstonianus, Rchb. fil. (i) Mananja hills, Waller and Meller; Mlanje, Whyte and 

McClounie ; between Matope and Blantyre, L. Scott. 
L. arenarhis, Lindl. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk and Meller ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; 

Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan ; (2) North of Lake Nyasa, L. Scott ; Carson. 
L. Sanderson!', Rchb. fil. (i) Buchanan. 

L. papilio naccns, Rendle. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
L. Krebsii, Rchb. fil. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 
L. shircnsis, Rendle. (i) Sochi, Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
L. calopterus, Rchb. fil. (i) Lower Shire Valley, L. Scott. 
L. Wakefieldii, Rchb. fil. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
L. dispcrsus, Rolfe. (i) Livingstonia (Collector not known). 
L. brevisepalus, Rendle. (i) Sochi and Ndirande, Scott-Elliot. 
L. milanjianns, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 
Lissochilus spp. (i) Buchanan; Mananja hills, Waller ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, 

Carson and J. Thomson ; Mweru, Carson. 
Polystachya imbricata, Rolfe. ( i ) Buchanan. 
P. Buchanani, Rolfe. (i) Buchanan. 
P. shirensis, Rchb. fil. (i) Shire River, Meller. 
P. sambesiaca, Rolfe. (i) Buchanan. 
P. la-wrenceana, Kranz. (i) Buchanan. 
P. villosa, Rolfe. (i) Buchanan. 

P. minima, Rendle. (i) Sochi, Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Polystachya spp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie, Zomba, Kirk. 
Angraecum alcicorne, Rchb. fil. (i) Mlanje; McClounie ; Shire River, Kirk. 
A. chiloschistae, Rchb. fil. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk ; Blantyre, Last. 
A. megalorrhizum, Rchb. fil. (i) Shire Valley, Kirk and Waller ; Buchanan. 
A. -verrucosum, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Angraecum sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Pogonia spp. (i) Buchanan. 
Stenoglottis sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Holothrix Johnstontii Rolfe. (i) Mlanje, McClounie; Zomba, Whyte. 
Holothrix sp. (i) Blantyre, Last ; (2) Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Peristylis hispidula, Rendle. (i) Buchanan. 
Habenaria zambesina, Rchb. fil. (i) Buchanan. 
H. siibarmata, Rchb. fil. (i) Katunga, Kirk. 
H. sflchensis, Rchb. fil. (i) Sochi hill, Kirk. 

H. Waller i, Rchb. fil. (i) Mananja hills and foot of Mlanje, Kirk ; Blantyre, Last. 
H. praestans, Rendle. (i) Buchanan; Blantyre, Last. 
H. buchananiana, Kranz. i'i; Buchanan ; Mananja hills, Waller ; Mlanje, Scott-Elliot; 

(2) Nutt. 
Habenaria spp. ( i ) Carson. 

vthis pleistophylla, Rchb. fil. ^i) Buchanan; Mlanje, McClounie and Whyte; 

Sochi, Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Blantyre, Last. 
/>'. pubescens, Harv. (i; Mlanje, Scott-Elliot; Blantyre, Last; Buchanan. 
Hiachycorytliis temiior, Rchb. fil. (i) Blantyre, Last; (2) Nutt ; Carson. 
Satyriiim cheirophonun, Rchb. fil. (i; Blantyre, Last. 
S. minax, Rchb. fil. (i) Blantyre, Last. 
5. Buchanani, Rchb. fil. ( I ; Blantyre, Last. 



Satyrium spp. (i) Mpatamanga and Mananja hills, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 
Disa hircicornis, Rchb. fil. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk. 
D. Waller i, Rchb. fii. (i) Mananja hills, Waller. 
D. sombaensis, Rendle. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 
D. hamatopetala, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, McClounie and Whyte. 

Disa spp. (i) Buchanan; Zomba, Kirk; Blantyre, Last; (2) Higher plateau, north of 
Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; Carson ; Nutt ; Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Johnston. 


Kacinpferia aethiopica, Benth. (i) Buchanan; Mandala, Scott-Elliot; Mananja hills, 
Meller ; near Blantyre, L. Scott ; (2) Karonga, Carson ; Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, 
H. H. Johnston. 

K. rosea, Schweinf. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Lake Nyasa, L. Scott ; Buchanan ; 

Lower Shire Valley, Kirk ; Shire Valley, Meller. 
Kciempferia sp. (2) Karonga, Carson. 
Cadnlvcnia spectabHis^ Fenzl. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; Buchanan; Blantyre, 

Last ; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, H. H. Johnston. 
Anwiniini sp. (i) Zomba, Kirk. 

Canna //id/in, L., subsp. C. oricntalix, Roscoe. (i) Lower valley of Shire River, Meller. 
Mitsa Biichnnani, Baker, (i) Shire Highlands, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
J/. sapicntuin , L., var. J/. paradisiaca, L. (1,2, and 4) abundant. 
M. livingstoniana^ Kirk, (i) Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 


Sansevieria Kir/cii, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

Cyanastntm sp. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, H. H. Johnston ; Nutt. 


Moraea zainbesiaca, Baker, (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Sochi and Katunga, Kirk ; Zomba, 

Buchanan ; Mlanje, McClounie ; (2) Higher plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, and 

between Nyasa and Tanganyika, J. Thomson. 
M. itn^usta, Ker. (2) Carson ; Nutt. 
M. ventricosa, Baker. (2) Carson. 

J/. Tlwmsoni, Baker. (2) Higher plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
M. Carsoni, Baker. (2) Carson. 
M. iridoides, L. (i) Mpatamanga, Kirk. 

Artstea johnstontana, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 
Dierama pendula, Baker, (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika 

plateau, J. Thomson. 

Lapeyrousia erythrantha, Baker. Mananja hills, Waller. 
L. Sandcrsoni, Baker, i i; Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 
L. grandijlora, Baker, (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Buchanan. 
L. kolostachya, Baker. (2) Carson. 

Crocosma aurea, Planch, (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Addanthera bicolor, Hochst. i) Buchanan. 

Gladiolus unguiculatus, Baker. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, J. Thomson ; Carson. 
(i. Oatcsiiy Rolfe. (i) Mlanje, Whyte; Buchanan. 

(i. Thomson}, Baker. (2) Higher plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
G.flexiiosits, Baker. (2) Carson. 

G. utropitrpiirciis, Baker, (i) Mananja hills, Waller; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
(i. Melleri, Baker, (i) Mananja hills, Meller and Waller; Katunga and Mpimbi, Kirk; 
Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte. 



Gladiolus Buchanan!, Baker, (i) Ndirande, Buchanan. 

G. gracillimus, Baker. (2) Carson. 

G. tritonioides, Baker. (2) Carson. 

G. Hanningtoni, Baker. (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

6". zambcsi acus, Baker, (i) Blantyre, Last. 

G. oligophlcbiiis, Baker. (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

G. ercctiflorus, Baker. (2) Carson. 

G. caudatus, Baker. (2) Carson. 

G. brachvandrus, Baker. (2) Buchanan. 

G. quartinianus, A. Rich, (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

Gladiolus spp. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; (2) Carson. 


Hypoxis villosa, L. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, L. Scott and Scott-Elliot ; Mananja 

hills, Meller ; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
H. obtusa, Burch. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake 

Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

H. angiistifolia, Lam. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Cure uligo gallabatensis, Schweinf. (2) R. Nsessi, L. Scott. 
Curculigo sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Crinum subcernuum, Baker, (i) Shire River, Kirk. 
Crinum sp. (4) Menyharth. 
Buphane disticha, Herb, (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Shire Highlands, Buchanan and 

Scott-Elliot ; (2) between Nyasa and Tanganyika, and upper plateau, north of Lake 

Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

Brunsvigia Kirkii, Baker. (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, Scott-Elliot. 
Cyrtanthus Wehvitschit, Hiern. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie ; Buchanan. 
Haemanthus multiflonis, Martyn. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 
Haemanthus sp. (4) Menyharth. 

Pancratium trinnthitnt, Herb, (i) Shire cataracts, Kirk. 
Vellozia splendens, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 
Vcllozia sp. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Zomba and east end of Lake Chilwa, Kirk; 

Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot and Buchanan. 


Tacca pinnatifida, L. (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan and Scott-Elliot. 


Dioscorea Bnchanani, Benth. ( i ) Buchanan. 
D. prehensilis, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 

D. schimpcriana, Hochst. (i) Mpatamanga, Kirk; Buchanan. 
D. dumetorum, Pax. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan. 

D. bcccariana, Martelli, var. vcstita, Pax. (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan and Scott- 


Dracaena fragrans, Ker.-Gawl. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller; Buchanan; Zomba, Whyte. 

D. elliptica, Thunb. et Dallm. (i) Buchanan. 

Smilax- kraitssiana, Meisn. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk; Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan; Shire 

Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

Asparagus inrgatus, Baker, (i) Buchanan; Mlanje, Whyte. 
A.plitmosus, Baker, (i ; Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte. 



Asparagus Paulo-guliclmi, Solms. (i) Shire Highlands, L. Scott. 

A. piiberulus, Baker, (i) Mananja hills, Meller. 

A. irregularis, Baker, (i) Foot of Chiradzulu, Kirk. 

A. africanus, Lam. (2) Carson ; Nutt ; (4) Menyharth. 

A. asiaticits, L. (4) Menyharth. 

A. racemosus, Willd. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

A. Buchanani, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

Asparagus sp. (i) Buchanan ; Blantyre, Last. 

Hylonome reticulata, Webb, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Kniphofin longistyla, Baker, (i) Zomba, Kirk ; Buchanan. 

K. zombensis, Baker, (i) Zomba, Buchanan. 

Aloe Buchanani, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

A. Nuttii, Baker. (2) Nutt ; Carson. 

A. cryptopoda, Baker. (4) Menyharth. 

Eriospermum abyssiniciim, Baker, (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
E. Kirkii, Baker, (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan and L. Scott. 
Eriospermum sp. (2) Carson. 
Bulbine alooides, Willd. (i) Chiradzulu, Kirk and Meller. 

B. asphodeloides, Schult. fil. (i) Shire Highlands, K. C. Cameron, Scott-Elliot and 

Buchanan ; Mlanje, McClounie. 

Anthericum sitbpetiolatum, Baker, (i) Buchanan; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

A. Nyasae, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

A. milanjianum, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

A. Cameroni, Baker. (2) Carson. 

A. nidulans, Baker, (i) Chiradzulu, Meller. 

A. jacquinianum, Schult. fil. (2) Carson. 

Anthericum sp. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Nutt ; Carson. 

Chlorophytum blcpharophyllum, Schweinf. (i) Zomba, Whyte; Fort Johnston. Scott- 
Elliot ; Buchanan. 

C. stenopetalum, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

C. brachystachyum, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

C. gallabatense, Schweinf. (i) Buchanan. 

C. andongense, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

C. piibiflorum, Baker. ( i ) Buchanan. 

Chlorophytum spp. (2) Carson ; (4) Menyharth. 

Dasystachys drimiopsis, Baker, (i) Buchanan; (4) Menyharth. 

Dasystachys spp. (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

Tulbaghia alliacea, Thunb. (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan and Scott-Elliot. 

Drimia robusta, Baker, (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 

Drimia sp. (i.) Zomba, Kirk. 

Dipcadi longifolium, Baker, (i) Lower Shire River, Meller. 

Hyadnthus ledcbourioides, Baker, (i) Zomba and east end of Lake Chilwa Meller- 

Shire Highlands, L. Scott. 
Eucomis zambcsiaca, Baker, (i) Mbami, Kirk; Buchanan. 

Albuca caudata, Jacq. (i) Mlanje, McClounie ; Shire Highlands, Buchanan, L. Scott and 


A. Buchanani, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
A. \Vakeficldii, Baker. (? i) Lake Nyasa. 
Albuca sp. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; (4) Menyharth. 
Urginea altissimn, Baker (U. innntimn, Rendle, non Baker), (i) Mananja hills, Meller- 

Mlanje, Whyte ; Shire Highlands, L. Scott and Buchanan ; Mpimbi, Kirk ; Zomba! 

Whyte ; (2) Carson. 




rrginea Nyasae, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie ; Buchanan. 

Urginea spp. (i) Mandala, Scott-Elliot; (2) Nutt. 

Sdlla rigidifolia, Kunth. (2) Upper plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, and between Nyasa 

and Tanganyika, J. Thomson. 
S. indica, Baker, (i) Shire Highlands, L. Scott. 
5. inaesla, Baker. (4) Menyharth. 
S. Buchanani, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
S. zambesiaca, Baker, (i) Buchanan ; (4) Menyharth. 
Scilla sp. (i) Buchanan ; Zomba, Whyte ; Mlanje, McClounie. 
Ornithogalum Eckloni, Schlecht. (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan and Scott-Elliot ; 

Mlanje, Whyte. 

Ornithogalum sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Androcymbhun melanthioides, Willd. (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan and Scott-Elliot. 
Ornithoglossum glaitcum, Salisb. (i) Blantyre, Last. 
Gloriosa superba, L. (i) Marianja hills, Waller. 

G. virescens, Lindl. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (4) Menyharth. 
G. Carsoni, Baker. (2) Carson. 

. Walleria Mackemii, Kirk, (i) Mananja hills, Waller ; Buchanan. 
W. nutans, Kirk, (i) Mananja hills, Waller. 


Xyris pauciflora, Willd. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 
Xyris spp. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 


Commelyna benghalensis, L. (i) Buchanan ; (4) Holub. 

C. zambesiaca, C. B. Clarke. (2) Carson. 

C. latifolia, Hochst. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

C. africana, L. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; Zomba and east end of Lake Chilwa, 
Meller ; Zomba, Whyte ; Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

C. invohicrata, A. Rich, (i) Blantyre, L. Scott ; Buchanan. 

C. Kirkii, C. B. Clarke, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; (2) Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau, J. Thomson. 

C. Forskalaei, Vahl. (4) Holub. 

C. Bainesit, C. B. Clarke, var. glabrata, Rendle. (i) Zomba, Whyte. 

C. Vogelii, C. B. Clarke, (i) Buchanan. 

C. Welwitschii, C. B. Clarke, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

C. nudiflora, L. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

C, subulata, Roth. ( i ) Buchanan. 

C. albescens, Hassk. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Commelyna sp. (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

Aneilema sinicum, Lindl. (i) Buchanan; Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Nutt ; Carson. 

A aequinoctiale, Kunth. (i) Buchanan; Chiradzulu, Meller; Shire Highlands, Scott- 
Elliot; Mlanje and Zomba, Whyte ; var. Kirkii, C. B. Clarke, (i) Buchanan; var. 
adhaerens, C. B. Clarke, (i) Mananja hills, H. Waller. 

A. pedunculosum, C. B. Clarke. (4) Menyharth. 

A. lanceolatum, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 

A. dregeanum, Kunth. (i) Buchanan. 

Cyanotis lanata, Benth. (2) Carson; var. Schwcinfnrthii, C. B. Clarke, (i) Buchanan. 

Cyanotis sp. (2) Nutt. 

Floscopa rivularis, C. B. Clarke. (2) Nutt. 

F.glomerata, Hassk. (i) Buchanan; Zomba, Whyte; (2) Carson; (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 



Elaeis guineensis, L. (i) West shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

Borassus flabellifer, L., var. Aethiopum, Mart, (i) Lower Shire and Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

Raphia vinifera, P. de Beauv. (i) Shire Highlands, Kirk. 

Hyphaene crinita, Gaertn. (i) Along the Shire River and at south end of Lake Nyasa, 

H. ventricosa, Kirk. (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 

Phccnix sp. (i) Matope, Scott-Elliot ; (4) Central regions, Kirk. 


Typha angiistifolia, L. (i) Shire River, below Katunga, L. Scott. 
'yp. (i) Marianja hills, Meller. 


Stylochiton spp. (4) Menyharth. 

Amorphophallus spp. (2) Nsese River, North Nyasa, L. Scott ; 4 Menyharth. 
Gonatopus Boivinii, Hook. fil. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Kirk; Mlanje, McClounie ; 

Gonatopus sp. (4) Menyharth. 


Liinnophyton obtusifolium, Miq. (2) Mweru, Carson. 


Potamogeton pectinatus, L. (i) South-western bay of Lake Nyasa, Kirk; Livingstonia, 

P. obtusifoliiiSy Mert. et Koch, (i) Zomba, Whyte. 

P. longifolius, Gay. (i) South-western bay of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 

P. crispus, L. (i) Ruangwa, Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 


Eriocanlon sonderianum, Korn. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Eriocaulon spp. (i) Mananja country and Katunga, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (2) Lower plateau, 
north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson ; Nutt. 


i sp. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 


Pycreus flavescens, Nees. (2) Nsese River, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
P. nigricans, C. B. Clarke, (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 
P. inacmnthiis, C. B. Clarke, (i) Buchanan; (2) Nutt. 
P. Mundtii, C. B. Clarke, (i) Buchanan. 

P. sulcinux, C. B. Clarke. (2) Umbaka River, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
P. capillaris, Nees. (i) Buchanan. 
P. umbrosiis, Nees. (2) Carson. 
P. spissiflorits, C. B. Clarke. (2) Mlanje, Whyte. 
P. alboinarginatits, Nees. (i) Buchanan. 
Juncellus alopecuroideS) C. B. Clarke, (i) Buchanan. 
/. laevigatits, C. B. Clarke, (i) Mananja hills, Meller. 
Cyperits intdicuulis, Poir. (i) Lower Shire River, Kirk. 
C. compactus, Lam. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt. 

C. angolensis, Boeck. (Rhynchospora ochrocephala, Boeck. i Mlanje, Whyte; Zomba, 
Kirk ; (2) Nutt. 

C. niargaritaceus, Vahl. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 




Cyperus amabilis, Vahl. (i) Buchanan ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 

C. tenaX) Boeck. (i) Buchanan. 

C. Haspan, L. (2) Karonga, L. Scott. 

C. sphacrospennus, Schrad. (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 

C.flabeUiformis^ Rottb. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Great Elephant Marsh, Shire River, 

L. Scott ; Buchanan. 
C, sexangiilariS) Nees. (4) Menyharth. 
C. Deckenii, Boeck. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
C.fischerianus, Hochst. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller ; Buchanan. 
C. glaucophyllus, Boeck. (i) Buchanan. 
C. lotrgifolitts, Poir. (i) Buchanan. 

C. aristatus, Rottb. (i) Buchanan ; (3) Serpa Pinto ; (4) Menyharth. 
C. distatis, L. fil. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot ; (2) Carson. 
C, articulatus, L. (i) Elephant Marsh, Shire River, L. Scott. 
C. schiveinfurthianus, Boeck. (2) Carson. 
C. maculatus, Boeck. (i) Buchanan; (2) Umbaka and Nsese Rivers, North Nyasa, 

L. Scott. 

C. rotiindus, L. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Kirk ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 
C. esculentus, L. (i) Buchanan. 
C. radiatus, Vahl. (i) Great Elephant Marsh, Shire River, L. Scott ; (2) Umbaka River, 

North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
C. zambesiensis, C. B. Clarke, ined. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 2nd Ser. iv., p. 53. (i) Mlanje, 

Whyte ; Buchanan. 
C. exaltatus, Retz, var. C. dives, Del. (i) Buchanan; Lower Shire Valley, Meller; 

Elephant Marsh, Shire River. Kirk and L. Scott. 
Cyperus spp. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot; (2) Umbaka 

River, North Nyasa, L. Scott ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 
Mariscus coloratus, Nees. (i) Buchanan. 
M. vestitus, C. B. Clarke, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
M. sieberianus, Nees. (i) Buchanan; Blantyre, Last; Mlanje, Whyte. 
J/. hetnisphaericus, C. B. Clarke, (i) Buchanan ; Mandala, Scott-Elliot ; Blantyre, Scott ; 

Mlanje, Whyte ; Lower Shire Valley, Meller. 
M. squarrosits, C. B. Clarke, (i) Buchanan. 
Mariscus sp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Kylliuga pungens, Link. (2) Karonga, L. Scott. 
K. elatior, Kunth. (i) Buchanan. 
K. alba, Nees. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

K. aitrata, Nees. (2) Nsese River, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 

Kyllinga sp. (Cyperus albiceps, Ridley). (2) Nsese River, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
Kyllinga sp. ( i ) Buchanan. 
Eleocharis sp. (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 

Fimbristylis dichotomy Vahl. (2) Karonga and River Nsese, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
F. diphylla, Vahl. (i) Buchanan. 
F. exilis, Roem. et Sch. (i) Buchanan. 
F. africana, C. B. Clarke. (i) Mananja hills, Meller; Buchanan; Shire Highlands, 

F. zambcsiaca, Dur. et Schinz. (i) Sochi, Kirk; Blantyre, L. Scott; Kampala, Shire 

Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

Bulbostylis schoenoides, C. B. Clarke, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
B. ciniMinoinea, Dur. et Schinz. (i) Buchanan. 
B. sph aero carpus, C. B. Clarke. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
B. capillaris, Kunth. (i) Blantyre, Last. 



Bulbostylis pusilla, Dur. et Schinz. (2) Nutt. 

B. Biirchellii, Dur. et Schinz. (i) Blantyre, Last ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 

B. abortiva^ Dur. et Schinz. (i) Buchanan. 

B. oritrephes, C. B. Clarke, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Bulbostylis spp. ( i ) Buchanan. 

Scirpus articitlatus, L. (i) Buchanan. 

S. littoralis, Schrad. (i) West shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk ; Zomba and east end of Lake 
Chilwa, Meller. 

S. maritinnts, L. (i) Lower Shire River, Kirk and Meller. 

.5". costatits, Boeck. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Ftdrena pubescens, Kunth, var. Kuchanani, C. B.Clarke, (r) Buchanan ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 

F. Welivitschii, Ridley, (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Xutt. 

/'. iimbellata, Rottb. (i) Buchanan ; Mbami, near Blantyre, Kirk. 

Fuirena sp. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

Lipocarpha argentea, R. Br. (2) Nkonde country, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 

L. albiceps, Ridley, (i) Mandala, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan. 

L.piilchcrrima, Ridley, (i) Buchanan. 

A scolepis protea, Welw., var. bellidiflora, Wehv. (i) Mandala, Scott-Elliot ; Buchanan ; 
(2) Nutt. 

A. anthemiflora, Welw. (2) Carson ; Nutt. 
A. speciosa, Welw. (2) Carson. 
A. data, Welw. (2) Carson ; Nutt. 

A. capcnsis, Benth. (i) Buchanan; Mlanje, Whyte; (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake 

Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

A. brasiliensis, Benth. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt ; Carson. 

Rynchospora Candida, Boeck. (R. adsccndens, C. B. Clarke), (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt. 
Eriospora Oliveri, C. B. Clarke, (i) Buchanan. 

E. I'iUosula, C. B. Clarke, (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Ndirande, near Blantyre, Scott-Elliot. 
Sderia pulchella, Ridley, (i) Buchanan. 
6". ranota, Ridley, (i) Buchanan. 

S. glabra, Boeck. (i) Buchanan ; Mandala, Scott-Elliot. 
S. liirtclla, Swartz. (2) Nkonde country, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
S. catophylla Dur. et Schinz. (i) Buchanan. 
S. Buchanani, Boeck. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Valley, Waller. 
S. dregeana, Kunth. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
5. bulbifera, A. Rich, (i) Ndirande, near Blantyre, Scott-Elliot. 
5. multispiculata, Boeck. (i) Buchanan. 
.s'. melanomphala, Kunth. (i) Buchanan. 
Sderia spp. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
Carex boryana, Schk. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
Carcx spp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 


Paspalum scrobiciilatum, L. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

Paniciiin sanguinale, L. (i) Buchanan; (2) Karonga and Umbaka River, North Nyasa, 

L. Scott ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 
r.brizanthum, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 

P. Crus-galli, L. (i) Shire Valley, Meller; Buchanan ; (2) Umbaka River, North Nyasa, 

L. Scott ; Carson. 

P. coloniiin, L. (i) Lower Shire Valley, L. Scott ; (2) Karonga, L. Scott. 
P. indicuiii) L. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk. 



Panicum nitdigluinc, Hochst. (i) Lower Shire, L. Scott. 

P.paludcsiim, Roxb. (i) Shire River, Kirk. 

P.peciinatum, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Buchanan. 

P. itnguicitldtiun, Trin. (i) Buchanan. 

P. itisigne, Steud. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan; Mlanje, Whyte; (2) Nutt ; 

Carson ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 
P.pUcatum, Lam. (2) Carson. 
P. milanjianiim, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 
P. serratum, R. Br. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
P. maximum, Jacq. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
P. nigropcdatitm, Munro. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
Panicum spp. (i) Shire River and Mananja hills, Kirk; Shire River, Meiler ; Mandala 

and Shire River, L. Scott ; Buchanan ; (2) Carson ; (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 
Setaria spp. (i) Mananja hills, Waller ; Elephant Marsh, Shire River, Kirk and L. Scott ; 

Buchanan ; Blantyre, L. Scott ; (2) Umbaka and Nsese Rivers, North Nyasa, 

L. Scott. 

Pennisetum Benihamii, Steud. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller. 
P. wiisetum, Benth. (i) Buchanan. 
Pennisetum sp. (i) Mananja hills, Kirk. 
Cleislachne sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Perotis latifolia, Ait. (i) Buchanan. 

Imperata arundinacea, Cyr. (i) Buchanan ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 
Sac chant m piirpuratum, Rendle. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte. 
Saccharitm sp. (i) West shore of Lake Nyasa, Kirk. 
Hemarthria compressa, R. Br. (i) Lower Shire, L. Scott. 
Hemarthria sp. (i) Elephant Marsh, Shire River, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (2) Nsese River, 

North Nyasa, L. Scott. 

Eliomiriis argenteus, Nees. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
Rottbocllia exaltata, L. (i) Lower Shire Valley, L. Scott. 

Manisuris granularis, Sm. (i) Mananja hills, Waller ; near Sochi, Kirk ; Buchanan. 
Vossia procera, Griff, (i) Elephant Marsh, on Shire River, Kirk. 
Ischacimtm sp. (4) Victoria Falls, Kirk. 
Andropogon ceresiaeformis, Nees. (i) Buchanan. 
A. squainulatits, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 
A. schirensis, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 
A. Sorghum, Brot. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; (2) Nutt. 
A. anmilaris, Forsk. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Kirk. 
A. hirtus, L. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; (3) Serpa Pinto. 
A. anthistirioidcs, Hochst. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
A. pertusus, Willd., var. insculptus, Hackel. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
A. Schoenanthus, L. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
A. eucomus, Nees. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

A. intermedius, R. Br., var. punctatus, Hackel. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
A. Nyasae, Rendle. (i) Buchanan. 
A. cymbarius, L. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt. 
Andropogon spp. (i) Buchanan ; Mbami, near Blantyre, Kirk. 
Anthistiria ci/inta, Retz. (i) Buchanan. 
Anthistiria sp. (i) Maiianja hills, Kirk. 
Aristida barbicollis, Trin. et Rupr. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
A. i>estita, Thunb. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
Aristida spp. (i) Upper Shire Valley, Kirk ; Buchanan ; (4) Batoka country, Kirk. 



Sporobolus mimitiflorus, Link, (i) Buchanan ; (4) Holub. 

S. leptostachys, Ficalho et Hiern. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

S. indicus, R. Br. (i) Mananja hills, Meller. 

Sporobolus spp. (i) Upper and Lower Valley of the Shire River, Kirk ; Buchanan ; 

(2) Umbaka River, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
Agrostis sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Tristachya decora, Stapf. (2) Carson. 
T. inainoena, K. Schum. (i) Buchanan. 
Tristachya spp. (i) Blantyre, L. Scott ; (2) Carson. 
Trichopteryx leucothri.v, Trin. (2) Carson. 
Trichopteryx sp. (i) Buchanan. 
Klicrochloa abyssinica, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 
Triraphis sp. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
Chloris gay ana, Kunth. (i) Chiromo, L. Scott. 
C. radiata, Sw. (i) Buchanan. 
C. petraca, Thunb. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

C. breviseta, Benth. (2) Umbaka River, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
Chloris spp. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Kirk and Meller. 

Harpechloa altera, Rendle. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie. 
Elcusine indica, L. (i) Elephant Marsh, on Shire River, Kirk ; Buchanan ; Katunga, L. 

Scott ; (2) Umbaka River, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
Leptochloa uniflora, Hochst. (i) Buchanan. 
L. chinensis, Nees. (i) Elephant Marsh, on Shire River, Kirk. 
Leptochloa sp. (i) Lower Shire Valley, L. Scott. 
Schniidtia quinqueseta, Benth. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
Triodia sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Phragmites communis, Trin. (i) Lower Shire Valley, Meller ; near Blantyre, L. Scott. 
Phraginitcs sp. (i) Buchanan. 

Koeleria cristata, Pers. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie ; Buchanan. 
Eragrostis nainaquensis, Nees. (2) Umbaka River, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
E. nindensis, Ficalho et Hiern. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
E. major, Host, (i) Buchanan. 
E.elata, Munro. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
E. aspera, Nees. (i) Buchanan. 
E. giitnniifliia, Nees. (3) Serpa Pinto. 
E. Lnppiila, Nees. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

E. obtusa, Munro. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

Eragrostis spp. (i) Mananja hills, Meller ; Buchanan ; Mlanje, Whyte ; (2) Umbaka 

and Ouaqua Rivers, North Nyasa, L. Scott. 
Festitca niilanjiana, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte ; Buchanan. 

F. costata, Nees. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Broinus milanjianus, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Oxytenanthera sp. (i) Mbami and Blantyre, Lake Chihva, and Katunga, Kirk. 


Podocarpits milanjiana, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Widdringtonia Whytei, Rendle. (i) Mlanje, Whyte and McClounie ; Zomba, Whyte. 


Gnetuin africanum, Welw. (i) Buchanan. 



Lycopodiinu dacrydioides, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
L. cernuitm, L. (i) Buchanan. 


SclagincUa versicolor, Spring, (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 
S. molliceps, Spring, (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan. 
S. Vogelii, Spring. (2) Carson. 


Eqiiisetum elongatum, Willd. (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan. 


Azolla pinnata, R. Br. (i) Lake Nyasa, Laws. 


Gleichenia polypodioides, Sm. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 

G. dichototna, Hook. (2) Nutt. 

Cyathea Dregei, Kze. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt. 

C. Thomsoni^ Baker. (2) Lower plateau, north of Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 

C. zambesiaca, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 
Hymcnophylhim australe, Willd. (i) Buchanan. 
Davallia thecifera, H. B. K. (i) Buchanan. 

D. Speluncae, Baker. (2) Carson. 
Cheilanthes Schimperi, Kze. (i) Buchanan. 
C. imtltifida, Sw. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 
Pellaea hastata, Link, (i) Buchanan. 

P. dura, Willd. (i) Shire Highlands. Scott-Elliot. 

P. Calomelanos, Link. (3) Serpa Pinto. 

P. doniana, Hook, (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

P. pectiniformis, Baker ; (2) Nutt. 

Pteris quadriaurita, Retz. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot and Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

Pt. biaurita, L. (2) Carson. 

Pt. flabellata, Thunb. (2) Carson. 

Pt. cretica, L. (i) Buchanan. 

Pt. atrovirens, Willd. (2) Carson. 

Adiantmn aethiopicuin, L. (i) Buchanan. 

A. Capillus-Veneris, L. (i) Buchanan. 

A. caitdatiiin, L. (i) Buchanan. 

A. kispidiihiin, Sw. (i) Buchanan. 

A. litintiatiim, Burm. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

Lonchitis pubescens^ Willd. (2) Nutt. 

Lomaria boryana, Willd. (i) Buchanan. 

Actiniopteris radiata, Link, (i) Buchanan. 

Aspleninm Sandersoni, Hook, (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan and Scott-Elliot. 

A. Mannii, Hook, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

A. anisophylluiu, Kze. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

A. h/inilatitni, Sw. (i) Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

A.formosion, Willd. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, McClounie. 

A. brachypteron, Kze. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

A. protensum, Schrad. (i) Buchanan. 



Asplenium furcatum, Thunb. (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan and Scott- Elliot ; (2) Carsor. 

A. rutaefoliion, Kze. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

A. cicutariion, Sw. (i) Buchanan ; Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

A. Thunbergii, Kze. (i) Buchanan. 

A. nigripes, Blume. (i) Buchanan. 

A. patens, Desv. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

A. cordation, Forst. (i) Mlanje, McClounie. 

Nephrodiion Filix-mas, Rich., var. elongation, H. et A. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot 

and Buchanan. 

N. patens, Desv. (i) Buchanan. 
N. unitiim, R. Br. (i) Buchanan. 
N. mollc, Desv. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 
N. pennigenon, Hook, (i) Buchanan. 

N. cicutariion, Baker, (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan and Scott-Elliot ; Chiradzulu, 

N. albo-piinctatuin, Desv. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Nutt ; Carson. 

N. athanianticion, Hook. (2) Nutt. 

N. Thelypteris, Desv. (2) Carson. 

Nephrolepis cordifolia, Presl. (i) Buchanan ; (2) Carson. 

Polypodiumfissum y Baker, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

P. lanceolatiim, L. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 

Acrostickum confortne, Sw. (i) Buchanan. 

A. liybridion, Bory. (i) Buchanan. 

A. I'irens, Wall. (2) Carson. 

Osiiiunda recalls, L. (2) Nutt. 

Anemia tonientosa, Sw. (i) Buchanan. 

Moliria vestita, Baker, (i) Buchanan. 

M^arattiafraxinea, Sm. (i) Buchanan ; Mlanje, McClounie. 

Ophioglossum reticiilatnin, L. (i) Buchanan. 


Polytrichion com in nne, L. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Bryitin sp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Holoinitriuni acution, Wright, (i) Zomba, Kirk. 

Dicranuin sp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Leucoloma sp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Leptodon Hum radico su in, Mitt, (i) Buchanan. 

Erpodiion grossirete, K. Muell. (4) Menyharth. 

E. Mcnyharthii, K. Muell. (4) Menyharth. 

Pterogonium abruption, Wright, (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan ; Chiradzulu, Whyte. 

P. decipicns, Wright, (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan. 

Pilotrichclla inibricata, Jaeg. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Acrobryum cnpcmc, K. Muell. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Porotrichum dentation, Gepp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Thuidhon sp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 


Marchantia polymorpha, L. (i) Shire Highlands, Buchanan. 

Metsgeriafurcata, Dum. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

J7. inyriapoda, Lindb. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Frit Mania brunnca, Gottsche, Lindb. et Nees. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 



Lejeunea graallima, Mitt, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

L. decursiva, v. d. Sande-Lacoste. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

L.JJava, Gottsche. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Phragmicoma pappeanai Nees. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Radithi sp, (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Lophocoha sp. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

Plagiochila Rutcnbergii, Gottsche. (i) Mlanje, Whyte. 

P. dichoto/na, Dum. (i) Chiradzulu, Meller. 


Flammula penetrans, Fr. (i) Lower Shire, Scott-Elliot. 

SchizophyUum commune, Fr. (i) Shire Highlands, K. C. Cameron ; Chiromo, Lower 

Shire, Scott-Elliot. 

Crepidotus mollis, SchaefF. (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Hexagonia polygramma, Mont, (i) Buchanan. 
Favolus Rhipidium, Berk, (i) Shire Highlands, Scott-Elliot. 
Trametesfibrosi/s, Nees. (i) Shire Highlands, Last. 
T. rigidus, Fr. (i) Buchanan. 
T.pictus, Berk, (i) Chiromo, Scott-Elliot. 
Lenzites applanata, Fr. (i) Buchanan. 
L. aspera, Klotzsch. (i) Buchanan. 
Polyporus scruposus, Fr. (i) Buchanan. 
P. sanguineus, Fr. (i) Buchanan. 
P. rudis, Berk. ? (i) Buchanan. 

Po lystictus ocddentalis, Klotzsch. (i) Chiromo, Scott-Elliot. 
Parodiella Pentanisiae, Sacc. (2) Lake Nyasa, J. Thomson. 
Physalospora Bambusae, Sacc. (i) Chiradzulu, Whyte. 
Phyllachora ffteronymi, P. Henn. (i) Buchanan. 

LICHENS. [All from (4) Boroma (Menyharth), except the last two.] 
Leptogiopsis Brebissonii^ Muell.-Arg. 
Collema fitrintm, Ach. 
Pyrenopsis robustula, Muell.-Arg. 
Ramalina complanata, Ach. 

Parmelia Hildcnbrandtii, Keplh., forma mida, Muell.-Arg., forma sorediosct, Muell.-Arg. 
P. praetcri'isa, Muell.-Arg. 
P. sambcsica, Muell.-Arg. 
P. ZoUingcri, Hepp. 

P. tiliacea, Ach., var. scortea^ Nyl, var. rimnhsa, Muell.-Arg. 
Ctvidelaria stellata, Muell.-Arg. 

Physcia adglutinata, Nyl., var. pyrcthrocardia, Muell.-Arg. 
P. stellaris, Fr., var. acrita, Nyl. 
P. ochrohuca, Muell.-Arg. 
P. picta, Nyl., var. sorediata, Muell.-Arg. 
P. aegialita, Nyl. 
Endocarpiscum Gi/cpini, Nyl. 

Pyxine Meissneri, Tuck., var. endoleitca, Muell.-Arg., var. sorediosa, Muell.-Arg. 
Placodhun pcrcxigniim^ Muell. Arg. 

Lecanora snbfitsca, Ach., var. allophana, Ach., var. glabmta, Ach., var. cinereo-carnea, 



Lecanora hypocrocina, Nyl. 

/.. caesio-nebella, Ach. 

L. pallescens, Fr. 

Lecania punicea, Muell.-Arg. 

Callopisma cinnabarinnm, Muell.-Arg., var. opncum, Muell.-Arg. 

C. zainbesicitm, Muell.-Arg. 

C.flavitm, Muell.-Arg. 

Rinodina conspersa, Muell.-Arg. 

Pertusaria velata, Nyl. 

P. xanthotJielia, Muell.-Arg. 

P. mamillana, Muell.-Arg. 

Lecidea russula, Ach. 

L. mutabilis, Fee. 

L. iuipressa, Keplh. 

Patcllaria leptolytra, Muell.-Arg. 

Blastenia poliotcra, Muell.-Arg. 

Buellia parasema, Korb., var. disciformis, Th. M. Fries, var. intlgata, Th. M. Fries. 

B. africana, Muell.-Arg. 

B. olivacea, Muell.-Arg. 

B. inqitilitia, Tuck. 

Opegrapha Menyharthii, Muell.-Arg. 

Arthonia dispersa, Nyl. 

Mycoporum pycnocarpinn, Nyl. 

Placothdinm stuiirothclioides, Muell.-Arg. 

Trypethelium Eluten'ae, Sprgl. 

Lepra citrina, Schaev. 

Usnea barbata, Ach., var. ceratina, Schaer. (2) Carson. 

Physcia spcciosa, Ach., var. hypoleuca, Nyl. (2) Carson. 

ALGAE. [All from (i ?) Lake Nyasa (Laws), except the first.] 
Cham sp. (2) Carson. 
Conferva sp. ? 
Bulbochaete parvula, Ktz. 
Spirogyra pallida, Dickie. 
Cosmarium margaritiferum, Turp. 
Cylindrospermum Nyassae, Dickie. 
Lyngbya martensiana, Menegh. ? 
Oscillaria sp. ? 
Cyclotella rotula, Ktz. 

C. operculata, Ktz. 
Epitlieiiiia i>entricosa, Ktz. 
E. Zebra, Ehb. 

E. alpcstris, Sm. 
E. Sorex, Ktz. 
E. tiirgida, Ktz. 
E. clavata, Dickie. 
Ennotia tridentula, Ehb. 
Himantidium pectinate, Ktz. 
Cocconcma cymbiforme, Ehb. 
C. Cistula, Hemp. 



Amphora oval is, Ktz. 

Eucyonema prostratum, Berk. 

Cocconeis placenta /a, Ehb. 

Fragilaria nndata, Sm. 

Synedra Ulncc, Ehb. 

5". Acus, Ktz. 

S. biceps, Ktz. 

Naviciila acrosphaeria, Rabh., var. sandvicensis, Schmidt. 

N. gibberula, Sm. 

N. Gastrinn, Ehb. 

N. elliptica, Ktz. 

N. rhomboides, Ehb. 

N. gracillima, Pritch. 

Stauroneis Phoenicenteron, Ehb. 

Diadesmis confervacea, Ktz. 

Gomphonema dichotomum, Ktz. 

G. intricatuin, Ktz. 

G. naviculoides, Sm. 

6". Turns, Ehb. 


A LTHOUGH British Central Africa would appear to be a purely political 
/-\ and artificial division of the continent it is, as a matter of fact, coincident 
with a clearly marked zoological sub-region as far as its mammalian 
fauna is concerned, though these special peculiarities in the distribution of species 
are not quite so marked in the birds and reptiles, and still less so in fishes and 
invertebrates. 1 These distinctive zoographical features of British Central 
Africa, however, are rather negative than positive, and relate more to what 
the country does not possess than to its monopoly of peculiar forms. As 
a matter of fact all British Central Africa as far west as the Upper Zambezi, 
together with the province of Mozambique, the southern part of German East 
Africa, and the southernmost districts of the Congo Free State, forms a 
remarkable break between South and East Africa in the range of well known 
types of mammals and birds. The British Central Africa sub-region differs 
from that of West Africa in not possessing any form of anthropoid ape, and in 
the absence of a good many monkeys, of several small antelopes, and of the 
interesting DorcatJierium. On the other hand it agrees with West Africa in 
possessing a peculiar Civet (Nandinia\ one or more genera of bats, and a 
Colobus monkey closely allied to or identical with the common West African 
form. Amongst the birds which it shares alone with West Africa is the 
remarkable black and white vulturine fishing eagle, GypoJiicraxr 

Although this sub-region possesses much closer relationships (as might be 
supposed owing to its geographical position) with the South African sub-region 
south of the Zambezi, and the East African sub-region (north of the Rufiji 
river and to the east of Tanganyika), still it differs from these two sub-regions 
(which are more closely allied the one to the other than each is to British 
Central Africa) in not possessing the following forms, in whose distribution the 
interposition of this sub-region under review causes a complete break : the 
Caracal lynx, the Aard-wolf (Proteles), found in South and South West Africa 
and in Somaliland ; the long-eared foxes, the mountain zebras, the wild asses, 
(to which group I consider the South African quagga to belong) ; the Orv.v 
antelopes, the gazelles, the true jerboas, the Oryctcropns or antbear, the 
secretary vulture, the typical vultures of the genera Gyps and rscmiogyps, and 
the ostrich. 

1 Though if a portion of Tanganyika be included as it is intended to be within the term " British 
Central Africa" this lake still more markedly than Xyasa (lifters in its marine fauna from the other great 
lakes of Africa farther to the north. 

2 I have seen it asserted by some naturalists that Gypohicrax reappears on I'emba Island near Zanzibar 
but this statement is unsupported by conclusive evidence. 


To this list might almost be added the giraffe, and the Dainalisciis genus of 
antelopes, were it not that according to native report the giraffe is found in the 
southern part of the Senga country along the Lower Luangwa river above its 
confluence with the Zambezi, and that Mr. Sharpe believes he has seen tsessebe 
(Dainaliscus) antelopes a little to the north of the same region. Still here, 
again, the zoological boundaries of this sub-region rather coincide with the 
political because it is well known that certain South African forms do cross the 
Central Zambezi and extend a little distance to the north of its banks, and this 
may, therefore, account for the existence of the giraffe and the tsessebe in the 
Luangwa valley. It is quite certain, however, that the giraffe is found nowhere 
in East Africa south of the Rufiji river and between the Mozambique coast on 
the east and the Angola coast on the west. 1 Neither are the ostrich nor the other 
antelopes and carnivora mentioned above. Yet all these forms, either the same 
or other species closely allied thereto, reappear north of the Rufiji river, or at 
any rate in Somaliland and the Egyptian Sudan ; some of them even in the 
Western Sudan and in Senegambia. It is very curious that this break should 
occur right across the continent as it cannot be sufficiently explained by any 
reasons of climate or soil. The country is not one dense impenetrable forest 
like parts of the Congo Basin, nor is it a waterless desert. It is dry enough for 
ostriches and yet not too dry for water-loving antelopes. It must be admitted, 
however, that it is probably too moist for the absent animals which are rather 
desert-loving types. 

Taken by itself the British Central Africa sub-region may be divided into 
two districts, at any rate as regards its mammalian fauna Nyasaland and the 
adjoining countries to the east ; and all which lies between the watershed of 
Nyasa and the northern, western, and southern frontiers of the sphere of British 
influence. There is not much difference between the two, but Nyasaland 
probably lacks a few mammalian types such as the Situtunga (Tragelaphus 
speket) ; the Puku and Lechwe antelopes (Cobus vardoni and Cobus lechwe), 
and the Cheetah ; on the other hand the western division does not possess the 
grey baboon (Papio pruinosus) ; the long-nosed Shrew (Rhynchocyori)\ a number 
of rodents ; the sable antelope, and several birds which are peculiar to the 
mountains of the Shire districts.' 2 

1 It reaches to the Ubena country, N.E. of Lake Nyasa. 

9 I should be disposed to divide the African region into two sub-regions and these again into 
certain provinces. They would stand thus : 

(1) The West African sub-region (the forest country of West Africa from the Gambia on the north to 
the Kwanza river on the south, including the coast belt of West Africa and the whole Congo basin as far 
as the west coast of Tanganyika) ; 

(i a) The Guinea province (Gambia to the Volta river) ; 

(i b) The Lower Niger Province (Volta river to the Cameroons and the Upper Benue) ; 
( i c) The Gaboon province (Cameroons to the Congo mouth and inland to the Congo watershed) ; 
(i d) The Congo province (all the Congo basin except in the extreme south) ; 

(le) The Angola province (on the coast, the river Loge to Benguela and inland to the Congo 
watershed, but including the extreme Upper Zambezi). 

(2) The Ethiopian sub-region (Tropical Arabia, and all Tropical Africa not included in the West 
African sub-region) : 

(2 a) The Sudan province (from the Senegambian coast on the west to the frontiers of Abyssinia on 

the east, with the Sahara on the north and the Congo Basin and West African Coast belt on 

the south) ; 

(2 t>] The Abyssinian province ; 
\2c) The Arabian province; 
(2d] The Somaliland province (bounded by Abyssinia, the Egyptian Sudan, the east coast of 

Tanganyika, and the Rufiji river) ; 
(2f) The British Central African province; and 
(2/) The South African province (bounded more or less on the north by the Zambezi, and up 

the south-west coast of Africa to the Angola province). 


Monkeys are not abundant in British Central Africa, nor are they numerous 
in species. The most remarkable among them is the grey baboon (Papio 
prninosus} recently discovered on the south coast of Lake Nyasa. The first 
specimen of this animal was shot by Dr. Percy Kendall, a medical officer in 
the service of the Administration. He was not at first much struck with the 
novelty of the creature's appearance, however, and had I not been passing at 
the time and observed the body of the beast as it lay dead on his verandah, 
it might have been thrown away, but it struck me as being very remarkable in 
the colouring of its fur, and I induced him to let me forward it to the British 
Museum, where it turned out to belong to a new species. Its fur is a pale 
bluish-grey above and a dirty white below and is well illustrated by the plate 
which appears in the Proceedings for April ist, 1897, of the Zoological Society. 
The common yellow baboon is the other cynocephaline species which is found 
in the Protectorate. It is extremely common everywhere, 1 very bold and very 
cunning. It is constantly robbing the natives' plantations, and the women 
profess to go in terror of the large male baboons (which grow to the size of a 
big mastiff dog) as they say that these latter will attempt to outrage them if 
they see no man accompanying the party. I do not myself believe there is 
any truth in this idea ; I think all the baboons want to ravish are the contents 
of the baskets of food the women are carrying ; it is quite certain that they 
will come down and endeavour to rob women and children if they see them 
unaccompanied by persons armed with weapons. 

When the baboons descend to raid the plantations one or more of their 
number (a half-grown baboon generally) invariably stands sentry to warn the 
rest of the troop when danger is approaching. The baboons are not very shy 
of approach unless one is armed with a gun. Not infrequently when I have 
been riding alone between Blantyre and Katunga a number of baboons have 
come down to the road to look at me as I went by and have even trotted along 
on the road in front of my horse. On one occasion their demeanour was 
distinctly threatening. Several of them were waiting for me on either side of 
the road making hideous grimaces and grunts. They dispersed, however, when 
I rode straight at them and showed that I had a switch. The young baboons 
become quite tame after a few days' captivity and are most amusing though very 
impudent pets. 

The two commonest Cercopithecus monkeys are the white-throated and the 
red-rumped (C. albigularis and C. pygerythrus}. The Colobus monkey {Colobns 
palliatus] is the white-thighed species. This animal is rare in British Central 
Africa, and is so far as I know only found in the high mountains west and north 
of Lake Nyasa. Its skins are much valued by the natives who use the long 
black and white hair to make capes and mantles and anklets for their war 

The Lemuroids are represented by the great Galago 1 and the small Moholi 
Galago. The big species is a beautiful animal about the size of a cat. The 
colour of the fur (at any rate in the Nyasa variety) is quite a light whitish-grey 
and the tail is exceedingly bush}-. This creature when captured full grown 
is rather intractable and difficult to tame. It can and will bite savagely. When 
brought to bay it stands up on its hind legs and boxes with the fore paws, 
partly to repel an assault and partly to seize and bite the assaulter. 

1 The yellow baboon (Papio habiiin] is found nearly all over tropical Africa south of the Equator. 

It is in some respects the most generalised of the bahonns. 
' 2 Otogalc I\irkii. 


The young of the great Galago are exquisite little creatures like Chinchillas. 
It would appear to be an animal of rather slow growth, and the young are 
therefore taken by Europeans to be a different species to the full grown 
animal. 1 

There is not much remarkable about the bats of British Central Africa so 
far as I am aware. They have been chiefly collected by Dr. Percy Kendall who 
was for a time our medical officer on Lake Nyasa. Prior to this Dr. Kendall 
was Colonial Surgeon at the Gambia. Whilst in that West African Colony he 
shot one day a curious white-winged bat which was named " Vesperugo rendalli" 
The specimen he sent home from the Gambia was the only one known. Years 
afterwards, however, Dr. Kendall caught a bat on the Upper Shire, and to his 
surprise found it was identical with the white-winged bat of the Gambia. As 
Mr. Oldfield Thomas observes in his paper on the mammals of Nyasaland, 
" It is a curious coincidence that the second known capture of this bat should 
take place in a country so far distant from the Gambia as Nyasa, and that it 
should be due to the very same naturalist who originally discovered it and after 
whom it was named. There appear to be no differences of the least importance 
between the Gambian and Nyasan examples." 

Two species of fruit-eating bats are found in Nyasaland. 2 

Among the insectivores which are few in Central Africa, are the long-nosed, 
jumping shrews. One genus (Petrodromus) (about the size of a large rat) has 
the nose merely prolonged into a long snout ; but the more specialised 
genus (Rhynchocyoti) has a positive proboscis. In spite of the development 
of the snout these are pretty little animals. They soon die when captured, 
which is the more to be regretted as with their large eyes and soft fur they 
would make admirable pets. 

The carnivora are well represented in this country. Firstly, we have the lion 
almost too abundant and the leopard, still more common. The handsome 
serval-cat is also found everywhere throughout the whole of British Central 
Africa. Their kittens are easily reared and stand confinement well ; one which 
I kept for three years in captivity is now in the Zoological Gardens. These 
serval-cats become tame to a certain extent, but never as absolutely friendly as 
a pet leopard. The serval resents caresses and is ready to strike out with its 
sharp claws. Still upon such occasions as when those that I kept escaped 
they submitted in a somewhat docile manner to be laid hold of and hauled 
about, and their cage could always be entered by the negro attendant without 
any aggressive action on their part. 

The serval appears to me to be an interesting form for the reason that I 
think it represents a more generalised type of true cat, something akin to the 
primal feline stock from which the cheetah branched off a little lower down. 
The serval suggests the cheetah in many ways while it also has a marked 

1 The leaping powers of all the Galagos are remarkable, hut reach their highest development 
perhaps, in the great Galago. In West Africa I used to be much struck with the bat-like movements of 
the smaller Galagos. A tame one would suddenly leap from my hand I had almost said " fly " two 
yards away to the window-pane and there kill a moth or fly that was buzzing against the glass. The swift 
movements of the great Galago still more resemble flight, and it has a habit of slightly spreading out the 
limbs, especially the arms, as it noiselessly jumps through the air. It can jump horizontally or upwardly ; 
its leaps are not necessarily downwards. The large pads on the under surface of almost all the fingers 
except one (for a faithful feature throughout all the Lemuroids is that one finger remains thin and provided 
with a sharp claw, whereas the other fingers and toes are padded and provided with square nails) seem to 
assist this lemur in breaking the shock of its jumps, and enabling it to cling to almost any surface. 

I cannot help thinking that the flight of the bats began in some such way as this, especially if the bats 
arose rather through a Lemuroid type than as a section of the Insectivora. 

'-' Xantliarpyia and Epoinophorus. 


relationship to the lynxes. The spots are simple like those in the cheetah and 
the lynxes, and although he is a true cat (in that the claws are fully retractile), 
still the paw is much smaller in relative size than it is with other members of the 
genus Felis, and much more like the paw of the cheetah. Also the claws are 
not proportionally so large. The ears have a slight approach to a tuft at the 
apex suggesting the lynx ; the tail though much longer than that of an average 
lynx is still rather short but very thick ; and in this particular the animal has 
diverged from the ancestral cat rather in the direction of the lynxes. The legs 
are very long which is also a characteristic of the cheetah and the lynx but 
may have been acquired by the serval from its hunting habits ; for from all 
accounts it often pursues its prey instead of lying in wait and securing it by 
sudden leaps. Nevertheless, it is a good climber and owing to the small size 
of its feet and thin body can find a foothold on a ledge not more than two 
inches broad. 

The serval is most destructive to the smaller game, but it is a beautiful 
animal and often attains a length of nearly four feet and a height at the 
shoulder of three feet. The other wild cat of British Central Africa is the 
Felis caffra, very like the form which gave rise to the Egyptian domestic cat, 
and which, mingled with the true wild cat of Europe and Asia, was the joint 
parent of the European domestic cat. 

The cats kept by the natives are scarcely distinguishable sometimes from the 
wild Felis caffra, though undoubtedly the main origin of their domesticated 
animal (remotely derived from the cat of Egypt and Syria Felis inaniciilata] 
is from a foreign source from Europe and India, via the East Coast of Africa. 
But unquestionably the wild cat of British Central Africa mingles freely with 
the domestic and semi-domestic animal, and the natives often bring in its 
kittens from the woods and rear them as domestic cats. These animals are 
charming when in the kitten stage, but when they grow up they become lanky, 
with small heads and thin tails. The domestic cats which are too directly 
derived from the wild species are not very tame or tractable. 

The cheetah is very rare but is found on the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, 
near Lake Mweru, probably in the Luangwa Valley, and possibly in the 
countries to the north-east of Lake Nyasa. I have no positive record of this 
hunting cat having, been actually killed in the Nyasaland province. The 
animal has been shot by Mr. J. B. Yule (who showed me the skins, one of which 
I sent home) on the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau. The cheetah in question was 
the common variety with black spots. I have never heard of the red spotted 
cheetah of South Africa having been found north of the Zambezi. 

The hyena of British Central Africa is the ordinary spotted species whose 
range extends from South Africa to the Egyptian Sudan up the eastern side of 
the continent ; the spotted hyena is probably found in the Central Sudan and 
may enter the Niger territories outside the forest region. 1 

The civet cat is extremely common. Strange to say the natives seem to 
make no use of its remarkable scent gland. A lovely little genet cat, whose 
large spots are a rich umber brown instead of black is very common, and makes 
a charming house pet. 

1 The remarkable brown hyena has a somewhat similar range but less continuous. I believe I met 
with it on Kilimanjaro ; it is commonest in south-east Africa and is said to extend along the south-west 
coast as far as the district of Mossamedes. Up to the present it has not been' recorded from British 
Central Africa. The range of the striped hyena is altogether far to the north. It probably nearly meets 
the range of the spotted hyena in the Sudan and elsewhere extends over the Mediterranean basin, Persia, 
and Western India. 




A remarkable animal from the point of view of distribution is the palm 
civet (Xaiutiniti') which as far as is yet known extends right across from West 
Africa into Nyasaland, but is not found in East or South Africa. Ichneumons 
of three genera are found in this country. 

The only species of Jackal which is recorded from our collection is the side- 
striped jackal (Cants lateralis or C. adustus}. It is entirely unlike the handsome 
black-backed jackal of South Africa, which has a black back and a silvery band 
of fur below the black; the centre of the back of the Nyasaland jackal is a rich 
chestnut brown and the silvery streak below is only faintly marked. 

The Cape hunting-dog 1 has been killed on Mount Zomba and is reported 
from West Nyasaland. Other specimens were obtained by Mr. Crawshay in 
the Lake Mweru district and sent home by me. From all accounts it is not a 
common animal in British Central Africa unless it be in the Luangwa valley. 


M. Foa, a French sportsman, reports these animals as frequently met with in 
the Makanga country to the south-west of Nyasaland. 

A pretty little white-necked weasel 2 has been obtained in the Shire High- 
lands. I have also met with the ratel or honey badger in the same district, but 
we have not yet found the small black and white "Cape polecat" (Ictonyx), 
which inhabits South and East Africa, and whose range may like that of so 
many other species be interrupted by British Central Africa. 

An otter is very common on the Shire, in Lake Chilwa, Lake Nyasa, 
and in other large waters of British Central Africa. The only species recorded 
by complete specimens is Lutra maculicollis, or the "spotted-necked otter"; 
but I am inclined to think that Lutra capensis is also found in parts of British 
Central Africa. I can only base my impression on dressed skins seen in the 
possession of natives, which I believe to have been of this animal. 

Except to naturalists there is nothing very interesting in the rodents of 
British Central Africa. A hare is present in Nyasaland of the big species, 
Li'/>tts whytci. One or other types of hare are also found in the western^ part 
of British Central Africa but may possibly belong to species common to South 

1 Lvcaon, 

- Pxcilogaie. 


or East Africa. I should like to make a special mention of the large Octodont 
one of the few Octodont rodents found outside America the "ground-pig," 
Aulacodus s winder enianus. This creature which is especially fond of sugar- 
cane plantations is such a delicious article of diet that it ought to be domesti- 
cated for the table. Its flesh tastes something like that of a rabbit but has a 
savour quite its own. 

As regards rats, I should mention that they are numerous and a great pest. 
The natives eat them with gusto. The common rat of the native villages and 
European settlements is a brown variety of the Black rat (Mus rattus}. There 
is one rat which is an appalling creature to look at. It is apparently allied 
to the Bandicoot-rat of India about the size of a rabbit, with pale grey fur, 
a long tail and hideously long snout. In captivity it is ferocious to the last 
degree and looks a thoroughly evil animal. 

A porcupine has been found in British Central Africa but I have not been 
able to obtain specimens for identification and only know it from native report 
and from having seen its quills in use for native ornaments. The natives state 
that there are two species, one large and one small, for which they have slightly 
different names, Nungu and Kanungii. 

The Hyraxes are represented by at least two species Procavia johnstoni 
and P. brucei. They are chiefly confined in their distribution to the high 
mountains and plateaux. 

The Ungulates, as elsewhere in Tropical Africa, are well represented. 

There is the African elephant of course, and among the Perissodactyla 
we have the ordinary two-horned rhinoceros and the zebra. The Artiodactyla 
are represented by the hippopotamus, two genera of swine, and numerous 
examples of the Bovidce or hollow-horned ruminants. 

The elephant was formerly most abundant throughout the whole of British 
Central Africa, and in the years following on Livingstone's first expedition 
many sportsmen from England made large sums of money by the ivory which 
they obtained in the Shire district and at the north end of Lake Nyasa. Sub- 
sequently this great beast has become very scarce within the limits of the 
Protectorate though he is still found in large numbers in the rest of British 
Central Africa, especially in the Mweru districts, the Luangwa Valley and the 
country between the Luangwa and the Luapula. They are also occasionally 
met with in the Ruo, Zomba, West Shire, South Nyasa, Central Angoniland, 
Marimba, and West Nyasa districts of the Protectorate, being most abundant 
in Central Angoniland and in Marimba. They feed chiefly on leaves and such 
fruits as are in season. They also eat the top shoots of the Pkragmites reeds 
and the roots of certain trees, which they are fond of chewing. These trees they 
uproot with their trunks and also by butting. Mr. Sharpe, who has studied 
elephants closely, denies that they use their tusks for prizing-up the trees or for 
exhuming roots. Although I respect him as a great authority on the subject I 
cannot agree with him in this particular. I have seen something of elephants 
on the Congo and at the back of the Cameroons, and there the natives have 
told me spontaneously that the elephant used one of his tusks for digging in 
the ground and for uprooting the small trees. Moreover, it often happens that 
one of the elephant's tusks the " ground tusk " is more worn and blunted 
than the other, probably from being put to this use. 1 At the same time 

1 The term "ground tusk " may bear two interpretations. According to old custom, when a native in 
Central Africa kills an elephant he gives the "ground tusk" to the Chief of the Country. This may 
either mean the inferior tusk worn with digging, but more probably the undermost of the two tusks that 
which is touching the ground, in reference to the proprietary rights' of the " Lord of the Manor." 


although I have seen elephants at work in Hyphaene palm forests on the Congo 
actually being able to watch them from a boat working their will on these trees 
for the sake of the " ginger-bread " covering of the nuts, I cannot say I have 
seen them kneel down and uproot a tree with the tusk. One is a little puzzled 
sometimes to account for the enormous development of the two remaining 
upper incisor teeth, unless they were used for some such purpose as digging 
up roots. They are not so useful as defensive or offensive weapons that they 
should be worth development for this purpose alone. In killing animals much 
less in size than himself the elephant generally uses his trunk and feet, though 
I admit many cases occur including one which took place a few months ago in 
England where an elephant does deliberately slay his victim with his tusk. 
On the whole I am inclined to believe that where the elephant retains these 
huge teeth he uses them occasionally for digging in the ground. This belief is 
supported by the very distinct statements of such authorities as (the late) Sir 
Samuel Baker and Mr. F. C. Selous. The former writes "They (the acacia 
trees) are easily overturned by the tusks of the elephants which are driven like 
crowbars beneath the roots and used as levers, in which rough labour they are 
frequently broken .... It is nearly always the right tusk which is selected 
for this duty." Mr. Selous states that he has seen large areas of sandy soil 
ploughed up by the tusks of these animals in their search for roots. 

Although nowhere very abundant, the ordinary two-horned rhinoceros is 
probably found pretty generally over all British Central Africa except on the 
high plateaux. But from all accounts it is absent from the south shore of 
Tanganyika and from the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau. Unless, therefore, it can 
be proved to exist in the interior of the Mozambique district the rhinoceros will 
be another of those animals whose range is completely broken by the inter- 
position of British Central Africa. 1 Is the so-called " white rhinoceros " 
(Rhinoceros simus) found north of the Zambezi? This is a question rather 
hard to answer in the negative or affirmative. I should not be surprised to hear 
that it was, though not within British territory but in the adjoining districts of 
Portuguese Zambezia. In 1892 an English trader, Mr. Harry Pettitt, gave me 
an extraordinary pair of horns which he had obtained in Portuguese territory to 
the south of the river Ruo. These horns were very similar in appearance to 
those of the " white rhinoceros," that is to say, both horns were of good length 
but the front one was extremely long, slender and directed forwards. There 
are specimens extant of the white rhinoceros in which the front horn is not 
directed forwards but is exactly vertical, or turned slightly backwards. Still I 
never remember to have seen a specimen of the ordinary two-horned rhinoceros 
which has the front horn directed forwards. The pair of horns to which I 
allude I sent to Mr. Sclater and I believe they are now in the British Museum. 2 

The zebra of British Central Africa is a singularly beautiful beast and 
should, if right were done, be made a type species under the name of Equus 
tigrinns* with three sub-species or varieties E. tigrinns bnrchelli, E. tigrinns 
chapmani, and E. tigrimis granti, to indicate in addition to the clear and 
perfectly striped Central African form the three other varieties which are 
marred in their beauty by intermediate faint stripes, and one of which 

1 Abundant evidence, however, of the existence of the Rhinoceros in the vicinity of Lake Rukwa 
was obtained by the Rev. Harwood Nutt of the London Missionary Society. 

- Mr. Sclater suggests they may belong to a sub-species of Rhinoceros proposed by Dr. Gray, " Gray's 

3 Namely the striped horse, par excellence. 



(Burchell's zebra) has the legs below the "knee" and hock almost without 

The question with regard to the striped horses stands thus : There is the 
true or mountain zebra (Equus sebrd], a smaller animal than the zebra of the 
plains and with the pattern and breadth of the stripes differing from the three 
types of (so-called) Burchell's zebra. The true zebra is perhaps the most per- 
fectly striped of all the Tigrine horses. This creature is nearly extinct but has 
always been for the last hundred years or so confined to the mountains of 
South Africa. 

Then there is the closely allied Equus grcvyi which inhabits the mountains 
of southern Abyssinia and Somaliland. From the resemblance between 
these two types of mountain zebra one might imagine that there had been 
a regular race of mountain zebras inhabiting all the highlands from the 
north-east to the south-west of Africa, but that all the links between Shoa and 
Cape Colony had died out in the course of time. It is curious that the natives 
of Mlanje assert that there is a small mountain zebra dwelling on Michesi 
Mountain which is an outlying spur of the Mlanje range. Up to the present, 
however, we have been unable to secure a specimen. 

Then comes the race of big zebras of the plains. These are characterised 
by much broader stripes, by the ground colour of the skin being darker and 
yellower in tint than that of the mountain zebra and, in one variety, by the 
imperfect striping of the legs. What I object to is that this imperfect type 
should be taken as the type of the species merely because it was the first one to 
be discovered (it was named after the South African traveller Burchell). 1 ^Sub- 
sequently as explorers and sportsmen penetrated more and more into South 
Central Africa they found that the zebra of the plains was striped right down 
to the hoof. A specimen was sent home by a Mr. Chapman and naturalists 
then called it Equus burchdli, variety chapmani. But both Burchell's and 
Chapman's zebras have this point in common, that in between the broad black 
stripes there are thin hazy dun-coloured streaks, much as though one took a 
photograph of a striped zebra, he moved, and so the stripes were faintly 
duplicated. This intervening brown zigzag marking has, in my opinion, a 
very ugly effect. Now the zebra of Nyasaland and, as far as I know, of all 
British Central Africa, is without this duplication of the stripe, and is one of 
the most beautiful animals in existence. Its ground colour is very pale fawn, 
melting into white, and the stripes are broad and jet black. It is striped down 
to its very hoofs. But on the other hand, the common zebra of East Africa and 
Uganda also has these duplications of the stripes, though not in such a marked 
degree as the South African zebra of the plains. It would seem, therefore, that 
the zebra found in South Central Africa is a distinct variety, if not species. I 
consider it should be the type of the large zebras and that the others should be 
classified as inferior varieties, tending more towards the Ouagga. This point, 
however, was first raised by Mr. Richard Crawshay, and up to the present 
zoologists are not agreed as to the validity it possesses.- 

Last in the list of zebras is the Quagga which is dun coloured, with stripes 
only on the neck, shoulders, and forelegs. The Ouagga is nearly if not quite 

1 The story goes that Dr. Cray, <>f the British Museum, and the explorer Burchell -both peppery- 
men had quarrelled. Dr. Cray having a new zebra to name, called it, half in fun, half in malice, 
" \sinus burchelli." Burchell, so far from appreciating the honour, challenged Dr. ('.ray to tight a duel . 

- Since writing the above I have read the article on the subject by -Mr. W. E. de Winton m the 
of Natural History, but I think it best to let my views stand as they are. 


extinct and, so far as we know, is confined in its range to Africa south of the 
Zambezi. It is very asinine in its affinities. 1 

The zebra is still extremely common almost all over the Protectorate, and 
measures have now been taken to preserve it from undue diminution at the 
hands of sportsmen and natives. I have several times tried to tame the young 
but have had great difficulty in rearing them away from their mothers, and all 
experimented on have died within a few days of their capture. 

When our system of Game Reserves is perfected we shall be able from time 
to time to make drives and possibly catch some of the young zebras sufficiently 
old to be independent of a milk diet and yet not so old as to be quite 
intractable. They might then be broken in and tamed as is now being done 
increasingly in South Africa. 

The zebra of British Central Africa is slightly larger than his South African 
congener and is, perhaps, the largest representative of the zebra group. 

When I first came to this country I found the hippopotamus so numerous on 
the Shire as to be a serious danger to navigation in vessels smaller than a 
steamer. They were very vicious and fond of pursuing and upsetting canoes. 
Mr. Sharpe in travelling down the Shire in 1892 was, as I have already related, 
upset by a hippopotamus and nearly drowned. I have been in a boat myself on 
the Upper Shire which was so far tilted over by a hippopotamus that most of 
the men fell into the water and I only saved myself by clinging to the doorway 
of the house. This being the case, we have never attempted to check the 
slaughter of these animals and they are now so far reduced in numbers on the 
Shire as no longer to be a source of danger. They are still abundant on parts 
of the coasts of Lakes Nyasa, Tanganyika, and all the other big lakes, and are 
found in every river with a sufficient amount of water to immerse their bodies. 2 
They are said to visit Lake Chilwa at certain times of the year, travelling 
overland from the Shire. When we have reduced the numbers of the hippo- 
potamus to something more compatible with the safety of canoe travelling we 
shall probably add him to the list of protected animals, as we have no desire 
to bring about the absolute extinction of one of the few great survivors of the 
Tertiary Epoch. 

Pigs are represented in British Central Africa by the bush pigs (Potauwclia-rns 
Africainis and P.joJinstoni] and the wart hog (Phacochwus ictliiopicns). 

The bush pigs chiefly frequent the hills and mountains, though they are also 
found in the plains near rivers. They are weird looking creatures with long 
wiry hair which is yellow and grey with a few white marks. Along the back 

1 Summarized the revised classification of the horses might stand thus : 

A. True horses Equus caballus. 

Equus prjevalski. 

B. Asses Eqinis kiang. 

Equus heinionus. 
Equus as inns. 
Equus soniah'ats. 

C. Striped horses Equus quagga. 

Equus tigrinus. 

E.t.) bitrchelli. 

E.t., chapmani. 

E. t. , grant i. 
Equus grevyi. 
Equus zebra. 

2 Though the hippopotamus will go into the Indian Ocean off the mouths of big rivers and though it 
can if need be swim across any African lake, still one never meets with them as a rule much out of their 
depth. They do not care for swimming but prefer walking along the bed of rivers or shallow lakes below 
the surface or resting thereon, rising every now and then to the surface to breathe and float. 




The bush pigs arc closely allied to the 

there is a considerable whitish mane. 
Reel river hog of West Africa. 1 

The young of the bush pig are spotted and striped \\ ith white as are the 
young of almost all members of the genus Sus. This is not the case with the 

1 When this chapter had been written I learnt through Mr. \V. E. de \Vint.-n that Dr. Forsyth Major 
after examining the pigs skulls in the British Museum senl home by me in iSSo. had determined a new 
species wh lc h he had named Potatnocharw johnstoni, and which is remarkable as bein- an intermediau- 
form between the Bush pigs and the True pigs. 


young wart hogs, which are born without these white markings. The wart hog 
is chiefly distinguished from the true pigs by the reduction in number of its 
upper incisor teeth. In young animals one pair of perfectly useless incisor teeth 
the outermost pair is retained, but these fall out in the old males. In old 
animals it sometimes happens that there are few teeth left in the head except 
the molars and the canine tusks. There are also peculiarities in the number 
and shape of the molar teeth which separate these animals from the typical 
pigs. In the male there is very little hair on the body except along the line of 
the back where a thin mane of very long coarse bristles extends from the top 
of the head to the tail. This mane is not erect but falls over on either side. 
Around the chest there is also a frill of whitish bristles. The rest of the body 
is nearly .bare but is sprinkled with a bristly growth. My illustration, which 
was drawn from life, will give some idea of this extraordinary creature. I kept 
a wart hog for over a year at Zomba as a pet. He was brought down from the 
Lake Mweru district by Mr. Crawshay and is now in the Zoological Gardens. 
The animal derives its name from the huge excrescences or warts on the face, 
four in number the large ones seemingly serving as defences to the eyes and 
two small ones on either side of the nasal bones not sufficiently developed as 
yet to be of any particular use. 

The wart hog prefers a dry country and likes a loose sandy soil in which 
it burrows, or at least is thought to burrow. In the opinion of some observers 
it does not make these holes itself but occupies the lair of some other animal, 
or a natural crevice in an}- mound. The natives state that the female wart hog 
seldom has more than two young ones at a time. Certainly the number of teats 
is much reduced, being only four, which are inguinal in position. The female is 
a good deal smaller than the male and has not quite such a preposterous 
development of head, nor are her tusks nearly as large. 

As it exists, the mature male wart hog looks like a beast of another epoch. 
I doubt if there is any other mammal whose head is so disproportionately large. 

The existence of the giraffe in British Central Africa is still a moot question. 
The natives report its presence in the Luangwa Valley with very circumstantial 
details and they are probably telling the truth ; but up to the present time no 
European has sighted the animal in that country, nor have any tangible proofs, 
such as skulls, or tails, or skins, been sent back as evidence of its existence. 1 

We have seen so few specimens of the giraffe living or dead in England, and 
those specimens commonly exhibited have not been very good ones that 
perhaps we do not realise the remarkable fact that one species or sub-species 
of the giraffe is really a three-horned animal. I saw recently at the British 
Museum a head from Somaliland in which the central horn between the eyes 
was nearly six inches in length. As a matter of fact the giraffe is an animal 
which has lost its horns and retained little more than the basal portion, the 
bony cores from which the horns (probably in the form of antlers) once 
grew. An analog}- may be found in the prong buck of North America, an 
animal which appears to be very distantly related to the stock from which 
the giraffe sprang. Imagine the horn cores of the prong buck increased in 
growth till they resemble those of the muntjac deer and you have something 
answering the present condition of the giraffe's so-called " horns." 

1 It is a point so interesting as to be worth a special expedition on the part of some enterprising 
sportsman-naturalist, as it would be desirable to know whether it differed in any way from the giraffe of 
South Africa and is more akin to the giraffe of East Africa and the Northern Sudan. This subject has 
lately been discussed by Mr. W. E. de Winton. 



^ The buffalo of British Central Africa is the type known as the Cape Buffalo 
(Bos caffcr}. The range of this species probably extends from South Africa up 
the eastern half of the continent to the Victoria Xyanza, the White Nile, 
and Somaliland. Its place in Abyssinia and the Egyptian and Central Sudan is 
taken by another variety or species known as the Central African Buffalo. 1 It 
extends into West Africa as far as the southern boundaries of the district 
of Angola proper and thence over the whole Zambezi region into the south and 
east of the Congo Free State, reaching more than half-way up the coast of 
Tanganyika and being found on the upper waters of the Lualaba and Kasai. 
Thenceforward to the north and west its place is taken by the curious short- 
horned red buffalo of West Africa, which is the only species found in the forest 
part of the Congo Basin and along the west coast and in Nigeria. 

It may be interesting to give here a drawing of the horns of this forest 
buffalo of the Congo, which I did at Bolobo 
on the Upper Congo some years ago. On 
the whole I am disposed to regard the forest 
buffalo of West Africa as rather a degenerate 
than a primitive type of buffalo. It is evidently 
a deteriorated race of the Bos caffer? 

Buffaloes are very abundant all over 
British Central Africa, but of course are 
retiring from the vicinity of European settle- 
ments. They are also frequenters of the 
plain rather than the mountains, though they 
will ascend high plateaux in the dry season 
for the sake of the green herbage. The 
favourite places of their resort are wide 

marshy districts like the Elephant Marsh near Chiromo, where even after the 
most wanton and indiscriminate slaughter at the hands of Europeans 3 they 
exist in large numbers thousands, it is said. Like the Indian buffalo they 
are fond of wallowing in mud and water, though perhaps not as aquatic in 
their habits as the last-named animal. They are dangerous beasts to tackle 
under certain conditions though less dangerous than the elephant and lion. 
It is seldom that they will take aggressive action against the sportsman when 
not wounded. 4 

1 Bos atquinoctialis. This variety of buffalo is much more interesting than appears from the meagre 
accounts given of it by all naturalists. It is to some degree a connecting link between the African 
and Indian buffaloes. The horns are much longer, and are directed farther backwards than in the Cape 
burtelo. There is not such an exaggerated boss on the forehead. 

2 The most primitive known buffalo or ox is the Anoa of the island of Celebes. This creature show-, 
signs of affinities with the Tragelaphs (a group of [so called] bovine antelopes, to which the Nilgai the Kudu 
bland, and Bushbuck belong). Even at the present day with the aid of the Philippine Islands buffalo' 

here are existing a series of gradations leading up to the long-horned buffalo of India, and thence through 
the Central African buffalo to the Cape species which may be regarded as the culmination of Bubaline 
development at the present day. But fossil remains from both North and South Africa show us that there- 
existed buftalo in this continent in past ages the development of whose horns was gigantic though perhaps 
not as extravagant even as some extinct Indian species. Mr. Lydekker states thVt a fossil buffalo skull 
from South Africa showed horn cores which were 14 feet long, and to this length must, of course, be added 
that of the horn covering a foot or so longer. One weeps to think of the degenerate days in which we 
live. The big game we pursue are but small deer compared with the glorious beasts which surrounded our 
pithecoid ancestors. 

Now checked by this stretch of country having been declared a Government (lame Reserve. 
Occasionally out of stupid curiosity or because the traveller is standing in the way of a newly 
born buftalo calf, buffaloes will advance unprovoked to the attack. I remember visiting the Songwe plains 
at the north end of Lake Nyasa in 1889 for the purpose of sport, accompanied by the late Mr. Kvdd. 




Even when wounded it is doubtful whether they charge in the open. The 
danger in connection with shooting buffaloes is this, that the wounded beast 
retires into long grass or thickets. If the sportsman follows him up then the 
buffalo puts no bounds to his rage and is also very cunning. He will charge 
from out of his hiding place and pursue his enemy with a great deal of 
intelligence, that is to say not altogether in blind rage, and if he succeeds 

Soon after we had landed at the mouth of the Songvve we found ourselves in the midst of an enormous herd 
of buffalo. So far from their retreating before us these animals began to toss their heads and paw up the 
ground. It seemed as though an imprudent shot would provoke a charge of buffaloes which would drive 
us into the crocodile-haunted reeds of the marshy lake margin, so that at first we refrained from firing until 
one bull buffalo advanced in front of the herd and came so near that we had no option but to shoot. The 
beast fell, then rose to his feet, but instead of charging made for the river, and was dropped by two more 
shots from our rifles. The rest of the buffaloes turned and fled. 



in catching him up will gore him and kneel on him. But I can obtain no 
authentic record of a buffalo when wounded in open country immediately 
charging his assailant. 

Buffalo calves are born about the end of the rainy season (March, April). 
Although quickly tamed they are very difficult to rear. They easily catch cold 
and do not much appreciate cows' milk. I have been so anxious to start the 
domestication of these fine animals that I brought a number of tame Indian 
buffaloes from Bombay in 1895, and induced one of them to suckle a young 
African buffalo. The little beast throve until he was almost ready for weaning, 
but suddenly caught a chill and died of pneumonia. The Indian buffaloes 
I introduced are still in the country, not one of them having died, and I am still 
hoping that they may be used as foster mothers to rear up the newly caught 
young of the African buffalo until we have established a tame breed of this 
animal, which should be as useful in a domesticated state as is the lon<y-horned 
buffalo of India. 

The Tragelaphs are well represented in this part of Africa by Livingstone's 
Eland, the Kudu, the beautiful Tragelaphus angasi, or Inyala, 1 by the remark- 
able Situtunga (Tragelaphus spekei) and the South 
African variety of the bushbuck ( Tragelaphus scriptus 

The Eland of Central Africa differs from the 
variety found in South and East Africa by its 
yellower colour, and by its retention of the Tragela- 
phine white stripes. Also I have never seen a 
specimen shot in British Central Afrjca which possessed 
that great development of " brush " on the nose so 
characteristic of the South African Eland. The Derbian 
Eland of West Africa is however quite a separate 
species from the Eland of Central Africa (Livingstone's 
Eland), which latter is after all little but a sub-species 
of the common form. The Central African Eland has 
in the male larger and longer horns than the South 
African species. I give an illustration here of what I 
believe is an exceptionally fine male eland head. It 
was shot not far from my house at Zomba by one of 
my native hunters and was presented by me to the 
Zoological Society. The length of these horns is 29^ 
inches, and they are i6i inches apart from tip to tip. 

The eland is seldom met with in the low-lying plains, 
frequenting mostly wooded hills and high-lying open 
grass-covered districts on the plateaux. This also is 
the favourite habitat of the kudu, the glory of the 
Tragelaphs, an animal to which shrines should be 
erected and worship tendered on account of its beauty. 
The Central African kudu is almost the finest develop- 
ment of the genus. Mr. Sharpe measured one pair of horns shot in Nyasaland 
which gave 62 inches as the length of the horn following the curve. I have 
myself a pair of horns which measure 48 inches along the cur\v. 

I am inclined to think that the Inyala antelope of British Central Africa is 
limited in its range as far as we yet know to the Western and Upper Shire 



1 Locally called Boo. 


3 6 


districts and the Lake Mweru district and may be a different variety to the 
Inyala of South East Africa, inasmuch as the males retain white spots and 
stripes on the skin to a greater extent, and do not assume such a grey fur at 
maturity. The Inyala, locally called Boo, is a very rare animal frequenting 
dense thickets. Its horns somewhat resemble those of the bushbuck, but are 
much larger proportionately, much wider apart and slenderer. They may 
measure as much as 22 i inches in length along the curve. (I have a pair of 
horns giving this measurement.) I have only twice seen skins of the adult 

A MALE BUSHBUCK (Tragelaphus scriptus) 

animal. They were extraordinarily beautiful in colour the females a deep 
chestnut with narrow stripes and spots in pure white and a black line along 
the middle of the back from the neck to the base of the tail ; the male purplish- 
grey with white markings. The Situtunga ( Tragelaphus spckei) is not found in 
Nyasaland but is met with abundantly in the swamps of Lakes Mweru and 
Bangweolo, in the Luangwa Valley and in other parts of British Central Africa. 
This Tragelaph has taken to an entirely aquatic residence and the hoofs are 
enormously developed. 1 The horns of the Situtunga, unlike those of the rest 
of the animals of the genus Tragelaphus , have two turns instead of a turn and 

1 Another instance of great development of the hoof for the purpose of traversing marshy ground 
exists in Tragelaphus grains of West Africa. 



a half. 1 This aquatic Tragelaph further differs from the other members of the 
genus in having long, coarse, uniformly grey-coloured hair without white spots 
or stripes in the adult. The young are said to be faintly striped and spotted 
with white. 

There remains to be considered the Bushbuck of Central Africa. I am 
inclined to think that the naturalists are wrong in the classification of the Bush- 
bucks. They should restore to them that designation Tragelaphns silvaticns 
which was formerly applied to the Bushbuck of South-Central and East Africa, 
making it a separate species from Tragdapluts scriptus, the " Harnessed 
Antelope " of West Africa. The coloration of the Bushbuck is usually uniform 
between South and East Africa and so different to that of the Harnessed 
Antelope that it is scarcely logical to class it as merely a variety of the latter. 
Besides which the horns of the Bushbuck are usually long 2 and more slender than 
those of the Harnessed antelope and offer a more distinct beginning of a second 
curve. The Bushbuck is extremely common throughout British Central Africa 
and is without exception the most delicious eating of any mammal in the world. 
In tenderness and flavour its flesh surpasses the best Welsh mutton, or any 
venison. Here, emphatically, is an animal which should be domesticated and 
saved from extinction. The young and the females of the Bushbuck are a 
bright yellow chestnut in colour, with well marked white spots and stripes, but 
the adult males become bluish grey, sepia and black, with the inner side of the 
legs white, a few white spots and one or two white stripes on the hind quarters, 
two white bars on the front of the throat and neck, and the usual tragelaphine 
white spots and stripe on the face. There is also a scattered white stripe down 
the line of the back. 

There now remains to be considered the great group of true antelopes, or 
ring-horned Bovidce, found in British Central Africa. 3 These are represented 
by the following antelopes : One or more species of Duyker (Cephalophns), the 
Oribi, Steinbok (Raphicerus\ Klipspringer, Reedbuck, five species of Cobiis, the 
Roan antelope, Sable antelope, Pallah, Lichtenstein's Hartebeest, possibly the 
Tsessebe (Damaliscns\ and the Blue Gnu. There should be one or more 
representatives of the little Livingstone's Antelopes (Nesotragus), but no 
specimens have yet been obtained. 

The Duyker antelopes are neither so numerous in species nor in actual 
numbers as they are in South and West Africa. They frequent chiefly the 
low-lying plains in the vicinity of water courses. The Cephalophines are an 
interesting antelopine group to which is related the four-horned antelope of 
India. Although in regard to the modification of their toes by which all 

1 The kudu and the lesser kudu have three turns, the eland two turns and a half, the situtunga two 
turns, and the remainder of the African Tragelaphs one turn and a half, and the Nilgai of India only 
the beginning of a turn. 

2 A pair in my possession measures I7f inches along the curve. 

;i There are certain families of mammals and of birds in the classification of which most naturalists, 
with the exception of the late Professor Garrod, seem to miss the moaning of a conjunction of charac- 
teristics and to fail to grasp true relationships, mistaking parallel developments for evidence of direct 
inter-connection. In no mammalian group has this persistence in error been more remarkable than in the 
arrangement of the BoviiLc. That vague and facile term " antelope " has been made to include at least 
two groups of hollow-horned ruminants which are only akin one to the other in that they can prove descent 
from' a common ancestral type of hollow-horned ruminant. The term " antelope '' should be reserved to 
the ring-horned ruminants and should include gazelles and all the African and Indian antelopes which 
have annulated horns. The goats and sheep and capricorns are nearly-allied sub-families. Another group 
of equal value is the Oxen, or Bovine, and a third similarly distinct, is the Tragelapkitta, or Tragelaphs. 
The diagram on next page will show my idea of the right classification, arrangement and development of 
the Horit/d . It is based on ideas expressed many years ago by the late Professor Alfred Garrod. 



vestiges of the second and fifth metacarpal and metatarsal bones are lost, and 
even the false hoofs representing these missing toes are often flattened and 
reduced in size (so that some Duykers are almost completely two-toed), yet in 
other respects they may be regarded as a low type of antelope not far removed 
from the central stem from which the ring-horned ruminants branched out. 
The nose is quite naked and irresistibly suggests a resemblance to that feature 
in the pig-like Dorcathcrinin of West Africa, which is the nearest living repre- 
sentative of the type from which all existing ruminating Artiodactyles sprang. 
I believe some anatomists have discovered minute traces of an upper canine 
which does not pierce the gum in the young of Cephalopkus. The species of 



this genus which is found in Nyasaland is the common Duyker, CephalopJius 
grin nni. 

A remarkable little antelope of the genus Raphicerus was recently discovered 
by Mr. Sharpe at the south end of Lake Nyasa and sent home. It proved 
to be a new species of Steinbok and was named R. sharpei after its discoverer. 
It is illustrated in the Zoological Society's Proceedings of April ist, 1897, and 
is closely allied to the Steinboks of South Africa. 

The little Klipspringer is found in all rocky places and upon high mountains 
like Mlanje. The stories told of its jumps are almost as marvellous as those of 
the Ibex and Chamois. I have not myself witnessed any of these wonderful 
leaps but it is quite conceivable that they occur. Exaggerated stories are told 
of its being able to place all four feet together on a space not larger than a 
crown piece. Of course this is impossible, but it can stand with'all of its four 


3 11 

feet together on an area which might be covered by a very small saucer. The 
fur has a curious brittle, shiny appearance, as though the hairs were thickening 
into spines. The Oribi of British Central Africa is Onrebia hastata and also 
comes from the Portuguese province of Mozambique. 

The Reedbuck of British Central Africa is a large animal of the genus 
Cervicapra. The variety found in the Mweru district has a well marked black 


patch on the crown between the horns. 1 I have sometimes thought that the 
Reedbucks (which I illustrate on next page) found at the north end of Nyasa 
were exceptionally large. The drawings made are from specimens shot by 
myself in 1889. At the time the beasts were killed I almost thought that they 
were a small species of Colnis antelope, a genus into which Cervicapra insensibly 
melts. The Reedbuck is good eating and ranks next to the Bushbuck as 

fT 1 So states Mr. Oldfield Thomas in his paper on the mammals of British Central Africa ; he further 
says that similar patches have been noticed in South African specimens. 




palatable meat. I do not think the Reeclbuck is met with on high mountains 
or that it even cares much for hilly country, but it is very abundant on elevated 
plateaux of gentle undulating surface. Ordinarily it frequents the grassy plains 
and answers to its name by affecting beds of high reeds. On the Nyasa- 

Tanganyika plateau one used to 
see it with its head just appear- 
ing out of the high grass and 
tall yellow ground orchids of the 
genus Lissochilus. 1 

There are, as I have said, 
five species of Cobus, or water- 
buck, to wit: (i) the well-known 
South African waterbuck (Cobus 
ellipsiprymnus) ; (2) the nearly 
allied Cobus crawsJiayi ; (3) the 
Lechwe (Cobus lec/iwe) ; (4) the 
Puku (Cobus vardoni); and (5) 
the Senga Cobus (Cobns sen- 
ganus} also discovered by Mr. 
Crawshay. The common water- 
buck is almost the largest 
member of the genus. The 
female, as is the case throughout 
all the Cervicaprines, is without 
horns. Crawshay's waterbuck. 
which is found in the Mweru 
district and probably thence 


1 See illustration, page 208 in Chapter 


westward to the vicinity of Angola (where a closely allied form, Cobus 
penricei has been found), is slightly smaller than the common waterbuck. 
The waterbucks of Crawshay and Penrice differ from the common species 
in the following points : The horns are smaller and less incurved, the rump 
is yellow white instead of being a mere white streak sandwiched between 
two patches of dun colour. Penrice's waterbuck differs from Crawshay's very 
slightly if at all. The known specimens, however, are slightly larger and rather 
blacker in colour and the horns are proportionately shorter. The common 
waterbuck is extremely hairy especially about the neck, the female being in my 
opinion even hairier than the male. She bears an extraordinarily superficial 
resemblance to the hind of a large species of deer. These animals have such a 

MALE WATERBUCK (Cobns ellipsiprymnus] 

strong coarse smell (something like that of a goat) that the natives say they 
can often smell them before they see them. In going through the Elephant 
Marsh with natives they have suddenly commenced sniffing the air and declared 
that waterbuck were near, and they have been usually right. From this cause 
and also because it is coarse and tough in grain, the meat of the waterbuck is 
not at all liked by Europeans, though I have found the flesh of the female and 
of the young ones just tolerable when well cooked. The Puku is not found in 
Xyasaland proper, but it is fairly abundant in the country west of the Nyasa 
watershed from Lake Mweru southwards, and at the south end of Lake 
Tanganyika. This animal is considerably smaller than the common waterbuck. 
It is a bright chestnut yellow in colour and does not assume the grey tint so 
characteristic of the larger waterbucks. Mr. Sharpe states that it is still found 
in enormous herds about the river Luapula and in the vicinity of Lake Mweru. 
As regards its habits, it is fond of entering the water, but not so much as the 


closely related Colms Iccliwe. A smaller Cobus closely allied to the Puku has 
recently been discovered in the Senga country (Luangwa Valley) by Mr. 
Crawshay and has been described by Mr. Oldfield Thomas under the designa- 
tion of Cobus scnganus. In colour it is said to be rather darker than the 
Puku. The Lechwe waterbuck is one of the most water -loving antelopes 
known, though it must be admitted that it is some degrees less aquatic than 
Speke's Tragelaph which has been longer at this mode of life and has there- 
fore developed very remarkably extended hoofs. The Lechwe though having 
slightly longer hoofs than in the other forms of Cobus, does not present any 
very striking development of the foot for life in the water, except that] at the 


back of the toes, between the false and the big hoofs, there is a naked place not 
covered with hair. Mr. Sharpe and other observers relate that the Puku and 
Lechwe constantly associate together in large herds. Up to the present time 
the range of the Lechwe does not seem to extend farther north than Lake 
Mweru, nor farther east than the watershed of Lake Nyasa. 

Amongst other heterodox opinions I hold that the Hippotragine section of 
antelopes, including the Oryxes, was developed from a form of waterbuck. 
This would appear to be absurd to anyone who merely looked at the commoner 
forms of Cobus ; but that remarkable and most beautiful antelope, Mrs. Gray's 
Waterbuck (Cobns maria) of the White Nile irresistibly suggests in the shape of 
its horns and the coloration of the face an approach to the Equine antelopes 
which again have given rise to the Addax and to the four species of Oryx. 

The Hippotragine or Equine antelopes are represented inTBritish Central 



Africa by the Sable and the Roan. Curiously enough there is no representative 
of the Oryx genus throughout all British Central Africa. This type at the present 
day is confined in its distribution to South Africa, East, North-East and North 
Africa, and Southern Arabia. As in the case of the zebra, of the giraffe, and of 
other animals quoted there is a complete break in the distribution of this genus 
between Mozambique and the West Coast of Africa. The Sable antelope is 
extremely common. Next to the Kudu, perhaps, or Mrs. Gray's Waterbuck, it 
is the most beautiful antelope that exists. As large as a small ox with the 
graceful shape of a beautiful stag, the colours of the male being jet black and 
snow-white (and of the female bright chestnut-brown and white), the head 
surmounted by a magnificent pair of horns symmetrically ringed and describing 
almost the curve of a half circle, the long neck clothed abundantly with a black 
mane, the large, long-lashed eye, and the tufted tail, make up a beast of grand 
proportions, striking coloration and beautiful detail, whose extermination would 
be one of the worst crimes that humanity has ever perpetrated. 

Fortunately the Sable antelope is still extremely common in Nyasaland 
though it is not certain that its range extends east over the Mozambique 
province, or westward over British Central Africa. It is found, I believe, on the 
Sai'si river (on the eastern portion of the Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau). I think 
it is met with in parts of East Africa, and I believe that I saw one specimen of 
it near Taveita and another near the river Ruvu, as far north as the Kilimanjaro 
district. [It is sometimes difficult to tell at a distance the young male or female 
Sable from a Roan antelope, therefore as I did not secure the beast I cannot 
speak positively on this latter point though in my diary I wrote most positively 
on this occasion that I had seen a sable and was struck by the vivid contrast 
between its black and white coloration.] In any case it is not confined 
to South Africa, a legend still appearing in circles which should be well 
informed. At the present time it is one of the commonest antelopes in the 
Shire Highlands and throughout Nyasaland, where it frequents the wooded 
hills rather than the low-lying plains. I have myself only seen it in what 
might be called scrub country rough land of red clay and rocks on which 
grow trees of sparse foliage and of no great height. In spite of their very 
marked colours both the male and female sable become singularly in- 
visible in this low forest, their bodies getting mixed up with the glooms of 
tree trunks in black shadow or brown light. There would appear to be these 
differences between the sable of Nyasaland and that of South Africa. The 
Nyasaland variety is rather larger, the neck is somewhat thicker but the mane 
a little shorter and the ears are slightly longer and have a black tip at the end 
which I believe is missing in the South African sable. 

It would seem to be a general rule that where the sable is found there the 
roan antelope, its near congener, is not to be met with. This animal is coloured 
somewhat like the immature male and female of the sable chestnut with a 
tendency to black, and with bold white markings. Its horns are not so 
handsome as those of the sable. The ears are even longer than in the 
sable and the tips more recurved and ending in a tuft of black hair. 1 In 
all the Hippotragine antelopes (including the Oryxes) the female is horned 
as well as the male, a sign, of course, of great specialisation. The range of 
the roan antelope apparently lies mainly outside British Nyasaland though 
both Mr. Sharpe and myself have sometimes thought that it existed in the 
Ruo district and across that river in Portuguese territory, and it has been shot 

1 The culmination of this development of the ear is seen in the fringe-eared Oryx (Oryx calldis]. 


in the North Nyasa district by Mr. G. A. Taylor. It undoubtedly occurs on 
the east coast of Lake Nyasa for it has been shot there by Major Frank 
Trollope. To the west of Nyasaland it is the common Hippotragine species 
and its range probably extends north and east to the Egyptian Sudan and 
thence westward across Nigeria to Senegambia. A third species of Hippotragus 
the Blaubok was a bluish-grey in colour and more uniform in tint with 
longer hair and in some respects more suggestive of the Cobus antelopes. 
Like many other remarkable creatures in South Africa it was promptly 
exterminated by the European settlers. 

Probably evolving from some Cervicaprine form we have the beautiful pallah, 
or mpala antelope (sEpyceros niclanipns}, the shape of whose horns will be 
shown in the accompanying drawing which however illustrates the small Nyasa- 
land variety. l The coloration of the pallah is a rich dark chestnut with a white 
stomach and a black longitudinal mark in the front of the feet. It also is 

A ROAN ANTELOPE (Hippotragus equimts] 

marked by a black tuft of hair on the inner side of the hind legs below the 
tarsus. The lesser pallah, a variety named after myself because I happened to 
send home the first specimens, is the one usually met with in Nyasaland, the 
larger pallah being found in the regions to the west and east. The accompany- 
ing illustration is the head of Johnston's pallah which differs from the more 
typical animal in the smaller size of the horns and body. Mr. Sharpe states that 
in his opinion the pallah all over Central Africa affects a special kind of country 
forested plains with open glades of short grass not far removed from water. 

The Nyasaland Gnu or Wildebeest would appear to be a new species. 
Hitherto it has been treated as a new variety of the Blue Wildebeest (Con- 
nochcetes taurinus). The first specimen sent home was killed by Mr. H. C. 
McDonald of the British Central Africa Administration in the vicinity of Lake 
Chilwa. This example was figured in the Zoological Society's Proceedings 
for i896. 2 Subsequently a fine specimen of this gnu was killed by Mr. James 
Harrison, an English sportsman, who was travelling in the Portuguese territories 
between Quelimane and the Protectorate. Mr. Harrison also saw a small 
herd of this gnu about sixty miles to the south of Lake Chilwa. The one 

1 A good drawing of the head of the larger pallah will be seen in my hook on the Kilimanjaro 
Expedition, page 219. 2 p. 616. 



which he shot he obtained about thirty miles to the south-east of Mount 
Chiperone. 1 I should say that the Nyasa gnu (the range of which in Nyasaland 
1 A small photograph was taken of the head, and this was subsequently sent to Mr. W. E. de 

licularly valuable for this reason. It confirms the presence on the head of this gnu of a white chevron 

3 20 



THE NYASALAND GNU (Connockct'tes taiirinus johiistoni] 

appears to be confined to the vicinity of Lake Chilvva and to the Elephant Marsh x ) 
is the least differentiated of all the gnus and bears more signs of relationship 
to certain forms of hartebeest. 

The position and origin of the gnu in the classification of the antelopes has 
always been a difficult one for naturalists to settle. It is obviously a very 
specialised animal and yet in some respects it retains more primitive charac- 
teristics than the hartebeest. For instance, the female has four maunnee, whereas 
in the hartebeests there are only two. Also the length of the head is not so 
disproportionately great as in the hartebeest though it possesses a peculiar 

across the ridge of the nose just below the line of the eyes. This white mark had become somewhat 
effaced in the dry skin which we sent home, and its extent and direction were not sufficiently realised by 
the artist who drew the picture for the Zoological Society's Proceedings. Mr. Harrison's photograph is 
important, therefore, as showing the proper direction taken by the white marking of the face and the clear- 
ness of this marking which has a definite outline, and is not hazy as represented in the Zoological Society's 
plate. The presence of this white mark across the face, together with other peculiarities, almost constitutes 
the gnu of Nyasaland a different species to the Blue Wildebeests of South and East Africa. If this is the 
case it will be another curious instance of the closer relationship in mammalian types which subsists 
between North-East and South Africa as compared to South-Central Africa. It will be a parallel to the 
eland and the zebra. 

1 Though the existence of a gnu is reported from the Luangwa Valley, west of the Protectorate. 


development of its own in the great breadth across the nose. On the whole, 
I should think it likely that the gnu developed from an early type of hartebeest 
somewhat similar to Bubalis si^aynci. 

One point about the gnu used to puzzle naturalists like Dr. Gray, who 
founded their classification too much on external characters, and that was that 
the gnu had no rings on its horns. They were apt therefore to dissociate it 
from its nearest congeners among the antelopes and to class it with an 
extraordinarily far-removed animal the Budorcas of Tibet. Yet the gnu really 
belongs to the group of antelopes and is derived from a form which once had 
rings on its horns. Traces of these rings may not only be seen on the horns of 
the most northern species of gnu, the white bearded gnu of East Africa 
(Connochcetes albojubatus] but are present on the under side and in the 
inner bend of the horns in female gnus when they have not had time to wear 
the marks away by rubbing the horns on the ground or against trees. The male 
gnu, however, has completely lost any trace of annulation, and in this resembles 
(as a parallel case) the Budorcas of Tibet, and the musk-sheep (Ovibos) of 
North America, both of which animals are aberrant types of Capricorns, 
a central group having annulated horns (though the annulation on the horns 
of the Capricorns is less marked than in the antelopes, goats and sheep). On 
the whole I think the Nyasaland gnu from the shape of the horns and the fact 
that the face is almost entirely without the great black brush which grows on it 
in the other gnus, is the least differentiated of all the species of this remarkable 
genus and comes nearest to a generalised type of hartebeest. 

We are now left with no order to discuss amongst the mammals but the 
Edentates, the River Shire and the great lakes being without any cetaceous 
animals such as the peculiar river dolphins which are found in the Amazon and 
the Ganges. The Edentates, as far as I know, are only represented by one type 
the Manis or scaly Ant-eater. The Manis of British Central Africa is the 
short-tailed species 1 which extends in its range right across Africa from the 
west coast to Natal and to Somaliland. It is very common in Nyasaland, but 
only in the well-wooded country. Its food consists of white ants and other 
insects. This animal has an extraordinary power of escaping from almost any 
prison. Its powerful claws and the extraordinary leverage which it can exert 
by^means of its limbs and the tripod they form with the tail, the smallness 
of its head and its remarkable " squeezability " and power of burrowing enable 
the Manis to obtain egress from almost any place of confinement. It can on 
occasions dig up cement with its claws by scratching it away from the edge of 
the wall. When shy and annoyed the Scaly Ant-eater rolls itself up into a ball. 
It is then an awkward animal to lift and carry away as the fingers may get 
between the interstices of the sharp-edged scales and be severely pinched. The 
animal seems to know this and promptly contracts so as to catch the fingers 
between the sharp edges. 

The Orycteropus, or Aard Vark, of South and East Africa is so far as I know 
entirely absent from British Central Africa another animal whose range is 
interrupted by this section of the continent. It may yet be found (and if so it 
will probably be met with in the Luangwa Valley or about Lake Mweru) but 
no report of its existence has as yet come to hand. 2 

1 Manis tenimincki. 

- It is a curious point that such southern or eastern forms as are absent from Nyasaland but are still 
found in British Central Africa are usually met with in the Mweru district. The country between Mweru 
and Tanganyika would appear to be rather dry and desert-like, and more resembling the harsh steppes of 
Equatorial East Africa and of South Africa. 





NOTE. This list is principally based on the work of Mr. Oldfield Thomas, of the Mammalian Depart- 
ment at the British Museum of Natural History. This work is summed up in Mr. Thomas's paper in the 
Zoological Society's Proceedings for April, 1897. The arrangement of the species, however, is my 
own. In order to make the list complete I have also inserted between brackets species known to be 
present in British Central Africa, though not represented by specimens sent to the British Museum or 
Zoological Gardens. Where the species was new to science and made known through our collections, 
sp. nov. is placed after the name. 

[Homo sapiens, sub-species athiops ; Bantu negroes.] 

Papio babuin ; the Yellow Baboon. 

Represented by live animal in Zoological Gardens. 

Papio pruinosus (sp. nov.}; the Grey Baboon. 

Discovered by Dr. Percy Kendall at the south end of Lake Nyasa. A remark- 
able new species with fur of a hoary grey and dirty white colour, nearly allied to 
Papio thoth of North-East Africa. 

Cercocebus alerrimus ; the Black Mangabey. 

Living specimen obtained by me from Lake Tanganyika and presented to 
Zoological Gardens. Its actual habitat on the shores of Lake Tanganyika was 
uncertain. It was given to me by an Arab of Ujiji said to come from N. Tangan- 
yika ; scarcely to be included in a list of British Central African mammals except 
that natives state the animal is also found in South Tanganyika and on the Luapula 
River : a regular West African type. 

Cercopithecus opisthostictus (sp. nov}. 

Discovered by Mr. Richard Crawshay in the Lake Mweru district : allied to 
C. samango of South Africa (vide P.Z.S. of November 21, 1893). 

Cercopithecus albigularis ; the white-throated grivet Monkey from the Shire province, 
but probably spread throughout British Central Africa. 

Cercopithecus moloneyi ; Moloney's monkey. 

( Cercopithecus pygerythrus] ; the russet-rumped grivet Monkey. 

Probably this is the common species of grivet so often seen as pets in European 

Cercopithecus stair si ; Stairs's monkey (P.Z.S. 1892, p. 580). 

Colobus palliatus ; the white-thighed Colobus Monkey. 

Found abundantly in the forested mountain regions to the west and north-west 
of Lake Nyasa and thence westward to the Congo Free State. This species is also, 
I believe, found on high mountains in East Africa; otherwise its affinities are 
mainly West African. 

Otogale kirki ; the Great Galago. 

This lemuroid has hitherto only been met with in the Shire province. 

Galago moholi. 



Epomophorus cryptunts : the Hidden-tailed Fruit Bat. 
Xantharpyia straminea : the Yellow Fox-Bat. 
Rhinolophus hildebranti \ 

Rhinolophus landeri -Horseshoe-nosed Bats. 
Rhinolophus capensis | 
Hipposiderus caffer. 
Nycteris hispida. 
Vesperugo inegalurus. 
Vesper ugo rendalli (sp. >wv. ) ; Kendall's Bat. 

Discovered by Dr. Kendall; a remarkable white-winged Bat. 
Vesper ugo nanus. 
Scotophilus nigrita. 


Rhynchocyon cirnei ; long-nosed jumping Shrew. 
Petrodromns tetradactylus ; rock-jumping Shrew. 
Crocidiira (species undetermined) ; small musk Shrew. 

Felis leo ; the Lion. 

Felis pardiis ; the Leopard, 
felts sen'al ; the Serval. 
Felis caffra ; the Kaffir Cat. 

\C\ncelurits jubatus~\ ; the Cheetah, found on Nyasa-Tanganyika Plateau. 
Hyana crocuta ; the spotted Hyaena. 
Viverra civctta ; the Civet. 
[ Genet fa tigrind\ ; the blotched Genet. 

Xandinia gerrardi ; Gerrard's Paradoxure ; the " Palm Civet," found in N. Nyasaland. 
Related to West African forms. 

fferpcstes galera \ T , 

Herpestesgraalis } Ichneumons or Mongooses. 

Rhyncogale melleri ; the fruit-eating Mongoose. 
Crossarchus fasciatus ; the banded Mongoose. 

Allied to a West African form, and also found in South Africa. 
Cam's lateralis or Cants adustus ; the side-striped Jackal. 
Lycaon pictus ; the Hunting Dog. 

Shot by Mr. Crawshay in the Lake Mweru district, and by Mr. Sharpe at Zomba, 
and reported from the Luangwa Valley and North Zambezia (M. Edouard Foa). 
Poecilogale albinucha ; a white-necked weasel. 
\_Mellivora ratel\ ; the Honey-Badger. 

I have had the young of this animal in my possession. 
Lutrit maculicollis ; spotted-necked Otter. 
[Lntra capensis (I)] ; the Cape Otter. 

It is thought that dried skins of this animal have been seen in the natives' 

3 2 4 


Sciurus mutabilis ; the changeable Squirrel. 

Sriurus palliatus ; the pale Squirrel. 

Anomalurus cincreus ; the grey flying Squirrel. 

Mr. Oldfield Thomas adds this flying Squirrel to his list of Nyasaland mammals 
as it was procured by another collection, not of our sending, from " Upper Ruvuma 
River, towards Lake Nyasa." It would therefore come within the British Central 
African province as defined by me. No specimen of a Flying Squirrel has yet 
been sent home from within the actual limits of the British Central Africa 

Otomys irroratus. 

Gcrbillus afer; the Jerboa Rat. 

Cricetomys gambiamis ; the Gambian Bush Rat. 

Golunda fallax. 

Arvicanthis dor sails. 

Arvicanthis pumilio. 

Mus rattus ; the common Black Rat. 

Mus dolichurus ; the long-tailed Tree Rat. 

Mus natalensis. 

Mus modestus. 

Mus minutoides. 

Mus incomtus. 

Saccostomus campestris. 

Acomys spinossissimus ; the Spiny Mouse. 

Obtained by Dr. Percy Rendall in the South Nyasa district. 

Dendromys mesomdas. 

Stcatomys protensis. 

Lophuromys aquilus. 

Myoscalops argento-rinereus. 

Aulacodus swinderenianus ; the Ground Rat. 
" Excellent eating." H. H. J. 

[Hystrix, sp. inc.~\ ; Porcupine. 

From the quills in the natives' possession there must be a porcupine in the 
country, but the species is not yet determined. Native name : nutigit. A smaller 
species called "kanungu" is stated to exist also. 

Lepus whytei (sp. nov.} ; Whyte's Hare. 

Sub-order, Hyracoidea. 

Procavia johnstoni (sp. nov.}; Johnston's Hyrax. 
Procavia brucei ; Bruce's Hyrax. 

Sub- order, Proboscidea. 
Ekphas africanus ; the African Elephant. 


3 2 5 

Sub-order, Perissodactyla. 

Rhinoceros bicornis ; the common African Rhinoceros, 
[Rhinoceros simus ?] ; the square-lipped (white) Rhinoceros. 

A pair of horns from the River Ruo was sent home in 1893 which strongly 
resembled those of the " white " rhinoceros. 
Equus tigrhms : the Central African Zebra. 

This I take as the type of the species of large Zebra of the plains, of which 
Equus tigrinus burchelli, E. t. chapmani, and E. t. granti are sub-species. 

Sub-order, Artiodactyla. 
Potamochierus johnstoni ; Johnston's Bush pig. 

A connecting link between the True pigs (Sus) and the Bush pigs (Potamo- 

Potamochcerus africanus ; the Bush Pig, 

Allied to the Red River hog of West Africa. 
Phacochcerus ccthiopicus ; the Wart Hog. 
[Giraffa camelopardalis\ ; the Giraffe. 

Reported to exist in the Luangwa Valley and in Ubena, N.E. of Lake Nyasa. 
Tragelaphus scrip fits, var. roualeyni ; Gordon Cumming's Bushbuck. 

The common bushbuck of South and East Africa. 
Tragelaphus angasi ; the Inyala. (P.Z.S. 1892, p. 98; 1893, p. 507 and p. 729.) 

Occurs along the west side of the River Shire and also in the Lake Mweru 
district. This handsome Tragelaph is probably found in other parts of British 
Central Africa as well as in Natal and South-East Africa. 
Tragelaphus spekei ; Speke's Tragelaph. 

Lives almost entirely in the water. Frequents the swamps of Bangweolo, Mweru 
and the River Luapula. 

Strepsiceros kudu ; the Kudu. 

Oreas canna livingstonii ; Livingstone's Eland. The white-striped Eland. 

Bos caffer ; the Cape Buffalo. 

Cephalophus grimmi ; the common Duyker Antelope. 

Oreotragus saltator ; the Klipspringer. 

Onrebia hastata ; Peters' Oribi. 

\Ourebia scoparia ?] the Cape Oribi. 

This animal is briefly recorded in our collections from Lake Chilwa by Mr. 
Oldfield Thomas under the name of Nanotragus scoparius (P.Z.S. 1894, p. 146). 
As he has not repeated the name in his recent list of British Central Africa 
mammals it may be that the specimens have since been referred to Peters' Oribi. 

Raphicerus sharpei (sp. nov.) ; Sharpe's Steinbok. 

Cervicapra arunditnun ; the Reedbuck. 

Cobus vardoni ; the Puku. 

This waterbuck, of which I have horns in my collection, has been killed by Mr. 
Sharpe in the Luangwa Valley and in the Mweru district. 
Cobus senganus ; the Senga Puku. 

A smaller species of Puku discovered by Mr. R. Crawshay in Northern Senga. 


Cobus lechwe ; the Lechwe Waterbuck. 

Found by Mr. Sharpe in the Mweru district, its farthest (known) northward range. 
Cobus crawsliayi (sp. nov. ) ; Crawshay's Waterbuck. 

Discovered by Mr. R. Crawshay in the Lake Mweru district ; remarkably similar 
to Penrice's waterbuck in South-West Africa. 

Cobtts ellipsiprymnus ; the common Waterbuck. 

s&pyceros melampus ; the Pallah or Impala Antelope. 

The larger pallah the common type is apparently found all over British 
Central Africa to the west of the Nyasaland province (vide P.Z.S. 1893, p. 728): 
but in Nyasaland and the adjoining territory of Portuguese East Africa the small 
Johnston's Pallah (,G. melampus johnstoni, sub-species nov.} is the prevailing or 
exclusively represented type (vide P.Z.S.). 

\Damaliscus sp. i?icJ\ ; the Tsessebe? 

Mr. Sharpe believes he has seen in the Luangwa Valley an antelope allied to or 
identical with the Tsessebe or "Sassaby" of South Africa. Mr. Poulett 
Weatherley reports the same animal to exist in the Lake Bangweolo district. 

Bubalis lichtensteini ; Lichtenstein's Hartebeest. 

Connochxtes taurinus johnstoni (sub-species nov} ; the Nyasaland Gnu. 

Found in south-east Nyasaland. A gnu is reported by the natives to exist in 
south-west Nyasaland and in the Luangwa Valley and on parts of the Tanganyika 
plateau. This may be the ordinary C. taurinus (Blue Wildebeest) or the johnstoni 
variety. The sub-species is determined by specimens shot by Mr. H. C. McDonald 
of the B.C.A.A., and by Messrs. James Harrison and Kirby. 
Hippotragns equinus ; the Roan Antelope. (P.Z.S. 1893, p. 728.) 

This animal is not usually found concurrently with its near ally, the sable 
antelope. It is consequently rare in or absent from Nyasaland proper (except in 
the N. Nyasa and the Ruo districts), but is common to the west in the Luangwa 
Valley, Mweru, and Tanganyika districts. 
Hippotragus nigcr ; the Sable Antelope. 

Common in Nyasaland, and said to be present in German and Portuguese East 


Sub-order, Manes. 
Mam's lemminckii ; the Scaly Ant-eater. 



1. THESE Regulations shall apply to the killing, hunting, and capturing of all wild 
beasts within the Protectorate. 

2. For the purposes of these Regulations 

"Game reserve" means all the territories within the boundaries of the Elephant 
Marsh Reserve and the Lake Chilwa Reserve respectively, as the same are described 
in the first schedule; and 



"Kill, hunt, or capture" includes killing, hunting, or capturing by any methods, 
also all attempts to kill, hunt, or capture, and "hunt" includes molesting in any 

3. The Commissioner may from time to time, with the approval of the Secretary 
of State, proclaim any other territory as a game reserve, or may, by Proclamation, 
extend or restrict the limits of any game reserve; and thereupon these Regulations 
shall apply to the territories affected by any such Proclamation as if they had been 
constituted game reserves by these Regulations. 

4. The Commissioner may in his discretion grant licences in such form as he 
thinks fit in accordance with the following scale as regards the animals authorized to 
be killed, hunted, or captured, the local limits to which the licence extends, and the 
payments to be made for the respective licences, that is to say : 





Licence (A) . 

Any wild beast mentioned in 

Any part of the Protectorate . 2? 

Schedule II. 

Licence (B) . . . Any wild beast mentioned in 



Schedule II., Part II. 

Licence (C) . 


Except within a game reserve . i 

Licence (A) includes the right to kill, hunt, or capture any wild beast whether 
mentioned in Schedule II. or not. 

Licences (B) and (C) include the right to kill, hunt, or capture any wild beast 
except those mentioned in Schedule II., Part I. 

None of these licences entitles the holder to kill, hunt, or capture any wild beast 
upon, or to trespass upon, private property without the consent of the owner or 

5. A person may without any licence kill, hunt, or capture any wild beast not 
mentioned in Schedule II. in any part of the Protectorate, except within a game 
reserve or on private property. 

6. The Commissioner may in his discretion grant any licence for which a higher 
rate is payable in substitution for a licence for which a lower rate is payable, on 
payment of the difference, or he may on such payment make the existing licence 
available, by indorsement, as if it had been originally granted at the higher rate. 

7. Every licence shall be in force for one year from its date, and shall then expire, 
and every substituted or indorsed licence shall be in force for the residue of the year 
for which the original licence was granted. 

8. Any person who kills, hunts, or captures any wild beast in contravention of 
these Regulations shall, on conviction, be liable to the following penalties, that is to 
say : 

(a.) If without the proper licence he kills, hunts, or captures any wild beast 
mentioned in Schedule II., Part I., he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding 5o/., and, 
in default, to imprisonment for three months. 

(b.) If without the proper licence he kills, hunts, or captures any wild beast 
mentioned in Schedule II., Part II., he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding 2o/., or, 
in default, to imprisonment for two months. 


(c.) If without holding any licence under these Regulations he kills, hunts, or 
captures any animal whatever within a game reserve, or is found within a game reserve 
under such circumstances as to show that he was in pursuit of animals, and was not 
lawfully employed there, he shall be liable to a fine not exceeding 5/., or, in default, 
to imprisonment for one month, without prejudice to his liability to any other penalty 
under this Regulation. 

9. Nothing in these Regulations shall be deemed to relieve any person from the 
obligation of taking out any licence which for the time being is required to be taken 
out for possessing or using a gun. 

10. The Regulations of the gth September, 1896, for the preservation of wild 
game in certain parts of the Protectorate are hereby repealed. 

11. These Regulations may be cited as "The Game Regulations, 1897." 


I. The Elephant Marsh Reserve. 

Commencing at the junction of the Ruo and Shire Rivers, the boundary of the Elephant Marsh 
Reserve shall follow the right bank of the River Ruo as far as the Zoa Falls, and shall thence be 
carried along in a straight line in a north-westerly direction until it strikes the left bank of the River 
Shire opposite the junction of the Mwanza with the Shire ; the boundary shall then cross the River 
Shire and follow the right bank of the Mwanza River up stream to a point distant from the Shire 
12 miles in a straight line; thence the boundary shall run in a southerly direction, keeping always at 
a distance of 12 miles from the right bank of the Shire River until it reaches the boundary-line dividing 
the Lower Shire district from the Ruo. It shall then follow that boundary-line in an easterly direction 
until it strikes the right bank of the Shire River ; the boundary shall then follow the right bank of the 
Shire River up stream to a point opposite the point of commencement, namely, the junction of the 
Shire and the Ruo Rivers. 

2. The Lake Chilwa Reserve. 

Commencing at the source of the River Palombe in the Mlanje district, the boundary of the Lake 
Chilwa Reserve shall be carried in an easterly direction to the source of the most southern affluent of 
the River Sombani, and from this point shall be carried along a straight line in an easterly direction to 
the Anglo- Portuguese frontier, which it shall follow to the shores of Lake Chilwa, The boundary shall 
continue along the shore of the lake southward, westward, and northward, as far as the confluence of 
the Likangala River. It shall then follow the course of the Likangala River up stream as far as the 
eastern boundary of Messrs. Buchanan Brothers' Mlungusi estate, thence along the said eastern boundary 
A the said estate southwards to a point on the left bank of the Ntondwe River. It shall then follow 
the northern boundary of Mr. Bruce's Kamasi estate eastwards until the said boundary reaches the 
Palombe River, thence along the right bank of the Palombe River up stream to its source. 


Wild beasts in respect of which licence (A) is required : 

Elephant. Giraffe. 

Rhinoceros. Gnu (Wildebeest). 



Wild beasts in respect of which licence (B) or licence (C) is required :- 

3 2 9 


Wart hog (Phacochccrns). 

Bush pig (Potat/ioc'ha'nts). 




Situtunga ( Tragelaphus spekei}. 

Inyala ( T. angasii). 

Bush buck (T. script us.} 

Duyker (Cephalophus}. 

Oribi (Oiirebia). 

Sharpe's antelope (Raphicerus sharper). 



Puku (Cobus vardoni). 

Senga Puku (C. senganiis}. 
Lechwe (C. lechiue}. 
Crawshay's Cobus (C. crawshayi). 
Waterbuck (C. ellipsiprymnus). 
Impala (sEpyceros melainpus). 
Hartebeest (Bubalis). 
Tsessebe (Datnaliscus). 
Sable antelope. 
Roan antelope. 


As to the Avi-fauna : it is a country singularly rich in bird life. Amongst 
the birds, however, occur the same curious gaps in the distribution of species 
and genera which are found to the south of the Zambezi and in East Africa 
but are wanting in this south-central part of the continent. The ostrich, 
and the secretary-vulture, three genera of true vultures, nearly all the genera 
and species of African larks and of bustards are represented in Africa south 
of the Zambezi, skip British Central Africa, and reappear again north of the 
Rufiji River extending thence northwards and westwards through East Africa, 
across the Sudan to Senegambia. There is a great paucity of species or 
genera amongst the guinea fowl ; practically the only guinea fowl ordinarily 
found in British Central Africa is the common species, the origin of the 
domestic bird, though Guttera cdonanii, the crested guinea fowl is met with 
near the Zambezi and on the Mozambique Coast. The sand grouse is only 


found in one part of British Central Africa, in the Mvveru district. 1 There 
may be other examples to be quoted ; but no doubt the break in distribution 
is less marked amongst the birds (which have easier means of distribution 
and are less subject to the attacks of man) than among the mammals. It 
will also be found that this breach in continuous distribution is less and less 
apparent amongst reptiles and Batrachians, fishes and invertebrates. It is 
practically confined to birds and mammals. 

And now to notice some of the more remarkable birds which meet the 
traveller's eye or deserve his attention in British Central Africa. Amongst 
the Passerines there are two crows possibly three the great white -necked 
raven (Corvultiir albicollis] the common black and white crow (Conms scapn- 
latus) and, I think, the black rook or crow, of South Africa (Corvus capensis}. 
Of this last named no specimen has been sent home, but I have seen it or 
a bird singularly like it, entirely black in plumage on the upper part of 
Mount Mlanje and on the higher plateaux of Zomba mountain. Of the two 
first named crows the white -necked raven is extremely common in all the 
hill country, while the black and white crow (though also visiting the hills) 
replaces the larger bird in the plains. The white- necked raven has an 
enormous beak from which feature the bird is named Coi-vultur. It is even 
larger than the common raven and very handsome, its body being shiny, 
almost bluish black and deep dull sepia black, with a large white patch on 
the back of the neck, extending downwards till it nearly forms a white collar. 2 
The common black and white crow is found throughout Africa from the 
verge of the Sahara to Natal ; but I have sometimes thought that it was 
less prevalent in the interior, especially in the forest regions than on or near 
the sea coast, where it is always the bird most commonly met with. It is 
very useful as a scavenger and is not such a robber as the white-necked raven, 
which, in spite of its beauty, one is obliged to destroy, as it carries off all 
small ducks and chickens within its reach. There is no form of magpie or 
jay ever met with in Tropical Africa. Amongst the starlings we have the . 
red-billed oxpecker. 3 It is the mission of the red-billed oxpecker to cling 
by its sharp claws to the bodies of buffaloes and other large herbivora and 
remove from their skins the blood-sucking ticks. The beautiful glossy starlings 
are represented by the genera Lamprotornis and Lamprocolius. One stammers 
in admiration before these lovely birds whose plumage is iridescent purple, 
emerald-green, bronze-red, and vivid ultramarine-blue. Their eyes are golden- 
yellow. Their plumage is literally glossy, and although they seldom live long 
in captivity, they become delightfully tame. It is only the mature birds that 
assume these gorgeous colours ; the young begin by being brown with dull 
mottlings they look very like the young of the common starling but 
by degrees the gem-like feathers appear amongst the brown and gradually 
the whole plumage is covered with this iridescent gloss. Another very 
beautiful member of the starling group is the Amydrus morio. 

Amongst the Orioles we have three, two of which are widespread species and 
yellow, grey, and black in colour, but one has proved to be entirely new to 
science and was discovered by Mr. Whyte on Mount Chiradzulu in the Shire 
Highlands and sent home by me in 1895 (Oriolus cklorocephalus}. It has 

1 Represented by one species only. 

- This bird is illustrated in my Kilimanjaro book. 

3 Another curious instance of interrupted distribution is that of the common African oxpecker 
(Hitphaga Afncana], which is found in north-east and north-west Africa, and in the Transvaal, but 
not in the intervening districts of South-Central Africa. 


a grass-green head and throat, a golden yellow collar round the neck and the 
same bright tint over the breast, stomach, and edges of the tail feathers ; it 
is olive green on the back and middle of the tail ; the wings are blue-grey and 
the same tint is on the outer tail feathers mixed with the yellow ; the eye 
is crimson and the beak reddish-brown. 

Weaver birds are well represented. There is an elegant Widow bird (Vidna 
paradiscci) the male of which in the breeding season develops enormous black 
plumes as an addition to his tail feathers plumes more than three times as 
long as his body. The rest of the plumage is black, cream-yellow and chestnut 
red. It is charming to see this bird flying with an undulatory motion through 
the air. So far from being impeded by its tail feathers in a high wind it is 
as it were buoyed up by the widespread plumes to which so disproportionately 
small a body is attached. The Widow bird with its long black feathers may 
bear some resemblance (especially the upper plumes which are crimped like 
crape) to a widow's weeds, but is far from widow-like in disposition. The male 
is one of the most uxorious of birds, each cock having a harem of ten to fifteen 
hens devoted to him and on whom he lavishes great attention. He has an 
innate conviction of his own beauty and is perpetually strutting about to show 
off his plumes. Then there is the exquisite Bishop bird flame-coloured and 
black, the flame-coloured portion of the bod)'- being like plush in appearance. 
This lovely creature is present in enormous numbers in the grasslands, and 
to see these little soft balls of flame-coloured plush hanging to the grass stems 
and fluttering about almost within reach of one's hands is one of the few 
alleviations of the unspeakable misery of travelling through long grass in 
Africa, the barbed seeds of which work their way through one's clothing until 
they penetrate the skin. 

Closely allied to the Weavers are the tiny Waxbills or Weaverfmches, some 
of which for their minute size are only surpassed by humming birds. One 
of these which is spread almost all over Tropical Africa is especially noticeable. 
It is called by the French " Cordon bleu " and is an exquisite mixture of smalt- 
blue and grey. Others of these little Waxbills are rosy red, and when they 
come with confident tameness to a clear patch of ground to feed on the grass 
seeds they are so small and so exquisitely coloured that they seem like the pets 
of a Lilliputian race. Of course there is a sparrow in Africa (Passer diffusns) 
common also to South Africa. The African buntings (Emberiza and 
Fringillarid) are pretty little birds of black, grey and yellow which have 
a pleasing song. The Makua are very fond of catching and taming this bird 
and keeping it in neatly made cages round their houses. When these men were 
stationed at Zomba as soldiers they would speedily catch the buntings in small 
traps, put them in tiny cages made of reeds, hang them up outside the hut 
or barrack and in a week the bird would be perfectly tame and singing away 
shrilly. Another favourite singing bird of the Makua, and one commonly 
met with, is a close ally of the wild canary, the " Serin finch " (Scritins, the 
same genus as the canary). These birds very much resemble the wild canary 
in appearance. There are no less than three species in Nyasaland. Wagtails 
of two or more species visit British Central Africa during the dry season, 
presumably migrating thither from the winter of South Africa. They are liked 
and protected by everyone white and black and flit about the native villages, 
European settlements and Arab towns with charming familiarity and freedom 
from fear. Their song is very pleasant. 

There are two Pipits of the genus Anf/ins, three species of Thrush (which 


sing most sweetly), there are Bulbuls of the genus Pycnonotus, numerous chats 
(Saxicola), and twenty-five genera of Warblers, including actually a nightingale ! 
the nightingale of South Europe (Daulias philomela) which comes as a winter 
visitor ; so there is no lack of singing birds. Indeed both Mr. Whyte and 
myself have remarked with emphasis at different times on the beauty of the 
birds' songs in the hilly regions of British Central Africa. The chorus of 
singing birds is quite as beautiful as anything one hears in Europe, thus quite 
disposing of one of the numerous fictions circulated by early travellers about 
the tropics, to the effect that the birds, though beautiful, had no melodious 
songs, and the flowers, though gorgeous, no sweet and penetrating scents. 1 
The song of the Mlanje thrush (Turdus uiilanjensis} is scarcely to be told 
from that of the English bird. Another warbler with a sweet song is the 
Pycnonotus bulbul. 

Three species of Swallow have been sent home in our collections, one of 
which was new to science and came from the Mlanje plateau. It is interesting 
to note that one of these birds is the common swallow which in its annual 
migrations visits England. Apparently there are five species of Woodpeckers, 
one a South African form, not before found north of the Zambezi, and two 
which have never hitherto been obtained from farther south than Zanzibar. 2 

Three species of Honey-guides (Indicator and Prodotiscus} are found pretty 
generally over British Central Africa, though one does not always hear the same 
tales there about the persistence of these birds in conducting men to the nests 
of the wild-bee, as is the case in Southern and South-Western Africa, where to 
meet the honey-guide is to be almost certain of obtaining a provision of delicious 
honey. 8 We have found one new species of barbet (Smilorhis whytei) not 
particularly remarkable for beauty, seeing how gorgeous some barbets can be. 

Amongst Cuckoos there is the southern species of Ccntropus, with black head, 
chestnut wings and tail, and cream-coloured belly, which is exceedingly common 
and not a nice pet to keep in the aviary because of its cruelty to smaller birds. 
The Centropus cuckoo is remarkable for its musical call, which might be 
expressed in the following notation : 

-I 1 N * *- 

, ~ , P |S |X , 

* * 

Tu! Tu! tu tu tu tu tu tu Tu ! 

This call sounds through all the hot hours of the day in the thick clumps of 
grass or reeds. There are also among the cuckoos two allied to the common 
species found in England, several golden cuckoos and a lovely creature of the 
genus Coccystes which is a beautiful iridescent purple with a white stomach. 

Among our collections there are two species of the Coly or mouse bird 
(Colius). These little creatures have rather doubtful affinities but are related 
to the cuckoos, the turacos, and other Picarian birds ; they have their four toes 
so arranged that they can be turned almost any way, that is to say that the hind 
toe can often be placed in a line with the three others in front, or two of the 
toes can turn backwards. The Colics have a long graduated tail, nearly twice 

1 Captain Shelley, the chief authority on African birds, writes in the preface to his Birds of Africa 
" Africa may fairly claim to be the metropolis of the song birds, for the bush resounds with their melody." 

- Catnpothera sniithii of South Africa and C. malherbii and Dcndropicus zanzibari of East Africa. 

3 Still the natives do attribute this faculty to the Indicators whose native name is "nsasu" or 
" nsadzu." The honey-guide, they say, does not care about the honey but hopes to obtain the young bees 
in the comb. 



the length of the body. The head is surmounted by a crest, generally abased, 
there is a whitish cere over the beak and the beak itself is generally red with 
rather a wide gape, the upper mandible turned down something like the beak 
of a falcon or of a turaco. The Colics frequent the low trees oV bushes of the 
forest. They creep and run about the branches like mice which accounts for 
their common name in South Africa. Their plumage is greyish-brown, with 
a faint striation. 

In an earlier chapter of this book I have dwelt on the beautiful green 
turacos with their crimson pinions. These lovely birds are represented by three 
species in British Central Africa Tnracns lii'ingstoni, Gallirex chlorochlamys^ 
and Schisorhis concolor. The first named is grass-green with dark blue wing 
coverts and tail, a white tip to the graceful crest and the usual crimson 
pinions. The second, Gallirex, is a dark indigo blue, shot with emerald green, 
with grey breast and crimson pinions. The third, however, is without the 
crimson pinions. Its wing feathers are black, the rest of its body is usually 
grey with the exception of the breast where there is a curious patch of dull 
green, showing the beginning of that green tint which has become so character- 
istic of the turacos. It would be more correct perhaps to describe the wing- 
pinions as purple rather than black. 

The green turaco is altogether a graceful and lovely creature but the 
Gallirex though gaudily coloured is a coarse bird of ugly outline. It has 
a tremendous gape and a great red throat. When it opens its beak to gulp 
down pieces of banana it looks singularly ugly. It seems to be a less highly 
developed type of plantain eater. I have reared the young of both species from 
the nest (they are generally two or three in number 1 ). The young birds when 
born appear to be covered with a dark bluish grey down. Though rather 
sprawling they can crawl about on their legs from the first and have more 
activity in the nest than the young of pigeons. In this early stage the bare- 
looking head is rather parrot-like. The way these young birds clamber about 
in an almost quadrupedal fashion helping themselves sometimes with their 
unfeathered wings reminded me of what I had read concerning the young 
of Opisthocomus, though of course the habits were not so strongly marked, and 
so far as I know the young of the turacos have not the fingers of the manus 
so much developed as in Opisthocomus. 

The ashy-coloured Schisorhis is not at all common in Nyasaland but is met 
with more frequently in the low-lying parts to the west. It is a bird which 
frequents the great plains of Tropical Africa rather than the forested uplands. 
These Schizorhina attain their greatest development, however, in the forests of 
West Africa, where they produce that magnificent bird the giant Plantain eater 
Schizorhis gigantea}? 

Parrots are poorly represented, as indeed is the case throughout Africa. 
The only two genera which are really indigenous to British Central Africa are 
Agapornis and Pceocephalus. Agapornis (the love-bird) is represented by a new 

1 It is said by the natives that four are often hatched at a time. 

8 The small family of the turacos is purely African at the present day. It should be very interesting 
to ornithologists as it is one of those indeterminate groups which serve as important links in the chain of 
development. The Musopkagida (Turacos and Plantain eaters) are related to the cuckoos, more distantly 
to the parrots, to the colies, to Opisthocomus that extraordinary South American bird which retains so 
many primitive characters and to the Gallinace,,. The turacos in my opinion (which, if I rememU-r 
rightly, is based on that of the late Professor Garrod) appear to be the descendants of some central group 
ot birds from which the parrots and most of Picarians branched off in one direction, while there \\a~- a 
connection with Opisthocomus and the Gallinaceous birds in another, this connection probably passing 
through forms like the South American Curassows (Cracidu}. 


species discovered by us on the Upper Shire (A. liliaiue}. This bird has not 
been met with anywhere else in the territory. PceocepJiali parrots are found all 
over the country. The large Pceocephalus robustns, which is green with a little 
yellow and blue, is nearly as large as a grey parrot and resembles very much in 
appearance the green Amazon parrots. It is a sulky and untamable bird 
although of handsome plumage, and has an extremely harsh cry. The smaller 
grey-headed Pceocephalus likewise is not easily tamed though it lives longer in 
confinement than P. robustns. 

The Grey Parrot is said to be found on the Luapula near Lake Mweru. 
Possibly it reaches the west coast of Tanganyika. In the former case, however, 
if the fact be true that the bird is found wild it is probably accounted for by its 
introduction from the west at the hands of native traders. The grey parrot is 
much prized as a pet by the Arabs and Wa-Swahili, and there is a steady flow 
of birds as articles of commerce from the Congo territories eastward across 
Tanganyika and southwards across Lake Mweru. They are not infrequently 
brought overland from Tanganyika to Nyasa to be sold to the Europeans. 
The grey parrot from the southern part of the Congo Free State is the normal 
variety. I have not seen any specimens like those on the Lower Congo and in 
Angola, where the plumage tends to become pink. So far as my own observa- 
tion goes there are the following species of grey parrot Psittacns crithacns and 
P. titnneh. Psittacus tinineh of VVestern Africa is a brownish-grey with a tail 
which is black or brown. This bird again offers great resemblance to some of 
the larger parrots of the genus PceocepJialus which tend to assume a brownish- 
grey plumage in West Africa. Then there is the ordinary grey parrot which 
makes its appearance on the West Coast in the form in which it is generally 
known about the Gold Coast and extends across the Lower Niger into the 
Congo Basin and Angola. The race of grey parrot, however, found on the 
Gold Coast and in Dahome is rather a dark neutral grey, but has a distinctly 
scarlet tail. In the Niger Delta the grey of the parrot becomes lighter. On 
Princes Island in the Gulf of Guinea there is an extraordinary variety of grey 
parrot, in which the plumage of the body has become a deep purple grey, 
while the scarlet tail is a purplish crimson. Seen hurriedly at a distance these 
birds appear almost black (I have been on Princes Island and so can speak 
with some decision). On the Lower Congo and in Angola the grey of the 
parrot's plumage has a beautiful silvery tint, and in this district there is a 
tendency in certain individuals for pink feathers to crop out amongst the grey 
plumage until in the variety known as the King parrot the entire plumage is 
almost pink and white with a large scarlet tail. It is the more normal form of 
ordinary grey parrot however, of the average ash-grey plumage and scarlet tail, 
which spreads eastward from the Niger Delta and the Cameroons right across 
the basin of the Upper Congo to the Albert and Victoria Nyanzas, to the West 
Coast of Tanganyika, and to the southern limits of the Congo Free State. 

It is not true as is stated by some authorities that the grey parrot in 
the wild state reaches the east coast of Lake Nyasa, or any part of Nyasaland. 
This mistake has probably arisen by Arab or Swahili traders bringing the bird 
to Nyasaland from Tanganyika. The nearest allies of the grey parrot outside 
Africa are the Vasa Paroquets of Madagascar. The parrots are a very isolated 
order of birds but their nearest living relations are the Turacos. 

So far only one swift has been recorded by us Cypselus tonlsoni a bird 
hitheffo supposed to be limited to West Africa but apparently extending 
across to Nyasaland. 



The only recorded representative of the Goatsuckers is the remarkable 
Cosmetornis vexillarins which has the ninth pinion of the wing prolonged into a 
narrow white plume of great length. The sixth, seventh and eighth pinion 
feathers which are black are also lengthened beyond what is usual. The female 
is without these appendages. 

We are actually privileged to possess two out of three species of African 
Trogon -Hapalod^nna narina and H. -cittatuin. Both these birds are very 
rarely met \vith and up to the present have only been recorded from the Shire 
Highlands. Their plumage is a combination of blue-green, golden-green, and 
bronze, with crimson-scarlet stomach, a purple tail with white edges, and zebra 
marks of black and white on the wing. 

We now come to the consideration of a group that amongst all the 
puzzling affinities of the heterogeneous cohorts of Picarian birds stands out as 
a distinct assemblage closely inter-related the Syndactyla, which includes the 
bee-eaters, hoopoes, hornbills, kingfishers, and rollers, besides other families 
not represented in Africa. 1 They are well represented in British Central 
Africa. Notable amongst the bee-eaters is the lovely 
Mcrops natalcnsis, which is abundant on the river 
Shire and probably in other low -lying parts of 
British Central Africa. At Chiromo this bird is 
present in large numbers as it nests in holes in the 
high clay bank on the spot which divides the River 
Ruo from the Shire. When I arrived at Chiromo in 
1891 to commence the administration of this country 
I found that these beautiful birds were being shot 
down in numbers to be skinned and sent home for 
the decoration of hats. I took them under Govern- 
ment protection, however, and since that time their 
numbers have greatly increased and they have become 
wonderfully tame. It is objected, however, to this 
favour shown to them that, burrowing into the bank 
to make holes for the reception of their eggs, they 
assist the water in flood time to eat away the clay 
and so gradually diminish the site of Chiromo. I do 
not think there is any fear that the bee-eaters may 
cause more than the loss of a few feet of clay cliffs, 
and the ground they are thus destroying is a piece of Government land, which 
is retained as a kind of a park. When these bee-eaters settle on the branches 
of a bare leafless bush, which they are very fond of doing, the first impression 
on the passing traveller is that this shrub is covered with gorgeous blue and 
crimson flowers, till, when he is advancing to gather them, the flowers change 
into birds which fly away and leave the bareness of the bush singularly apparent. 
They are almost the most gorgeously coloured of any living bird. The pre- 
dominating colour is rose-red, deepening in places into scarlet ; the other tints 
of their silky plumage are azure-blue, verditer-blue and black. 

The Hoopoes are represented by one species and the Tree-hoopoes by two. 
The most remarkable form of Hornbill is the very large ground hornbill, a 

1 I give here a drawing of the foot of the great kingfisher ( Ceryle maxima] to show its syndactylous 
character. It will be seen that the third and fourth toes are nearly joined together. This I think arose 
from the Syndactylous picarians originating from a Zygodactylous ancestor (toes placed two and two) and 
afterwards directing one of the back toes forward. 




bird which amongst the Picarians is as remarkable as the large Australian 
Lyrebird is as a huge terrestrial development of Passerine type. It still retains 
in some measure the syndactylous foot though it is obvious that the toes are 
gradually becoming more separated. The species of ground hornbill in British 
Central Africa is Bncorvns caffcr. It has black plumage with white pinions to 
the wings. The enormous beak and the small casque above are both black ; 
the bare parts of the face are red but round the eye and on the wattle- 
protuberance of the throat the colour changes to blue in the male and to a 
purplish red in the female. The ground hornbills are great scavengers, 
devouring snakes, offal of all kinds and any reptile of convenient size they 
can get hold of, rats, small birds, and mammals. In spite of their ferocious 
aspect they make the most charming pets, using their huge bills very gently 
and never to my knowledge as a weapon of offence against their human friends. 
Anybody wishing to test this statement of mine should visit the ground 
hornbill presented by me to the Zoological Gardens which has been for some 
time living in the Eastern Aviary. I have had others of these birds and have 
become really attached to them. We always delighted in their quaint ways 
and strong originality. They are, as a rule, well able to take care of themselves, 
but one of these birds which almost ranked next to a human being in the 
opinion of the natives, so much was it a member of our family, preferred to 
sleep at night, no matter what was the weather, on the chimney of the 
Secretary's house. Unfortunately the roof leading up to the chimney sloped 
gradually and came near to the ground. One night a tiger cat must have 
ascended the roof and seized the bird while asleep, to judge from the traces 
which were left. They are very affectionate to persons whom they know, but 
they will sometimes take a sudden fancy to a stranger and insist on feeding 
him or her with a dreadful piece of offal, the more malodorous the choicer in 
the hornbill's opinion. They will hardly refuse any form of food and swallow 
most things on trust a rash confidence which often leads to their death when 
they are the pets of a European. The natives have a superstitious reverence 
for this bird which they never kill. It usually lives in small flocks or companies. 

In some of the more forested parts of British Central Africa the Trumpeter 1 
hornbills are represented by two species, the well-known Bycanistes cristatus 
(illustrated in my Kilimanjaro book) and B. buccinator, a rather smaller bird 
with a less prominent white casque. The noise made by these hornbills I have 
compared in other books to the braying of an ass or the hoarse raving of a 
grief-stricken woman. It is at times a terribly distressing sound re-echoing 
through the forest. The more savage natives of British Central Africa are 
very fond of using the head of the white casqued hornbill (B. cristatus) as a 
terror-striking object fixed to their headdress. 

Amongst the kingfishers there are four species of Halcyon all beautifully 
coloured and rather large (these Halcyons are not necessarily found near water 
and subsist on insects, not fish), two of Ceryle (one, C. rudis is a very common 
African kingfisher and is black and white, the other, C. maxima is the largest 
kingfisher known it is black and white, blue-grey and chestnut), and beautiful 
little birds of the genera Alcedo and Corythornis. 

The rollers are not represented by many species. There are two forms of 
Eurystomus and two of Coracias. The Eurystomus is another gorgeous bird 
for colouring a combination of chestnut shot with mauve, rose colour, azure- 
blue and purple. 

1 Bycanistes. 


Amongst Owls may be noted the fine eagle owl (Bubo inacitlosus 1 } and 
a remarkable fishing owl (Scotopelta). The ubiquitous barn owl, scarcely 
differing in plumage from the English bird, is found in British Central Africa 
as it is almost all over the world. 

The Rails are another group of birds similar to the Turacos, representing 
a generalised type from which many other orders of birds branch off. They 
would appear on the one hand to have affinities with the Geese (Anseres} 
through the Screamers ; with the Grebes and Divers through the Finfoots ; with 
the Plovers (and the Plover group again gives rise to bustards, to gulls and 
to pigeons ; from the bustards branch off the flamingoes and in another direc- 
tion the Raptorial birds through forms like Seriama and Serpentarius}; with the 
cranes; with the Gallinaceous birds through the Hemipodes; with the herons 
(and thence the storks), the cormorants and pelicans, and so on. 

The Rails and their distant connection the still more remarkable Finfoot, 
are well represented in British Central Africa. In regard to the former we have 
a large blue Porphyrio with crimson-red beak and red feet ; a black coot ; 
pretty little rails which are often blue or dark purple, other rails scarcely 
distinguishable from the English water hen ; and the common corncrake. The 
blue Porphyries are very easily tamed but they are awkward pets to keep 
in the aviary, as they are most carnivorous in their tastes and will kill and eat 
the smaller birds. Some notice should be taken of the remarkable prehensile 
character of their coral-red feet which are furnished with very long toes. They 
are in the habit of standing on one leg while the other foot holds tightly the 
object they are eating which, in addition to birds, small mammals or fish, may 
be snails or large insects. It is interesting to see one of these birds tightly hold 
a large snail shell and pick out by degrees the reluctant snail. They are very 
clever also in moving about the branches of a tree, and their feet though so 
clumsy in appearance are very well adapted for climbing, and this aberrant rail 
does climb. It will go up a nearly vertical tree trunk "hand over hand" as 
it were, creeping about more like a mammal than a bird. The remarkable 
finfoot (Podiai) is met with in Nyasaland more frequently than in the other 
parts of Africa over which its range extends. It is an almost untamable bird, 
very difficult to keep in confinement, where it soon dies from refusing food. It 
is awkward in its movements. The snake-like action of the head and the 
shape of the beak recall the darters. The finfoot dives readily and keeps under 
water as long as a duck. It swims with its body extremely low in the water 
and the bobbing head and neck often appear to be a snake swimming across 
the stream. 

The most prominent representative of the Anseres is the spur-winged goose 
a fine large bird with a stately walk and a handsome plumage of dark 
blackish-brown shot with iridescent tints of bronze-green, with white wing 
coverts, a white patch on the throat and on the stomach, and a dark crimson 
knobbed beak and bare skin round the eye. In the adult male the wing 
is armed at the wrist with a powerful spur sometimes over an inch long. As 
this spur is situated just on that joint of the wing whence so powerful a blow 
is so often struck by swans and geese it must be a considerable weapon of 
offence though it never seems to use it against man. This spur-winged goose 
is readily domesticated but does not appear to breed easily in captivity. 

1 The Mancliichi of the A-nyanja who regard it as a peculiarly weird bird on account of its cry 
at night which is like the wailing of a person in agony. The manchichi is with the jackal and the leopard 
the associate of the Mfiti or witch-ghouls who dig up and devour corpses. 



Unfortunately though such a fine looking bird it is very poor eating. The 
flesh is dark, coarse and strong in flavour. 

A more eatable bird is the very pretty Egyptian goose which is a connecting 
link between the geese and ducks. The handsome Sarcidiornis (sometimes 
called the knob-nosed goose) is a remarkable bird, by some thought to be 
a duck by others an intermediate link between the geese and ducks. It has 
a blunt spur on the wrist of the wing, a plumage in the male of white and 
iridescent black with a brilliant speculum in the wing of blue green. It is 
fairly abundant on large sheets of water in British Central Africa. 

The tree ducks are represented by at least three species. I cannot find any 
confirmation either by observation or native report of the idea that these birds 
build their nests in holes of trees though I should not like to aver the contrary. 
They are, however, ordinarily met with in large numbers in marshy districts 
where trees are altogether absent and my own impression is they nest amongst 


the reeds. They make a curious whistling noise as a call or as a signal of 
danger. The genus Anas is actually represented by two specimens, the Anas 
sparsa and A.xanthorhyncha. There is also a true teal. The other ducks belong 
to several African genera. The red-beaked Pcccilonetta is one of the most 
delicious ducks for eating I have ever met with. It might well rival the canvas- 
back duck of America. Nyroca, a quaint and pretty little black duck with 
yellow eyes and a slight crest, is allied to our English pochard. 

The cranes are well represented though by two species at most. Through- 
out all the low-lying parts of the country the beautiful crowned crane is present 
and so far as recorded specimens go it is the only crane of which the existence 
in Central Africa is absolutely established, but I have heard on certain plateaux 
and mountains of the existence of a second kind of crane, and have actually 
seen specimens of this at a distance of perhaps eighty yards on the swamp 
at the top of Zomba mountain where the river Mlungusi takes its rise. So 
far as I could judge this bird resembled the Stanley crane of South Africa 
(Cms paradisea}. 

The crowned crane is easily domesticated and a more admirable guest it 
would be impossible to entertain in one's garden. Apart from its extraordinary 
beauty and grace it spends its time searching for insects and grubs of all kinds 



of which, with a little corn added, its diet usually consists. This crane may 
actually be described as a gardener, as although it is a large bird it walks so 
delicately amongst the flower beds as not to crush any blossom and keeps 
its large grey eyes vigilantly on the watch for any grub or locust. 

The crowned crane is found very abundantly in the Transvaal where also it 
is semi-domesticated. I have not heard whether these birds will breed in con- 
finement. If they would then it is marvellous they have not already made their 
way into Europe as a rival to the peacock, for the crowned crane has not only 
all the peacock s beauty, but it has a much pleasanter voice, and is of positive 
benefit to the garden, whereas we all know the one drawback to the peacock is 
that it eats the flowers. Once a crowned crane has become attached to a place 
it will never leave it and may be safely trusted with its liberty. It will take to 
flight occasionally round the premises but never travels far away from its home. 
These birds appear to consort in pairs of male and female and become very 
much attached to one another, apparently pairing for life. Their dancing and 
bowing of the head are very quaint. They are fond of promenading about at 
times with the wings wide spread and taking long strides in the manner depicted 
in my illustration. When searching the lawn for locusts they stamp every now 
and then with their feet on the grass to cause those insects to leap or fly and so 
discover themselves. They are not very fond of dogs, in whose presence they 
will perform the most extraordinary antics, presumably in order to terrify the 
beasts, but to most other creatures they exhibit a friendly and considerate 
demeanour. They can be trusted in the farm yard or chicken run with the 
certainty that they will not harm even the tiny chickens. It is evident that 
their intelligence is very great and that they have a natural affinity for the 
society of human beings, though even here they discriminate between negroes 
and white people, and would often display much more politeness to Europeans 
at Zomba than to the negroes. A pair of these birds was the solace of my 
exile for some three years. One of them is still living at Zomba, the other was 
unfortunately killed by a snake. On my journey over the Nyasa-Tanganyika 
plateau in 1889-90, I was accompanied by a tame crane given to me by an 
Arab. This bird during the march was carried in a box on a man's shoulders. 
Whenever we stopped to rest or to camp the crane was let out and would follow 
me about everywhere like a dog. When it was necessary to resume the march 
the door of the cage had only to be opened and the bird to be called for it to 
quietly step in. As the peacock from Tropical India can now stand an English 
winter so in like manner this charming crane which endures unharmed the sharp 
frosts of South Africa might very well be domesticated in England. The young 
as in all cranes are able to run on leaving the egg and give very little trouble in 
their rearing. If it were not sacrilege to mention the fact in connection with so 
lovely a creature I might add that this crane is excellent eating. 

This country offers so few arid tracts that it is not surprising that bustards, 
which are birds of the desert or steppe, are poorly represented. The only 
species obtained and sent home up to the present time is the handsome black- 
bellied bustard (Otis uielanogaster). 

Flamingoes are seen occasionally on Lake Chilwa, on Lake Malombe and 
the Upper Shire, on parts of Lake Nyasa and above all on the south end of 
Lake Tanganyika. A specimen of a flamingo with immature plumage from 
the north end of Lake Nyasa was sent home by me in 1895, but either did 
not come to hand or was too bad a specimen for identification. The flamingo 
is probably a South African species, Phcenicoptcrus minor ; though I think 


on Lake Tanganyika the larger P. roseus (common flamingo) is present. 
Herons and storks are well represented. The father of them all or at any 
rate the bird which amongst existing forms comes nearest to the common 
ancestor of storks and herons the Scopus mnbrctta or Tufted Umbre, is 
exceedingly common and is a great scavenger. This bird is a rich umber- 
brown almost without variation except that the tail is dirty white barred with 
dark brown and the pinions are nearly black. But on the mature bird, especially 
on the male, a fine purplish gloss lights up the dull brown and gives it rather a 
handsome colour. These Umbres are great scavengers ; they are utterly uneat- 
able and consequently are not much molested, becoming therefore far from 
shy. They are easily tamed and make rather amusing pets except for their 
harsh cry. The extraordinary Goliath heron perhaps the biggest of all the 
true herons and a bird of very beautiful coloration (red-fawn, blue-grey, white, 
black, with green skin round the eyes and a beak which is mottled black and 
green) is present on every big river and lake. In the breeding season the 
male develops two sets of whitish plumes hanging down perpendicularly from 
the stomach and looking somewhat like the long muslin appendages of shirt 
fronts or cravats of the last century. The common heron of Europe is also met 
with. There are further the purple heron, the small cream-coloured squacco 
heron, the large, middle sized, and small egrets, the tiny buff-backed egret, 
several night herons and at least two bitterns. The egrets are common and 
beautiful sights on the rivers. The large species is seen singly or in pairs, but 
the little egrets and the still smaller bulbulcus are met with in large flocks. 
The last named bird is so little molested by the natives that it allows of a 
very near approach. These snow-white herons with their lace-like plumes over 
the wing are objects which never fail to excite my admiration. Towards the 
evening a low tree by the river bank will be a snow-white mass where these 
birds are roosting in a flock, and a flight of them against a background of 
dark forest and grey water makes a telling spectacle. 

As regards storks : there is of course that huge scavenger the bold-headed 
Adjutant or Marabu (Leptoptilns}. We have also the exceedingly handsome 
African Jabiru or Saddle-bill (Mycteria senegalensis} which I have illustrated in 
Chapter I. 1 and which is a rare bird only met with occasionally and generally in 
pairs, whereas the Adjutant is usually seen in large flocks especially if there is 
carrion about. It is probable that we also have the white-bellied stork (Ciconia 
abdiinid) though I have not procured specimens. The little black Anastomns 
(A. lamelligerus) is very common along the rivers. It is an ugly bird with a 
beak the mandibles of which are bowed like the jaws of a whalebone whale, 
and except at the tip have a gap between the upper and lower mandibles, the 
edges of which are serrated. The general colour of this bird is black. On 
the stomach and thighs the ends of the feathers become horny and curled, 
somewhat in appearance like the crest of a Curassow. 

Of Ibises we have the handsome Sacred ibis and the gorgeous Hagedash ; 
also the Glossy ibis. The Hagedash ibis when immature is a dull brown but the 
adult bird is one mass of iridescent green, sea-blue and bronze-red. Unlike the 
egret the ibis is remarkably good eating. 

Probably two species of cormorant are found, one a rather large bird, dark 
slate-colour with a white throat ; the other the small African cormorant which 
is present in enormous numbers on the larger rivers and on the lakes a bird 
uninteresting in appearance and coloration and quite useless for food, besides 

1 Page 15. 




being a consumer of enormous quantities of fish. The remarkable darter with 
its long snake-like neck is not uncommon and is a characteristic object on quiet 
reaches of the river, where, perched on the limb of a naked snag, it rests from 
its labours. When in the water, 

like the finfoot, little more ^^^{^^^^^^^^^^^^m^^^^^^^^H 
than the head and neck are 
above the surface. The 


smaller pelican is found and, 
I think, the larger species also, 
especially on Lake Tanganyika. 
There are many representa- 
tives of the Plovers. The 
Thick -knee, that bustard-like 
bird which also has a sugges- 
tion of affinity to the flamingoes, 

lurks on the river banks, confiding in its almost-invisibility against the bare soil. 
The spur-winged plover, also uneatable and, in consequence, very bold, flits 
in front of the boats or steamers and warns the crocodiles of their approach 
with its shrill wailing cry. I remarked in my Congo book on the real friendship 
which appears to exist between the crocodile and the spur-winged plover. I 
have actually seen through a glass the plovers picking at the interstices of the 
crocodiles' teeth whilst the latter lay half asleep, and these birds never fail to 
warn the sleeping reptile of the approach of an enemy. There are four 
species of Lapwing, and a pretty Stilt plover, which I have met with both 

on the Palombe river and on 
Lake Tanganyika. Curiously 
enough the common Ruff is 
present during certain months 
of the year. There is a 
Woodcock and there is a 
handsome Painted snipe. The 
pretty little Parra or lily- 
trotter has already been 
alluded to. Its feet appear 
enormous; in reality the actual 
size of the toes is not so 
great as the extravagant pro- 
longation of the claws in a 
line with the toes which at 
a distance makes the total 
length of the foot appear 
nearly as long as that of the 
bird's body. By means of 
these extraordinary feet the 
bird can run rapidly over the 
floating vegetation. Even 
should it fall into the water 
it uses the feet for paddling. 
The male Parra is a pretty 
bird golden -yellow, cream- 
A STILT PLOVER white, chocolate and black. 



On the lakes there are two species of Tern, one of them being a red-beaked 
scissor bill in which the upper mandible is shorter than the lower. A small 
Gull (Larus drrJwcepkalus] is also commonly met with on all the lakes. 

A Sand grouse (Pterocles gutturalis) is found in the Lake Mweru district, but 
has not been recorded from any other part of British Central Africa. There are 
many Pigeons none of much interest except the large woodpigeon of the high 
mountains, which is apparently a Cape species (Columba arqnatrix). This bird 
is larger even than the big English stock dove. Its plumage is a greyish-purple 
with white checks, and the bill is lemon-yellow. The fruit pigeons of the genus 
Vinago are very common wherever there is any forest. In coloration they are 
extremely pleasant grass-green, mauve, yellow, with red skin round the eyes. 


I give here a drawing of the foot of the fruit pigeon showing that it is actually 
assuming zygodactyle form, like that which obtains in so many climbing birds. 

There is more and more tendency in these pigeons for the toes to be used 
two and two in grasping the branches. No doubt the zygodactyle character has 
been assumed independently in many groups of birds and is not necessarily a 
sign of common origin. Before long we shall have a zygodactyle fruit pigeon 
which in earlier years, when naturalists depended solely on external character- 
istics for classification, would have greatly puzzled them as to its position. 

The Raptorial birds in this land of an abundant fauna are naturally well 
represented except in one group, the vultures. It is very strange that over the 
greater part of British Central Africa these birds should be relatively uncommon. 
According to Thomson they are exceedingly abundant on the high treeless 
plateau of Uhehe, to the north-east of Lake Nyasa. They are certainly 
abundant in numbers and varied in species in South Africa, and in East and 
North Africa. In this particular British Central Africa rather resembles the 
western forest region of the continent, in which vultures are uncommon and are 
usually limited to a species of the genus Neophron. Until recently I should 



have said there was but one vulture in British Central Africa a Xcophron ; but 
I recently obtained specimens on the Upper Shire and from the vicinity of 
Lake Chilwa which belong to the genus Otogyps (the eared vulture) with a bare 
red head and large beak. The XcopJiron may turn out to be a new species, 
slightly different from the Neophron pileatus differing in that the bare parts of 
the head and neck are rosy-pink and blue, instead of being a dull purple, and 
that the down which grows at the back of the bird's head and neck is a pale buff- 
white instead of being brownish-grey. On the bare skin of the throat there are 
curious ribbed excrescences w r hite in colour. I have sent specimens of this bird 
home but they have either not reached or for some reason have not been 
described. A faithful representation of this vulture may be seen in the picture 
of the dead Angoni warrior, page 33. These birds will devour carrion, but they 
are also general scavengers and occasionally visit the vicinity of large towns or 
camps where they consume the ordure and offal. 

Central Africa has almost the grandest of raptorial birds the warlike 
Spizaetus Eagle. I give an illustration here of a fine specimen of the Spizaetus 
which was for a long time in my 
possession. It became fairly tame, 
and would allow itself to be caressed, 
but was deadly to any small animal 
which approached it. I once saw it 
kill a cat instantaneously. Seeing 
me play with the eagle the cat 
sidled up to me. In a second the 
eagle had darted out a foot and 
driven its claws through the cat's 
skull, killing it in a moment. The 
claws of this Spizaetus are probably 
proportionately longer than in other 

The very handsome crested eagle 
(Lophoaetus) is a much smaller bird, 
but is rather richly coloured in dark 
black -brown with white feathered 
legs, a few white spots on the back 
and a white patch on the under 
wing coverts. Its crest is long and 
the tips of the feathers droop for- 
ward. The fishing eagles are w r ell 
represented by that very handsome 
bird the screaming fish eagle (Haliac- 
tus vocifer\ the mature plumage of 
which is rich chocolate -brown and 
snowy-white ; and by the aberrant 
Bateleur eagle (Helotarsus} ; and the 

remarkable Gypohierax. The screaming fish eagle is one of the commonest 
African birds, and its cheerful yells occur at intervals all through the day- 
time on an African river, recalling one in imagination to the vicinity of 
the eagles' aviary in the Zoological Gardens, where while waiting to mount 
the elephant's back as children we have been deafened by the same not 
unmusical clangour. The Bateleur eagle is rather spoilt as regards shape 


34 6 


by having a tail so short that it is scarcely visible, but the bird appears to 
full advantage when soaring with outspread pinions, as with the exception 
of the head its shape is then almost that of a crescent moon. It is perhaps 
the most brightly coloured of all raptorial birds, being a combination of 
reddish-brown, black and dove-grey with a sheen of bronze over part of the 
plumage. The naked skin about the cheeks and the beak is crimson-scarlet 
which is also the colour of the legs. The tip of the beak is black and the 
glossy black feathers of the head can be raised into a casque-like crest. This 
bird is not nearly as common in British Central Africa as it is to the east 
or to the south. It prefers an open country of thin vegetation where it can 
easily sight its prey. The Gypohierax which for many years was classed as a 
vulture but which is now known to be an aberrant fishing eagle, is found on the 
northern half of Lake Nyasa but not any distance to the east of that lake. It 
has been stated, I believe, that it is met with on the Island of Pemba, near 
Zanzibar, but I fancy this is a mistake. Gypohierax is found 
throughout the forest region of West Africa and its extension 
to Lake Nyasa I have already cited as one of the instances of 
western forms penetrating into British Central Africa. The 
Osprey is common, so is the Egyptian Kite ; and most of the 
genera of hawks, buzzards, and falcons are represented by 
various species. 

A remarkable bird from its affinities is the Naked-Cheeked 
Serpent Hawk (Polyboroides typicus]. This bird is very closely 
allied to the parent form from which the Old World vultures 
originated, and is also connected with a still more primitive 
Accipitrine, the Secretary bird of South and East Africa. 
Strange to say the Secretary Vulture which is so common in 
South Africa, and which I have myself seen in East Africa, 1 
has not yet been recorded from the south- central portion of the 
continent, 2 being another of those forms (apparently) whose 
A SMALL FALCON distribution is interrupted by British Central Africa. Its place 
(Faico minor) is to some extent taken by its relative, Polyboroides, which 
greatly resembles it in its habits, especially as regards the 
killing of snakes and other reptiles. The toes of Polyboroides are short, though 
not so disproportionately short as in the more bustard-like Secretary Vulture. 
The leg has extraordinary mobility ; it can to some extent be bent backwards 
as well as forwards at the tarsus. The legs are long, though not as long as in 
the secretary bird. Polyboroides has the feathers on the back of the head and 
down the neck prolonged into a kind of crest. 

The Gallinaceous birds are represented by two species of guinea fowl, 
several species of francolin, and a couple of quails. One guinea fowl is far 
from common and is probably confined to the southern and eastern parts of 
this natural sub-region the crested guinea fowl (Guttera edouardi}. The other 
guinea fowl found in enormous numbers throughout all British Central Africa 
except on the higher mountains is one of the commoner species the horned 
guinea fowl. 3 Although this bird is a rapid runner and frequents the ground 
a good deal in search of its food, it is not perhaps sufficiently realised how fond 
it is of trees. It is never found far away from a forest and often roosts high 

1 It is also found in Senegambia and the Nigerian Sudan. 

2 Though it is found as far north as the Zambezi Valley where the natives call it Noma. 
:i Almost exactly like the domestic bird. 


up on the branches during the hot hours of the day as well as at night. 
The young poults are caught by the natives and brought for sale to the 
European in whose fowl yards they become quickly domesticated. Yet, strange 
to say, the native in this case as in that of all other birds and beasts of Africa, 
has no idea of keeping them about his own home. His only domestic animals 
and birds are those which he has had introduced to him either from the north, 
through Egypt, or by the Portuguese. The young guinea fowl not only take 
very rapidly to domestication, but with a little personal attention will become 
extremely attached to their owners ridiculously attached I might say in such 
a manner as is never exhibited by the domestic fowl. One of these birds 
at Zomba used to be called the " Sergeant." It was the most extraordinarily 
tame creature that I have ever known amongst Gallinaceous birds, who as 
a rule though easily domesticated evince very little affection. But this guinea 
fowl would not only go for long walks with us but would every now and then 
run in front of us and perform strange love antics. It disliked the negroes and 
often chased them away by pecking at their heels unless, that is, they were 
obviously engaged in work with us. For instance if a squad of native police 
were being put through their drill then the guinea fowl in a pompous manner 
would march alongside the officer and not annoy the men, but if an idle native 
came up to beg the bird was at him in a moment and would drive him away 
for some distance. This was not an isolated case as several other guinea fowl 
have made nearly equally affectionate pets. There are two species of francolins 
and one of Pternistes. This latter is a type of francolin which has the skin of 
the head and a portion of the neck and face bare and brightly coloured. The 
francolins are remarkably good birds for the table, in size and flavour something 
between a pheasant and a partridge. Unfortunately they are not readily domesti- 
cated, being in this respect quite different from the guinea fowl. In captivity 
they sulk and generally die after a few months from deprivation of their liberty. 

That curious low type of Gallinaceous bird the Hemipode is represented 
by two species Turnix nana and T. lepurana. 

Finally, I may again draw the reader's attention to the fact that the Ostrich 
is not present in British Central Africa. 



NOTE. This list is mainly based on the papers published in the Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society by Captain G. E. Shelley, to which I add a few notes of my own. I have also inserted the names 
of species known to be present in this country, though not represented by skins sent home. These 
additional names are placed between brackets. The order in which the species are arranged is slightly 
different to the classification adopted by Captain Shelley. The abbreviation sp. nov. indicates that the 
species was first made known by our collections. 



Cinnyris falkensteini ; Falkenstein's Sun- Chalcomitra gutturalis. 

bird. Cyanomitra olivacea. 

Cinnyru cupreus ; the Copper-tinted Sun- Anthothreptes longuemayii. 

bird. Anthothreptes hypodilus. 

Zosterops anderssoni ; white-eyed Honey-bird. 


Parus xanthostomns. 
Salpornis salvadorii. 

Motacilla longicauda. 
Motacilla vidua. 
Anthns rufulus. 


| Parus pallidiventris. 


Anthus lineiventriit. 
Macronyx croceus. 


Mirafra fischeri ; Fischer's Lark. 


Emberiza flaviventris. 
Emberiza orientalis. 
Fringillaria tahapisi. 
Petronia petronella. 

Passer diffusus. 

Serinus icterus 

Serinus imberbis \ African Canaries. 

Serinus scotops ' 


Hypochera funerea. 
Hypochera nigerrima. 
Vidua principals. 
Vidua paradisea. 
Coliipasser ardens. 
Urobrachya axillaris. 
Pyromelana flammiceps. 
Pyromelana nigrifrous, 
Pyromelana xanthomelana. 
Pyromelana taha. 
Pyrentstes minor (sp. nov.). 
Cryptospiza australis (sp. nov.). 
Cryptospiza reichenowi. 
Coccopygia dufresnii. 
Spermestes scutalus. 
Estrilda minor. 
Estrilda angolensis. 

Oriolus larvatus. 
Oriolus notatus. 

Lagonoslicta rhodoparia. 
Lagonosticta niveiguttata. 
Pytelia afra. 
Pytelia melba. 
Amblyospiza albifrons. 
Ploceipasser pcctoralis. 
Anaplectes rubriceps. 
Pycobrotus stictifrons. 
Pitagra ocularia. 
Xanthophilus xanthops. 
Hyphantornis nigriceps. 
Hyphantornis bertrandi (sp. nov.}. 
Hyphantornis cabonisi. 
Hyphantornis xanthopterus. 
Hyphantornis velatus. 
Hyphantornis nyasce (sp. nov.}. 


Oriolus chlorocephalus (sp. 
green-headed Oriole. 

nov.); the 


\Buphaga erythrorhynchd\ ; the red-billed 

Pholidauges verreauxi. 

Lamprotornis mevesi. 

Lamprocolius sycobius ; the glossy Starling. 

Amydrus morio. 




Corvultur albicollis ; the 
great billed Raven. 

Prionops talacoma. 
Sigmodus tricolor. 

Campophaga nigra. 
Campophaga hartlaubi. 

white -necked 

Corvus scapulatits ; the black and white 


\Corvus capensis.~\ 


Buchanga assimilis. 


Grancalus pec t or ah s. 


Fiscus collaris. 
Enneoctonus collurio. 
Nilaus capensis. 
Nilaus nigritemporalis. 
Laniarius mosambiats 
Dryoscopus cubla. 

Crateropus kirki ; Kirk's " Babbler." 

Pycnorwlus layardi ; Layard's Bulbul. 
Criniger fusciceps (sp. nov.). 
Criniger placida. 
Criniger flavostriatus. 

Telephonus senegalus. 
Telephonus anchietce. 
Pelicinius bertrandi (sp. nov. ). 
Malaconotus poliocephalus. 
Ifalaconotus snlphureipectiis. 
Nicator gularis. 



Criniger olivaceiceps (sp. nov.). 
Andropadus zombcnsis (sp. nov.}. 
Andropadus oleaginus. 
Phyllostrophus cerviniventris (sp. nov.}. 


Eremomela scotops. 
Camaropttra olivacea. 
Sylviella ivhytei (sp. nov.). 
Apalis flavigularis (sp. nov.). 
Prinia mystacea. 
Cisticola cinerascens. 
Cisticola subruficapilla. 
Cisticola strangii. 
Melocichla orientalis. 
Schosnicola apicalis. 
Bradypterus brachypterus. 
Bradypterus nyassce (sp. nov.). 
Acrocephalus turdoides. 
Sylvia hortensis. 
Erythrof>ygia zambeziana. 

Saxicola galtoni. 
Thamnoliza sabnifipcnnis. 

Cichladusa arcuata. 

Cossypha nataknsis. 

Cossypha heuglini. 

Cossypha caffra. 

Cossypha quadrivirgata. 

Callene anomala (sp. nov.). 

Pratincola torquata. 

Tarsiger johnstoni (sp. nov.). 

Dauliasphilomela; the Eastern Nightingale. 

Turdus milaitj crisis (sp. noi>.) ; the Mlanje 


Turdus libonianus. 
Turdis gurncvi. 
Monticola ani>o/ensis. 


Saxico/a pileata. 




Bradyomis pallidus. 
Bradyornis murimts. 
Bradyomis ater. 
M^iscicapa grisola. 
Muscicapa ccerulescens. 
Alseonax adusta. 
Smithornis capensis. 

Platystira peltata. 
Pachyprora molitor. 
Pachyprora dimorpha (sp. nov.}. 
Terpsiphonc perspitillata. 
Trochocercus albonotatus. 
Trochocercus cvano/ne/as. 


Hirundo rustica ; the common Swallow. 
Hirundo astigma (sp. nov.}. 

Hirundo pit e Ha. 

Melanobucco zombtz (sp. nov.}. 
Smilorhis kucotis. 
Smilorhis whytei (sp. nov.}. 



Barbatula extoui. 
Barbatula bilineata. 

Campothera abingdoni. 
Campothera cailliaudi. 
Campothera smithii. 

Indicator indicator. 
Indicator variegatus. 

Pachy coccyx validus. 
Cuculus damosus. 
Cuculus solitariiis. 
Chrysococcyx cupreus. 

Coitus erythromelon. 

Schizorhis concolor. 
Gallirex chlorochlamys. 

Hapalodernia narina. 


Campothera malherbii. 
Dendropictis zanzibari. 


Prodotiscus zambezia (sp. nov.}. 


Chrysococcyx klaasi. 
Coccystes hypopinarius. 
Coccystes caffer. 
Centropus natalensis. 


Colius striatus. 


Tnracus livingstonii. 


I Hapaloderma vittatum. 


Cosmetornis vexillarius ; the long-winged Goatsucker. 

Cypselus toulsoni ; Toulson's Swift. 



Glaucidium capense. 
Glauddiiim perlatum. 
Syrnium ivoodfordi. 
Bubo maculosus. 

Coracias garrulus. 
Coracias caudatus. 

Merops apiaster. 
Merops super ciliosus. 
Merops natalensis. 

Alcedo semitorquata. 
Halcyon orientalis. 
Halcyon chelicutensis. 
Halcyon cyanoleucus. 
Halcyon semicaruleus. 

Lophoceros melanoleucus. 
Bycanistes buccinator. 

Rhinopomastus cyanomelas. 
Irrisor viridis. 

Pxocephalus robustus. 
Pxocephalus fuscicapillus. 


Scotopelia pcli. 
Asio capensis. 
Strix flammea. 
Stn'x capensis. 


Eurystomus afer. 

En r\ si oin us gla n cur us. 


Dicrocercus hirundinaceus. 
Melittophagus meridionalis. 
Melittophagus albifrons. 


Corythornis cyanostignia. 
Ispidina natalensis. 
Ceryle rudis. 
Ceryle maxima. 


Bycanistes cristatus. 

Bucorvus caffer ; the ground Hornbill. 


Upupa africana ; the African Hoopoe. 



Agapornis liliamc (sp. nor.}. 


Guttera edouardi ; the crested Guinea- 

Numida cornuta ; the common Guinea- 


Pternistes hnmboldti. 
Francolinus s he I ley i. 
Francolinus johnstoni (sp. 

\Excalfactoria adansoni\ 
Turnix naiia. 


\Coturnix capcnsis\. 


Turnix Icpitrana. 



Pterodes gutteralis ; the Mweru Sand Grouse. 


Crex crex. 
Porzana bailloni. 
Rallus ccerukscens. 

Limnocorax niger. 
Gallinula chloropus. 
Porphyrio smaragdonotus. 


Podica petersi ; the Finfoot. 


[ Grits paradisea ?] \ Balearica chrysopelargus. 


Otis melanogaster ; the black-bellied Bustard. 



{Phxnicopterus roseus}. \ [Phanicoptertts minor]. 



Polyboroides typicus ; the naked-cheeked Vulturine Hawk. 


Neophron pileatus. \Otogyps auricularis ?} 


Melierax gabar. 
Astur polizonoides. 

Accipiter melanokucus. 
Accipiter minnllus. 


Asturinula monogrammica. \ Buteo desertornm. 


Lophoaetus occipitalis ; the black Crested 

Spizaeius bellicosus ; the Warlike crested 


Helotarsus ecaudatus; the Tailless Eagle. 
Haliaetus vocifer ; the Screaming fish 

Gypohierax angolensis ; the Vulturine fish 


Ehwus aeruleus ; the bluish Swallow- 
tailed Kite. 

Mi/rns egyptius. 

Baza sp. inc. (probably verreauxi). 


falco minor. \ Erythrofius dickinsoni. 


Pandion halicetus ; the Osprey. 




Ibis (Cthiopica ; the sacred Ibis. 
Plegadis faldnellus ; the glossy Ibis. 

\Hagedashia hagedasfi\ ; the iridescent 
Hagedash Ibis. 


Herodias ralloides ; the Squacco Heron. 
Herodias alba ; the Great Egret. 
Herodias garzetta ; the Lesser Egret. 
Herodias bubulcus ; the ox-frequenting 


Ardea cinerea ; the common Heron. 
Ardea purpurea ; the purple Heron. 

Ardea goliath; the Goliath Heron. 

Ardea melanocepkala. 

Ardea ardesiaca 

Bittorides atricapilla. 

Nycticorax nycticorax ; the night Heron. 

Botaurus pusillus ; the little Bittern. 

Ardetta stunni. 

Scopus umbretta ; the tufted Umbre. 

\Ciconia abdimii\; the White-bellied Stork. Anastomus lainelligenis ; the shell-eating 

\Mycicria senegalensis\ ; the Saddle-billed 

Leptoptilus argala ; the Marabu Stork. 

[ / Tantalus il>is~\ ; the Tantalus Stork. 



Phalacrocorax africanus ; the small Cor- Plotus levaillanti ; the Darter or Snake- 

morant. bird. 

[? Phalacrocorax guttural is~\ ; the white- Pelecantis minor; the small Pelican. 

necked Cormorant. 

[ ? Pelecanus onocrotalus\\ the large Pelican 
(on Lake Tanganyika). 

Podiceps capensis ; the South African Grebe. 



Plectropterus gambensis ; spur-winged Goose. 
Sarcidiornis melanonota ; knob-nosed Goose. 
Chenalopex icgyptiaciis : Egyptian ( loose. 
Dendrocycna riduata \ 
Dendrocycna fulva Tree Ducks. 
Dendrocycna arcuata ) 

Anas spars a \ 

_., , True Ducks. 

Anas xanthorliynca } 

Querqnedula punciata : the African Teal. 
Paecilonetta erythrorhyncha ; the red-billed Duck 
Nyroca brunnca ; the brownish Pochard. 
Thalassiornis latconota ; the stiff-tailed Duck. 


Parra africana : the " Lily-trotter " or Jacana. 
(Edicncnnts capensis ; the Thick-knee. 
Cursorins (Rhtnoptitus) chalcopteros ; a. Courser. 
Glareola pratincola ; the collared Pratincole. 


Lobivanellns albiceps ) 
T , . ,, , } Spur-wmored Plovers. 

Lolnvanetlus senega lus } 

Vanellus inornatns , 

Vanel/ns speciosus / L a p W i n g S . 

Vanellus crassirostris | 

Vanellus lencopterus ) 

Charadrhts pecuarms \ ^^ plovers 

Oxyechus tricoUans } 


Tringa subarquata ; a Knot. i Gallinago nigripennis ; the South African 

Tringa minuta. 

Machetes pugnax ; the common Ruff. 

Totanus hypoleucus \ 

Toianus glareola > Greenshanks. 

Totanns nebularius } 

Rhynclum capensis ; the painted Snipe. 
Himantopus himantopus ; the Stilt Plover. 


Larns cirrhocephalus ; the striped-headed Gull. 
Hydrochelidon leucoptera ; the white-winged Tern. 
Rhynchops flavirostris ; the orange-beaked Scissorbill. 


Vinago delalandii ; Delalande's Fruit-pigeon. 
Columba arquatrix ; the Great purple Wood-pigeon. 
Haplopelia joJinstoni (sp. nov.} ; Johnston's Dove. 

Turtitr semitorquatus \ 

. .. , > Turtle Doves. 

Tnrtur capicola 

Chalcopelia afra ; the bronze-spotted ground Dove. 
Tyinpanistria tympanistria ; the white-breasted Wood-dove. 


The Crocodile is the most striking reptile in British Central Africa on account 
of its abundance and the enormous size to which some specimens attain. As 
far as we know there is but one species represented in this part of the continent, 
and that is the common African crocodile (Crocodilns niloticus). At the same 
time I would point out a fact which I have noticed here as in West Africa, that 
there are crocodiles apparently possessing the feature deemed peculiar to the 
alligators that of two of the lower tusks at the extremity of the muzzle fitting 
into pits in the upper jaw on either side of the nostrils. I have frequently 
made efforts to send home a skull showing this, but some fatality always seemed 
to attend these specimens and either none came to hand or else the point I am 
now describing was already known to naturalists and was dismissed as of no 
particular interest. 

The River Shire is a favourite haunt of these monsters which in that river are 
of exceptionally large size and great boldness. The power of their jaw is 
enormous. A crocodile which used to frequent the landing-place at Chikwavva 
on the Lower Shire (where it carried off many victims amongst the natives), one 
day rushed at an iron pail which was being let down into the river to draw up 
water. It seized the pail, crumpled it up in its mouth and drove great holes 
through the iron with its long teeth. The pail was withdrawn and for some 
time exhibited as an example of what a crocodile could bite through. At Fort 
Johnston, on the Upper Shire, near Lake Nyasa, the crocodiles would rush up 
to the very bank and seize people heedlessly standing near the water's edge. 
Several of our Indian soldiers were killed in this way until the river bank was 
guarded by a palisade. The crocodile seldom eats its victim immediately it 
has been killed by drowning. It prefers to stow it away in some crevice or 
hiding-place under the water until it is partially decomposed. The normal diet 
of these reptiles is fish without which, of course, they would scarcely exist, as it 
is only a rare incident for them to capture a mammal of any size ; an incident 
which, given a number of crocodiles in any stream or lake, can only occur to 
each one at most once a year on an average. Curiously enough they do not 
appear to eat water birds. Some sportsmen have told me that when they shot 
ducks or geese and the birds fell into the water, the crocodiles have snapped 
them up, but such an incident has never been witnessed by myself. In lagoons 
and on sluggish rivers where the water is covered with floating pelicans, spur- 
\vinged geese, ducks of all kinds, cormorants and gulls, and in the shallower 
parts with innumerable wading birds, crocodiles are also present, their heads 
appearing just above the surface of the water, amongst the birds, or their bodies 
laid out in the sun on sand banks or propped against stranded trees. On the 
sand they may be seen lying fast asleep while water birds of all descriptions 
are standing about them. I confess except in the case of the spur-winged 
plover which warns the crocodile of danger, I cannot understand why this 
pact should exist between the graceful and the grotesque, and why birds 
should enjoy an immunity denied to mammals. Yet it is true that mammals 
can co-exist with crocodiles in the water, for otters are very plentiful on the 
Upper Shire and the crocodile and hippopotamus do not appear to fall foul 
of one another. Yet men, baboons, lions, leopards, antelopes of all kinds 
approaching the water's edge are liable to be seized and dragged under by 
the crocodile. 

Although so many natives lose their lives every year as victims of the 
crocodile the negroes of Central Africa are singularly careless of danger in this 
respect. As a rule the crocodile never attacks human beings when there are a 


number of them together in the water. It is only when a man or woman is 
alone that the crocodile makes his rush. 

As regards the crocodile's movements it does not appear to be realised by 
most people how he gets over the ground. I find there is a general idea that in 
some way the crocodile slithers along on its stomach till it reaches the water. 
As a matter of fact the great reptile walks or runs over the ground on its feet 
with the body carried horizontally and raised some inches above the surface of 
the soil. In this way it trots along on its short legs in a manner which is 
neither imposing nor picturesque, but which seems consistent with rapid move- 
ment. I have never seen this represented in pictures which are either done 
from dead crocodiles or represent the animal at rest on its stomach. 

The Tortoise order is represented by the Cinyxis, or Hinged tortoise 
(C. belliana), by various species of Testudo, by the Sternoth&rus, and in the 
lakes and rivers by soft leathery-skinned tortoises of the genus Cycloderma. 
The last-named are carnivorous. Their shells are leathery and are not out- 
wardly divided into segments. The upper jaw is prolonged into a short 
proboscis. These river tortoises which spend the greater part of their lives 
in the water and mud are very fierce and with their horny jaws can give a 
severe bite. 

Varanus lizards are common and sometimes attain six feet in length, 
measured from the tip of the very long tail. They are altogether carnivorous 
and subsist chiefly on small mammals and birds, but their favourite article of 
diet is eggs. As the skin of this lizard under the name of " Iguana" is much 
used nowadays for making bags and purses it might be worth while to export 
Varanus skins from this part of Africa, as it would encourage the natives to 
keep down these mischievous reptiles which cause much damage in poultry 
yards by eating the eggs and killing the fowls. 

Among other lizards may be mentioned the handsome Agama (A. colononim 
or a closely allied species) which appears to extend its range from West Africa 
where it is extremely common. This Agama is almost the prettiest coloured 
of all lizards, the male having an orange-scarlet head and throat, a steel-blue 
body which in parts becomes cobalt, while the upper half of the tail s deep 
blue and the remainder bright red (the female is olive, spotted with brown). 
The most vivid development of these colours is certainly seen in West Africa ; 
indeed the species I have observed in Nyasaland is apt to have the scarlet tints 
replaced by orange while the blue is a little less vivid. Three other species of 
Agama not so remarkable for beauty have been sent home by us. 
tunately the Agama with the gorgeous colours loses them rapidly after death. 
We have discovered five species of chameleon, belonging to the genera 
Chameleon and Rampholeon. All these were new to science. One of these 
chameleons attains a very considerable size in the male about eighteen inches 
from the tip of the snout to the tip of the tail. This animal can give a 
severe bite owing to the strength of its jaws and the sharpness of the ndges 
of serrated bone which constitute its teeth. It is very savage and will 
occasionally dart at the hand, open-mouthed. The male has a great scaly 
horn projecting from his head. 

Although venomous snakes are so well represented -- for we have at 
least one cobra, a tree cobra (Dendraspis\ a horned viper, the puff-adder 
and the Cape viper (Cansns}\\. is wonderful how seldom one hears ot 
natives dying from the bite of a snake. The cobras are chiefly dangeroi 
to live-stock. They kill and carry off ducks and fowls, and sometimes out 



of sheer ill temper have struck at and killed a tame crane or a young antelope. 
The cobra or one of the cobras which inhabit this part of Africa has the 
extraordinary faculty of ejecting its venom by a spasmodic movement of the 
muscles pressing on the poison gland in such a way as to spurt the venom 
through the air for a considerable distance from the perforated tooth. The 
snake is said to aim at the eyes and if the poison enters the eye it apparently 
sets up a severe inflammation, though it is only fatal if it manages to enter the 
blood. On the Congo, as in South Africa, the same peculiarity is noticed in this 
snake, which for this reason is called by the Boers " the spitting snake." 

In all my seven years' experience of British Central Africa I cannot recall 
.a single instance occurring within my knowledge of a native, European or 
Indian having been killed by a poisonous snake. Of course I would not allege 
that such cases do not occur amongst the natives (who have a great dread 
of snakes) ; I only say that although continually enquiring I have never had an 
instance brought to my notice. On two occasions, at least, my servants were 
struck by puff-adders, but the wound having been cauterized and the men dosed 
with enormous quantities of whisky a complete recovery ensued. Of course it 
is possible for the puff-adder to bite without causing death even if no remedies 
are taken, as the poison gland is sometimes exhausted or even at some seasons 
of the year less well supplied than at others. When we first set to work to 
clear the site of a town at Chiromo in 1891-92 snakes were all over the place. 
They chiefly inhabited the huge ant hills of the termites, but wherever they 
came from they swarmed over the newly-cleared ground, especially in the cool 
evening. On one occasion walking up the main street in the dusk I heard 
a low hissing sound under my feet, stopped short, and a long cobra glided out 
from between my feet, making no gesture of menace but quietly retiring to 
a neighbouring dust heap. I am almost ashamed to say I killed it here, 
crippling it with clods of earth, but considering its magnanimity when crawling 
between my legs it deserved to live. Yet, during all this period I never once 
heard of a native or European being bitten at Chiromo, and certainly no one 
died from any such cause. The natives, however, speak with great dread of 
certain snakes, above all of the Mamba, or tree cobra (Dendraspis) which in 
the breeding season is very savage and will dart out from the grass or bush and 
attack passers-by. 

Pythons are sometimes met with of a very large size ; one that was 
measured was 18 feet 2 inches long. Of course they are not poisonous and 
are only dangerous if anybody deliberately placed himself in contact with the 
snake and allowed it to coil round and crush him. As a matter of fact the 
python is a rather defenceless creature, inasmuch as its bulk is large and it 
is easily wounded, while not being as agile as smaller snakes in escaping or 
having any powers of defence but actual contact. Yet pythons will, if suddenly 
disturbed, be ready to stand at bay. Once near the north end of Lake \yasa I 
suddenly disturbed a python in a thicket through which I was groping along 
a native path. The snake barred my way and was so menacing that I had 
to return to the camp and get a gun to shoot it. 

There is nothing specially remarkable about the Batrachians so far as they 
are yet known. A list of those that have been identified will be found among 
the appendices to this chapter. 

That remarkable connecting link, the mud fish ( / ) /W<yV<vv/.v) should be 
found in most parts of British Central Africa, but hitherto it has only been 
reported from the Tanganyika district. The French missionaries on that lake 

3 6 


assert that the female carries the ova in a kind of sac attached to her abdomen, 
until they are hatched. 

Dr. Gunther is of opinion that barely a third of the fish in the rivers and 
lakes of British Central Africa have as yet been made known in spite of our 
recent collections. He is probably right, and remarkable discoveries may yet 
await us, especially on Tanganyika, where numerous travellers have reported the 
existence of an exceedingly large fish which occasionally rushes at boats in a 



He in ichrom is liz'ingslon it 


threatening manner. Similar rumours of a very large fish in Nyasa are 
prevalent. Both Commander Cullen and Lieutenant-Commander Rhoades (of 
the Lake Nyasa gunboats) have reported curious circumstances tending to show 
that some very large fish or marine animal lives in Lake Nyasa, which amongst 
other things can bite off and carry away as a bait the brass log which is towed 
behind the vessels. It may not be more than a huge species of Bagrus, a 
Siluroid fish. Specimens of this creature have been already obtained which 
reached nearly six feet in length. 

The fish of Lake Nyasa, of Lake Chilwa and of the Upper Shire offer many 
examples which are excellent for eating, 1 with firm white flesh and few bones. 

1 A new genus of fish was obtained from Lake 'Ky&.ss.Engrauluypns puigitis. Dr. Gunther says 
of this fish : " It might be preserved in a way similar to anchovies and would form a useful addition to 
the food of the European community." By the courtesy of the Xoological Society I am enabled to give 
an illustration of it here. 



This is also characteristic of the fish of Tanganyika and almost all the other big 
lakes and rivers, though except where the river is sluggish and somewhat 
lacustrine, the fish appear to be small and singularly full of bones. Most of the 
ordinary streams contain fish of cyprinoid type, more or less like the barbel. 

Engraitlicypris pinguis 



NOTE. This list is mainly based on the papers published by Dr. A. Giinther and Mr. G. A. Boulenger, 
in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society. I have also inserted the names of species known to be 
present in the country, though not represented by specimens sent home. These additions are placed 
between brackets. 



\Crocodilus niloticus\ ; the common Crocodile. 


[ Testudo calcaratd\ \ Cinyxis belliana ; l the Hinged Tortoise. 

[ Testudo par da I is] Sternothczrus sinuatus. 

L rue i. ortoises 
\Testudo geometrica\ j Cydoderma frenatum ; the Soft Tortoise. 

\Testudo angulatd\ } Aquatic : ordinarily known as the 

\Homopus femoralis\ \ Areolated Lake Nyasa Turtle. Carnivorous. 

\Homopus areolatus ?] / Tortoises. 



Hemidactyliis inabouia ; a Gecko. 
Mabouia varia \ 

Mabouia quinqud&niata \ 

r- . , . , ,~ 

zepsina tetradactyla 
Lygosoina sundcvalli } 
Gerrhosaurus flavigitlaris. 
Lygodactylus capensis. 

Lygodactylus angularis (sp. nov.\ 
\_Agama colonorum. ] 
Agama atricollis. 
Againa tnossambica. 
Agama kirkii. 

Varanus albigularis ) AT .. T , 
\ Monitor Lizards. 

Varanus occellatus ) 


Chamaleon dilepis ; Flap-necked Chame- 

C/iamcelcon Isabel linus (sp, nor.}. 

CJiamttieon nielleri. 
Rhamphohon platyceps (sp. nov.}. 
Rhainpholeon brachyurus (sp. >ior.). 

Sent alive to the Zoological Gardens. 



Sub-Order, Ophidia. 


Typhlops obtusus ; the Burrowing Snake. 
[Python sebcc\ ; the common African 


Uriechis capensis. 
Coronella olivacea, var. dumerilii. 
Homalosoma lutrix. 
Dasypeltis scabra. 
Psammophylax variabilis (sp. nov.); the 

Rat Snake. 

Boodon lineatus. 

Leptodira rufescens, 

Lycophidium horstockii. 

Ahcetulla irregularis. 

Ahcetulla neglect a. 

Dryiophis oattsii. 

Psammophis sibilans ) Hissing Sand 

Ditto, var. intermedia i Snakes. 


Naja nigricollis ; the Black- necked Cobra. 

\_Naja flava ?] ; the South African Cobra : 
? the Spitting Cobra. 

\Dendraspis angusticeps ?] ; the Tree- 
Cobra ; the dreaded " Mamba." 

Causes rostratus. 

Causus rhombeatus ; the Cape Viper. 
Bitis arietans ; the Puff Adder. 
Bitis gabonica ; the " River Jack " Viper 
of West Africa. 

Rana johnstoni (sp. nov.) 
Rana nyasstz (sp. nov.). 
Rana fasciata. 
Breviceps mossainbicus. 
Scolecomorplius kit-kit. 


Cassina senegalensis. 
Bufo regular is. 
Arthroleptis macrodactyla. 
Rappia cinctiventris . 
Rappia vasata. 

Class, PISCES. 
Sub-Class, DIPNOI. 

[Protoptertis annectens\ ; the African Mud Fish. Reported from Lake Tanganyika, but 
not elsewhere in B.C. A. 



Chromis squamipennis. 
Chromis subocularis. 
Chromis mossambiais. 
Chromis johnstoni (sp. nov.). 
Chromis lethrinus (sp. nov.). 
Chromis rendalli (sp. nov.). 
Chromis tetrastigma (sp. nov.). 
Chromis callipteriis (sp. nov.). 
Chromis kirkii (sp. nov.). 
Chromis williamsi (sp. nov.). 
Hemichromis modestus (sp. nov.). 
Hemichromis livingstonii (sp. nov.). 
Hemichromis robustus. 
Hemichromis dimidiatus. 
Hemichromis longiceps. 

Hemichromis afer (sp. nov.). 
Oreochromis shiranus (sp. nov.). 
Dodmodus johnstoni (sp. nov. ). 
Corematodus shiranus (sp. nov.). 
Bagrus meridionalis (sp. nov.); the great 

Cat Fish. 
\Rfalapterurus, sp. inc. ] ; the Electric Cat 


Labeo coubie. 

Barilius guentheri (sp. nov.). 
Engraulicypris pingnis ; new genus. 
Haplochilus johnstoni (sp. nov.) 
[Pristis, sp. inc.] ; the Saw-fish. 

This creature comes up the River 
Shire from the sea as far as Chiromo. 


3 6 3 

On most of the well forested hills the Land Crabs of the genus TJiclphusa are 

It is well known that the water inollusca of Tanganyika exhibit some 
resemblance to marine forms ; it is also stated that shrimps and sponges are 
found in this lake and Mcdnste. Mr. J. Moore, who was dispatched to 
Tanganyika by the Royal Society to thoroughly examine its marine fauna 
will probably, ere this book is published, have described his discoveries and 
enunciated his theories in this respect. 1 



NOTE. This list is founded on that published by Mr. Edgai A. Smith in the Zoological Society's 
Proceedings for 1893, in his paper on the collections sent home by Mr. Richard Crawshay and myself. 

[Arion sp. incJ] ; the large Black Slug. 
Ennea hamiltoni (sp. nov. ). 
Ennea karongana (sp. nov.}. 
Htlix ivhytei (sp. nov.}. 
Livinhacia nilotica. 
Buliminns stictus. 
L im i co /an a inartensiana . 
Achatina ; of various uncertain species. 
(The Achatiniz are huge snails which 

attain the largest size of any terrestrial 

Ampullaria ovata. 
Lanistes solidus. 
J.anistes affinis. 
Lanistes nyassanus. 
Lanistes ovum. 
Vii 'iparits tanganyicensis. 
Viviparus mweruensis (sp. nov.}. 

Viviparus crawshayi (sp. nov.}. 
Viviparus capillaceus. 
Cleopatra Johnston i (sp. nov.}. 
Cleopatra mweruensis (sp. nov.}. 
Melania tubercalata. 
Melania nodidncta. 
Melania turritospira. 
Melania woodivardi (sp. nov.}. 
Mflania mweruensis (sp. nov.}. 
Melania imitatrix (sp. nov.}. 
Melania crawshayi (sp. nov.}. 
Physa nyasana. 
Physa karongensis (sp. nov.}. 
Planorbis alexandrina. 
Unio ny as sen sis (sp. nov.}. 
Unio johnstoni (sp. nov.}. 
Pliodon spekei. 
M ut el a (Spat ha} nyassensis. 



This collection was made by Mr. A. Whyte on the Zomba plateau at an elevation 
of 500 feet and upon Chiradzulu Mountain and its slopes during July and August, 
1895. It was presented to the British Museum by Sir Harry Johnston. The 
species are not very numerous, about thirty altogether, but probably half of them 

1 There would seem to be, however, from the collections of shells we have sent home from Lakes 
Mweru, Tanganyika, and Nyasa, a certain similarity in the types, so that Lake Tanganyika docs not stand 
quite alone in the possession of a peculiar fauna. In the Appendices I give a list of the land and water 
Mollusca collected by us. 

3 6 4 


are new to science. Many of them are represented by large series of specimens. 
The large number of new forms is not altogether surprising, as this particular 
region has not previously been worked for land shells, and we know that in most 
cases the African land shells are not widely distributed, each having its special 
locality. Of course there are exceptions, and a very interesting one is worth 
referring to, namely Kaliella barrakporensis of PfeifTer. This little snail was originally 
described from specimens from Bengal and it is also recorded from other parts of 
India. I have noted its occurrence in the heart of Madagascar. Messrs. Melvill 
and Ponsonby described it as a new species from the Transvaal, under the name of 
Helix (Trochonanina) pretoriensis, and in the British Museum collection there is 
a single specimen collected in Ashanti by Mr. R. A. Freeman. 

The following list is a summary of the contents of the collection : 

Hdicarion . . . 4 species. 

Pel/a . . . . i 

Macrochlamys . . 2 

Martensia . . . 2 ,, 

Kaliella . . . i ,, 

Phasis . . . . i ,, 

Nat alma ? . . . i 

Rhachis . . . . 2 

Buliminus . . . 3 ,, 

Hapalus . . . i species. 

Achatina . . 3 ,, 

Subulina , . . i ,, 

Opeas . . . 3 

Ennea . . . . 4 

Streptaxis . . . i ,, 

Physopsis . . . i ,, 

Pomatias . . . i ,, 

Lanistes i > 

It is hoped that during the year opportunity will occur of preparing a detailed account 
of this very interesting collection. In the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 
1893 I described a species of Ennea under the name of E. johnstoni, after the 
administrator of British Central Africa. As this name had already been employed 
for a West African form, the opportunity is now taken of substituting that of 
haniiltoni for the Nyasa shell, the name having reference to Sir H. H. Johnston's 
second name. 

In regard to Spiders, I append a list of the scorpions, spiders and ticks we 
have collected. 

There are large hairy Mygale spiders, and a handsome Nephila usually 
purple-blue and yellow builds webs of great denseness and strength from 
branch to branch of the trees and bushes across disused paths. There is a 
spider resembling a species of Gastracantlia which I have found in the mangrove 
marshes in West Africa. This creature has two extraordinarily long spines 
projecting from the sides of the abdomen. 

Scorpions are fairly abundant and of several species, two entirely new ones 
having been discovered on the island of Likoma. There is a terrible tick named 
by the Portuguese "Carapato," 1 which inflicts a poisonous bite causing swelling, 
great irritation, and occasionally a little fever. This tick is found in the Arab 
houses occasionally, and people bitten by it imagine that they have been 
attacked by a more than usually venomous bed-bug. 

Centipedes and millipedes are most abundant. Occasionally a very large 
centipede of greenish-blue colour with yellow legs is met with. This creature 
like others of its class is to some extent phosphorescent. It inhabits the moist 
soil of the forests, is sometimes as much as six inches long, and its bite is very 
poisonous. The large, harmless millipedes live on decaying vegetation. They 

1 Probably of the genus Argas. 


are usually a glossy black with innumerable orange legs and roll into a ball if 
touched. Many of these centipedes in a young, half-grown stage, seem to swarm 
together. At the beginning of the rains one meets with them in writhing 
masses on the roads. 

Earthworms 1 are present in the soil of the hill regions sometimes of con- 
siderable size. Nematoid worms, similar to that described by Mr. F. Jeffrey 
Bell in my book on Kilimanjaro, occasionally occur in the intestines of certain 
mammals and in all the larger forms of Mantis insects. The Mantis appears to 
be peculiarly subject to their attack and yet to be able to continue alive until it 
has lost the greater part of its " inside," the worm finally occupying the whole 
area of the abdomen. The " Guinea " worm, or tape-worm, is said to afflict the 
natives but certainly not to the same extent as in West Africa. No case of 
guinea worm has come within my personal cognizance. Leeches are found in 
many localities. 



[NOTE. This list has been made out from our collections by Mr. R. I. Pocock, of the British 

Archisometrus burdoi. 
* Scorpio viator is. 
* Opisthacanthus rugulosus (sp. HOT.}. 

*Solpuga pahidicola. 

Nephila malabarensis. 

,, hymencca. 
Gastracantha formosa. 

Lvcosa In.- j 

TT + L j i Species not yet determined. 
Heteropoda } 


Argas sp. ? (closely allied to A. monbatd). 
Troii>idiu>n tinctorium ; small specimens. 

Dacetum torigonopoda. 
Trematoptychus afer. 
Scolopcndra nwrsitans. 
*Alipes appendiculatus (s/>. nov.}. 

Archispirostreptns \ , 

- Not yet determined. 
Odontopyge J 

Orodesmiis \ XT , ., , 

,, . }- New, but not yet described. 
Spharotaenum } 

* Indicates species described and named by Mr. I'ncock. 
1 Called by the natives " Nyongolozi." 

3 66 


And now we come to the consideration of the last class of animated beings 
of which it is necessary to treat in this brief description of the Natural History 
of British Central Africa the insects : that class which seems to have been 
created for an almost wholly evil purpose. If the old idea still prevailed that 
the Evil principle was personified by a fallen deity one might well imagine 
that the class of insects was his contribution to the life of this planet. This 
idea certainly prevailed amongst the Semitic people of antiquity who called 
Beelzebub " the King of the Flies." From the point of view of man and most 
other mammals insects are the one class among their fellow creatures which are 
uniformly hostile and noxious. And this feeling that they were to be combated 
as the enemies of creation seems to have perpetually actuated the development 
of group after group of new creatures to prey on insects. Fish crawled out 
of the water to pursue primeval insects and became amphibians. Amphibians 
developed into reptiles and into mammals in the same pursuit, reptiles gave 
birth to Pterodactyls and to birds so that this hated Arthropod might be 
followed through the air ; and mammals for the same end took to flight in the 
form of bats. Birds almost more than any other class have nobly devoted 
themselves to keeping down insects, and for this reason among many others 
deserve the gratitude and support of humanity to whom the insect tribe is 
almost more repellent and more hurtful than it is to less sensitive beings. 
Mr. H. G. Wells, in his interesting book of imaginative foresight, The Time 
Machine, has hinted at the awful development of insects which might ensue 
when these checks to their expansion were removed. When one reads of the 
many windmills at which philanthropy wastes its time in tilting one longs for 
some Peter the Hermit of Science to arise and preach a crusade against insects. 
With the doubtful exception of the bee (and honey nowadays can be made 
artificially is made artificially whether we like it or no) and the Cochineal 
Aphis (now supplanted by aniline dyes), I cannot call to mind one insect that 
is of any benefit to man. Even when the perfect insect exhibits bright colours 
or pleasing patterns, as in butterflies or beetles, it is on so small a scale that the 
effect almost requires to be looked at through a magnifying glass, and even 
then is paltry compared to the effulgence of birds or the beauty of certain 
mollusca, and at any rate is more than balanced on the debtor side by the 
mischief wrought in the larval stages: while in the bugs the contemplation 
of a certain garish brightness of colour or quaintness of pattern is turned into 
loathing by the fcetid smell. There are, it is true, traitors in the camp insects 
that try to be on our side by devouring other insects, but if with the disappear- 
ance of the rest of the class those too became extinct we could dismiss them 
with perfunctory thanks, remembering how in the Secondary epoch dragon-flies 
from over encouragement grew to the inconvenient length of two feet and 
probably presumed on their size and strength to attack the small mammals 
of the period. 

To those of my readers who are not acquainted with Tropical countries and 
their insect fauna this declamation may appear strained in its tenour, but a 
prolonged residence in any part of Africa produces in one's mind a sweeping 
hatred of the insect race, a hatred not unmixed with apprehension, a dread 
lest by some unforeseen turn in the world's affairs the existing checks might 
fail to keep these creatures under, and that some awful development of insects 
might threaten man's very existence by direct or indirect attack warfare wit 
his body or the attempted destruction of his food supplies. Is this hatred 
ill-founded when we think of the ravages wrought by the Phylloxera on our 


vines ; by the tsetse-fly on the horses and cattle with which we are attempting 
to open up Africa ; by the jigger, or burrowing flea, which may make whole 
nations lame ; by the mosquitoes which introduce all manner of diseases into 
the skin and render existence intolerable at all times in the low-lying parts of 
Africa, and, during the summer, in the northern regions of the globe ; by the 
blue-bottle fly which spreads blood-poisoning; the "fish" insects which de'stroy 
our books and pictures ; the maddening sand-flies; the gad-flies ; the bed-bugs ; 
the fleas ; the lice ; the termites which mine our houses ; the warrior ants 
which drive us out of them ; the tiny ants which get into our sugar and jam ; 
the ephemerides that rise from the river at night, extinguish an uncovered lamp, 
fall into our soup and permeate it with a filthy taste ; the kungu fly of Lake 
Nyasa which rises in choking clouds and simulates a fog ; locusts that ravage 
continents and produce widespread famine ; beetles that bore into timber, that 
destroy hides, whose grubs eat away the roots of flowers and food plants ; 
innumerable moths and butterflies whose caterpillars rival the locusts in their 
destruction of crops ; bugs which suck the juices of valuable shrubs ; hornets 
which inflict an almost deadly sting on no provocation ; the thousand unnamed 
insect pests with which the gardener and agriculturist have to deal under the 
name of " blight " ; and last in the enumeration but not least in its horror, 
the cockroach, that foulest of all insects, the very sight of which in its mad 
malicious lustful flight on some hot breathless night in Africa or India round 
one's room fills one with more abject terror and shuddering revulsion than 
the entry of any wild beast of our own class or human enemy or visitor from 
the other world? Even in well-ordered England what precautions one has 
to take against the encroachments of insects ! But in Africa beside this conflict 
the differences of opinion with slave traders and cannibals, the contention with 
lions and leopards as to the possession of domestic animals are incidents of 
a cheery rivalry with other forms of flesh and blood compared to this nightmare 
struggle with a class that knows no pity, that shares with us no feelings, and 
owns with us a community of origin so remote in its independent development 
that it might be the creation of another planet. It is surprising to my thinking 
that our asylums are not mainly filled with entomologists driven to dementia 
by the study of this horrible class ; on the contrary, however, by some sur- 
prising reversal of effect following cause, the study of insects appears to 
produce mild spectacled men of regular habits, dull sobriety and calm optimism, 
just as clergymen are usually the authorities on spiders, and men of thin-lipped 
virtue affect the study of that most disproportionate development of generative 
energy, the earthworm. 

This exordium is intended to explain why in my brief allusions to the 
insects of British Central Africa I should speak in terms of almost unmitigated 

Butterflies are not perhaps so striking in beauty of colouring as in West 
Africa, Madagascar, Tropical Asia, and South America. But as I have already 
said the beauty even of the most gorgeous butterflies is, in my opinion, trivial 
compared to that of an ordinary bird. 

The most interesting feature in some of them is mimicry of their sur- 
roundings. One butterfly frequently met with on the slopes of Zomba 
mountain offers the most perfect resemblance to a large green leaf when its 
wings are closed. The two pairs of folded wings meet together almost without 
a break in the line of contour, and the end of the slightly prolonged " tail " 
to the lower wings is apposed to the branch, thus imitating the stalk of 

3 68 

the leaf. The insect's legs are long and it has a way of tucking them up 
close to the body and contour of the wings. The colour of the outer side 
of the wings is dull green, and a dark green stripe runs right down the middle 
to represent the midrib of the leaf. I am fairly inured to surprises in Nature 
but I have been repeatedly taken in by these leaf butterflies, and to my 
amazement have seen what appeared to be the unmistakable leaves of a tree or 
bush taking to flight and then settling again, so that in a minute the eye failed 
to distinguish between the real and the false leaf. Some of the butterflies of the 
genus Papilio are handsome but they are widespread throughout Africa from 
the west and the north to Natal. There are also large smalt-blue " skippers " 
which are very rich in colouring. It is remarkable that the clouded yellow and 
other species of butterflies more associated in their distribution with Europe 
should be met with on our high mountains. The names of these will be found 
in the appendix. 

The larvae of a small moth named Tinea vastdla burrow into the horns 
of dead animals, horns, for instance, that are being collected as specimens. 
Soon a number of grey cocoons begin to protrude from the horn as though 
it were budding in all directions. When these are knocked off a round hole 
remains so that the horn is soon quite spoiled in appearance. 

It might be mentioned that the caterpillars of certain large moths are very 
striking objects. They are nearly if not quite six inches long and covered with 
a flame-coloured plush of long pile. If touched, however, the extremely fine 
silky hairs will sting the hand and cause a rash. The caterpillars of other 
rnoths are vicious creatures that eject a stinging liquid from their mouths _ 

A large carnivorous beetle with powerful nippers of the genus Tefflus is 
remarkable for its beautiful iridescent-violet tint, but it can take a piece 
out of the finger if incautiously handled. Such other beetles as do not attempt 
to get into one's eyes or drill holes in one's specimens of horns, or bore through 
one's rafters and drop the sawdust on the furniture below, or destroy the 
European flowers in one's garden, or put out the lamp at nighty or creep 
into one's hair or rustle between one's papers, or eat and befoul one's supplies 
of grain, or crawl into one's ear, ought I suppose to be mentioned for their 
minute beauties or extravagant development of horns or wing-cases, but I have 
not the heart to do so. 

The common flea is fortunately not truly indigenous, that is to say, it is n 
found in the bush or in many unsophisticated native villages ; it is chiefly con- 
fined to the European settlements and to the dwellings of Arabs or semi-civilised 
natives : though I cannot say if it is wholly absent from any native village. 

The burrowing flea (Sarcopsyllus penetrans) is quite a new arrival in this 
country. It is a native of South America and the West Indies where it is 
usually known as the "chigo" or "jigger," and as such is supposed to be the 
origin of the sailors' oath "Well, I'm jiggered!" In the earlier "fifties a 
ship from Brazil landed sand ballast at Ambriz on the West Coast of Africa 
and thus introduced the jigger into the soil. The animal slowly spread through 
the sandier regions of Angola and along the West African Coast towards the 
Congo and Sierra Leone. At first it made its way up the Congo slowly b 
Stanley's expedition and the spread of civilisation over the Congo Free State 
carried the jigger far and wide. When I first visited the Congo the burrowing 
had scarcely got further up the river than Bolobo. Soon afterwards it reachec 
the Stanley Falls and thence made its way to Tanganyika in the Arab caravans. 
From Tanganyika it gradually spread southwards to Lake Nyasa and was 


heard of at Karonga about 1891. It reached South Nyasa the following year 
and in 1894 became a great pest at Zomba and throughout the Shire Highlands, 
finally reaching Chinde on the sea coast in 1895. Fortunately it is an insect 
which apparently only thrives on sandy soils and therefore in moist parts of 
British Central Africa it is already commencing to disappear. At first it caused 
terrible sufferings amongst our naked-footed soldiers, policemen and postmen, 
many of whom became lame by its bites. It caused the Administration to &o 
to great expense in providing boots for all these people. Gradually, however, 
the natives are getting used to its attacks as they are in West Africa and in the 
West Indies, and by care and constant attention to the feet are able to keep it at 
bay. The jigger is a very minute flea only just visible. The female creeps 
under the skin, preferring if possible those parts where there is a slight pressure 
such as between the toes or fingers. The foot, however, is that portion of the 
human frame which it most usually attacks. Having burrowed under the 
surface of the skin the insect proceeds to lay a large number of eggs which 
together with itself, are enveloped in a white sac. After laying the eggs the 
mother dies, the young ones hatch out and proceed to devour all the surround- 
ing tissue, burrowing in all directions until at last the neglected toe or other 
portion of the foot becomes honeycombed. In extreme cases mortification may 
set in and the whole foot be lost even if the mischief spread no farther. But 
such a case as this could only occur when the insect first makes its appearance 
in a new country and its advances are quite uninterrupted and neglected. If the 
jigger be removed within a few days after entry the removal is very easy and 
relatively painless, and the evil consequences are nil. Still Europeans who are 
obliged to live in jigger-haunted localities should be careful to have their feet 
examined once a day by a native servant. The natives are very sharp eyed 
and on a white skin it is easy to see the jigger burrowing like a little blue point 
under the surface. A little carbolic oil dropped into the hole from which the 
burrowing flea has been extracted will allay the irritation which is caused by 
some liquid the animal exudes, and will effectively kill any eggs that may have 
escaped from the sac. Fortunately the skin surrounding the sac is tough and a 
skilful operator easily removes it unbroken. The jigger attacks not only human 
beings but monkeys, dogs, fowls and turkeys. 

In like manner the bed-bug, which is a hideous pest in any village that has 
been occupied by Arabs or coastmen, is usually absent from those native 
dwellings inhabited by naked people whose habits are cleanly and whose scanty 
clothing affords no harbourage for this pest. The indigenous bugs are many 
but confine their attacks to plants, the juices of which they suck. Many of 
these bugs are brightly, even handsomely coloured, but all of them possess the 
same faculty of emitting (as a means of protection) the same horrible smell 
a smell none the less disgusting from its near approach to being aromatic. 

The locust which so much afflicted British Central Africa during the years 
1893, 1894 and 1895 was apparently the red locust of North Africa, 1 and not 
any indigenous or South African variety. 2 This locust plague from all accounts 
began in the Egyptian Sudan almost simultaneously with the rinderpest, and, 
spreading southwards, gradually reached British Central Africa, passing on 
from there to South Africa, where it caused very serious losses. It would seem 

* 1 \ichyty Ins migratorioides ? 

- Though of course there are several species of Pachytylns in South Africa ; but in the case of the 
locust plague of 1893-95, the locusts came down in swarms from the far north, from (lalaland and the 
Egyptian Sudan, whence they also spread westward to Sierra Leone. The locusts passed on steadily 
in a southerly direction, and have recently ravaged Bechuanaland and Natal 


as though these locust plagues were not wholly unknown in the south-central 
part of the continent, though fortunately they are only occasional occurrences, 
and locusts of the rapidly-multiplying rapacious kind do not seem to have 
a permanent home north of the Zambezi, as they do in North and South Africa, 
no doubt because the climate as a rule is too moist for their constitutions. The 
terrific downpour of rain during the wet season kills the mature insect and 
washes its eggs away. Undoubtedly much of the damage which the locusts 
did on their first arrival was due to laziness on the part of Europeans and 
natives who either could not, or would not, bother themselves with adopting 
extraordinary means for scaring the insects from the crops. Locusts strongly 
dislike noise and tremors of the atmosphere. We found at Zomba that an 
almost unfailing way to get rid of them when they descended in countless 
thousands on our gardens was to turn out large numbers of men beating drums 
and tin pans, clapping hands and shouting. The locusts then refrained from 
settling and passed on to less energetic neighbours. 

In extreme cases we fired off, with much effect, charges of dynamite. This 
never failed to clear us of locusts. Birds, of course, were our chief allies 
in combating this enemy. Not only ordinary insect-eating birds but kites, 
hawks, and ravens ; and this fact might be borne in mind by the European 
planter who is a little too apt to shoot these predatory birds which are in fact 
most useful in keeping down the locust tribe. The most effective locust killers 
are the crowned cranes already described, and for this purpose alone they ought 
to be domesticated and bred in large numbers both here and in South Africa. 

Another great pest is the white ant, or termite, which is not an ant at all but 
a Neuropterous insect distantly related to the cockroach group. The large, more 
or less conically shaped ant-hills of these termites are familiar features all over 
the country. 1 The white ant here is probably represented by the species Termes 
mossambicus and T. bellicosus and by the genus Hodotermcs. No termites as a 
rule are found above an altitude of 4000 feet ; consequently on the colder 
plateaux of British Central Africa these and many other pests disappear. It is 
also not very fond of a sandy soil and is absent in rocky country, preferring the 
red or whitish kaolin clay. In spite of its persistency it is possible to drive this 
insect away as I have repeatedly proved. 2 All ant-hills should be demolished 
and the ground below them dug up to about six feet in order to discover and 
destroy all the queens, as if one queen is left the community will simply rebuild, 
whereas if all the queens are destroyed they appear to wander aimlessly to their 
destruction. The white ants die if exposed to the light of the sun. They are 
very sensitive to light and only work in the daytime in earth tunnels which they 
build. It is these tunnels of red clay, which are sometimes made for many feet 
along the trunk of a tree until a dead branch is attained, which the ants are bent 
on devouring, that caused Professor Drummond in his work on Tropical Africa 

1 Other Termites, however, build nests shaped exactly like a mushroom, and not more than two feet 
high, mounted on a tube-like stem. u , 

" Where the white ant is already well established in the foundation of a house, after every el 
been made to get rid of its nests from under the foundation without success, it can sometimes be n 
to quit the building by the constant application of petroleum to the walls, as, like so many other insects, it 
detests the smell or taste of mineral oil. The first appearance of white ants in the plaster will 
clay tunnels appearing on the surface of the wall. These should be gently knocked off and there will I 
remain a number of round holes out of which the white ants have come. These should be closed with a 
mixture of lime and petroleum and if this is done repeatedly the white ants will leave the place, especial 
if all the approaches to the wall from the floor of the room are further smeared with petrolc 
ants are not fond of sharing a building with human beings, or of the society of man, as they clis 
jarring sounds and the tremor caused by much traffic. There is no doubt they can be got 
extent in human settlements. 


37 1 

to compare the white ant to the earthworm in the creation of vegetable soil. 
Undoubtedly timber which falls to the ground is more rapidly reduced to soil by 
the thick covering of red clay with which it is coated by the termites. An 
interesting and lucid description of the termite economy will be found in the 
newly published volume on insects of the Cambridge Natural Historv. I need 
only remind my readers that there is a parallel resemblance between the social 
workings of the termites and that of bees and ants in that the community is 
divided into classes of breeding males and females, workers and soldiers. The 
two latter sections appear to be females with the sexual organs undeveloped. 
The mature males and females assume wings and issue forth from the nest at 
the beginning of the rainy season in immense numbers, mostly meeting with a 
well-deserved fate from such mammals 
and birds as devote themselves to the 
destruction of these insects. 1 

They are usually largely eaten by 
the natives who collect them as follows: 
They build grass sheds over the ant- 
hills just before the rainy season, and 
as the winged ants issue in enormous 
swarms from the small holes at the 
base of the ant-hill they fly straight up 
till they come against the grass roof, 
and fall down into pots set into the 
ground with opening mouths on a level 
with the surface. As the pots are filled 
they are covered with leaves. The ants 
are afterwards roasted, wings and all, 
dried in the sun and then pounded in a 
mortar and eaten as a kind of relish. 
If the winged ant is left to itself it soon 
jerks off the wings, of which it appar- 
ently only avails itself to fly for a short 
distance from the mother nest. At this 
season of the year the escaped termites 
generally ascertain where a dinner party 
is being given and fly to that house, entering it by any crevice, and making 
straight for the lighted table, where they proceed to cast off their wings into 
the soup and on all the other viands, adding one more to these many grievances, 
the total sum of which will no doubt lead me to devote the remainder of my 
existence to the extirpation of the hated class of insects. 

The Orthoptera are represented by the cockroaches, the earwigs, the mantises, 
the stick-insects, the locusts and crickets. 

I have already touched briefly on the subject of cockroaches. There are 
several native species which frequent the village dirt-heaps, or are found in the 
forest, and one or two of these exhibit a certain amount of comeliness. The 
ubiquitous cockroach of Tropical civilisation is present in all large settlements, 
but it is not a true native of the country and is never found in the wilderness. 

1 So important a factor is the termite in the economy of tropical nature that it has probably caused 
the evolution of certain special types of birds and mammals. Amongst tin- former may be mentioned the 
Oryderopus, or Ant-bear of South Africa and the Manis or Pangolin of Africa and India. These two types 
of mammals live almost exclusively on white ants. 


37 2 


Scrupulous cleanliness and the absence of dark holes and corners in which these 
creatures may breed generally lead to its being kept under in houses and on 
steamers. A cockroachy steamer is without excuse and indicates a careless 
and dirty captain. 

The mantises, or praying insects, offer a number of species, some of them 
very fantastic, others almost beautiful in their green colouring with large black 
and pink ocelli on the hinder pair of wings showing very plainly when the 
wings are folded. It is curious how the female mantis has taken to the conifers 
recently introduced into the country, as a tree in which to weave her egg-case. 



This is a heart-shaped, grey papery structure from which the young escape 
when hatched. 

An excellent idea of the weapons with which this horrible insect is endowed 
may be obtained from an article on the mantises in the Cambridge Natural 
History! As will be seen the front pair of legs is greatly developed and the 
last two segments of the limb are furnished with teeth on the inner side, 
last joint, or tibia, closes on the penultimate segment or femur, much as the 
blade of a penknife springs back on its hinge into the case, thus catching 
between the sharp teeth of tibia and femur any object which the mantis may 
wish to grasp. The insect a